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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2837, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253775

RESUMO

The diagnostic yield of exome and genome sequencing remains low (8-70%), due to incomplete knowledge on the genes that cause disease. To improve this, we use RNA-seq data from 31,499 samples to predict which genes cause specific disease phenotypes, and develop GeneNetwork Assisted Diagnostic Optimization (GADO). We show that this unbiased method, which does not rely upon specific knowledge on individual genes, is effective in both identifying previously unknown disease gene associations, and flagging genes that have previously been incorrectly implicated in disease. GADO can be run on www.genenetwork.nl by supplying HPO-terms and a list of genes that contain candidate variants. Finally, applying GADO to a cohort of 61 patients for whom exome-sequencing analysis had not resulted in a genetic diagnosis, yields likely causative genes for ten cases.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Componente Principal , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
2.
Brief Bioinform ; 19(4): 575-592, 2018 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28077403

RESUMO

Gene co-expression networks can be used to associate genes of unknown function with biological processes, to prioritize candidate disease genes or to discern transcriptional regulatory programmes. With recent advances in transcriptomics and next-generation sequencing, co-expression networks constructed from RNA sequencing data also enable the inference of functions and disease associations for non-coding genes and splice variants. Although gene co-expression networks typically do not provide information about causality, emerging methods for differential co-expression analysis are enabling the identification of regulatory genes underlying various phenotypes. Here, we introduce and guide researchers through a (differential) co-expression analysis. We provide an overview of methods and tools used to create and analyse co-expression networks constructed from gene expression data, and we explain how these can be used to identify genes with a regulatory role in disease. Furthermore, we discuss the integration of other data types with co-expression networks and offer future perspectives of co-expression analysis.

3.
PLoS Genet ; 13(3): e1006683, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346496

RESUMO

Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by multiple malformations, severe neurological alterations and increased risk of malignancy. SGS is caused by de novo germline mutations clustering to a 12bp hotspot in exon 4 of SETBP1. Mutations in this hotspot disrupt a degron, a signal for the regulation of protein degradation, and lead to the accumulation of SETBP1 protein. Overlapping SETBP1 hotspot mutations have been observed recurrently as somatic events in leukemia. We collected clinical information of 47 SGS patients (including 26 novel cases) with germline SETBP1 mutations and of four individuals with a milder phenotype caused by de novo germline mutations adjacent to the SETBP1 hotspot. Different mutations within and around the SETBP1 hotspot have varying effects on SETBP1 stability and protein levels in vitro and in in silico modeling. Substitutions in SETBP1 residue I871 result in a weak increase in protein levels and mutations affecting this residue are significantly more frequent in SGS than in leukemia. On the other hand, substitutions in residue D868 lead to the largest increase in protein levels. Individuals with germline mutations affecting D868 have enhanced cell proliferation in vitro and higher incidence of cancer compared to patients with other germline SETBP1 mutations. Our findings substantiate that, despite their overlap, somatic SETBP1 mutations driving malignancy are more disruptive to the degron than germline SETBP1 mutations causing SGS. Additionally, this suggests that the functional threshold for the development of cancer driven by the disruption of the SETBP1 degron is higher than for the alteration in prenatal development in SGS. Drawing on previous studies of somatic SETBP1 mutations in leukemia, our results reveal a genotype-phenotype correlation in germline SETBP1 mutations spanning a molecular, cellular and clinical phenotype.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Unhas Malformadas/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Western Blotting , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/metabolismo , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Células HEK293 , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/metabolismo , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Unhas Malformadas/metabolismo , Unhas Malformadas/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fenótipo
4.
Genome Biol ; 16: 285, 2015 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26694192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caloric restriction (CR) can increase longevity in rodents and improve memory function in humans. α-Lipoic acid (LA) has been shown to improve memory function in rats, but not longevity. While studies have looked at survival in rodents after switching from one diet to another, the underlying mechanisms of the beneficial effects of CR and LA supplementation are unknown. Here, we use RNA-seq in cerebral cortex from rats subjected to CR and LA-supplemented rats to understand how changes in diet can affect aging, neurodegeneration and longevity. RESULTS: Gene expression changes during aging in ad libitum-fed rats are largely prevented by CR, and neuroprotective genes are overexpressed in response to both CR and LA diets with a strong overlap of differentially expressed genes between the two diets. Moreover, a number of genes are differentially expressed specifically in rat cohorts exhibiting diet-induced life extension. Finally, we observe that LA supplementation inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) protein activity in vitro in rat astrocytes. We find a single microRNA, miR-98-3p, that is overexpressed during CR feeding and LA dietary supplementation; this microRNA alters HDAC and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, which suggests a role for HAT/HDAC homeostasis in neuroprotection. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents extensive data on the effects of diet and aging on the cerebral cortex transcriptome, and also emphasises the importance of epigenetics and post-translational modifications in longevity and neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Longevidade , Transcriptoma , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos BN , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia
5.
BMC Evol Biol ; 15: 259, 2015 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26589719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A deeper understanding of differences and similarities in transcriptional regulation between species can uncover important information about gene functions and the role of genes in disease. Deciphering such patterns between mice and humans is especially important since mice play an essential role in biomedical research. RESULTS: Here, in order to characterize evolutionary changes between humans and mice, we compared gene co-expression maps to evaluate the conservation of co-expression. We show that the conservation of co-expression connectivity of homologous genes is negatively correlated with molecular evolution rates, as expected. Then we investigated evolutionary aspects of gene sets related to functions, tissues, pathways and diseases. Genes expressed in the testis, eye and skin, and those associated with regulation of transcription, olfaction, PI3K signalling, response to virus and bacteria were more divergent between mice and humans in terms of co-expression connectivity. Surprisingly, a deeper investigation of the PI3K signalling cascade revealed that its divergence is caused by the most crucial genes of this pathway, such as mTOR and AKT2. On the other hand, our analysis revealed that genes expressed in the brain and in the bone, and those associated with cell adhesion, cell cycle, DNA replication and DNA repair are most strongly conserved in terms of co-expression network connectivity as well as having a lower rate of duplication events. Genes involved in lipid metabolism and genes specific to blood showed a signature of increased co-expression connectivity in the mouse. In terms of diseases, co-expression connectivity of genes related to metabolic disorders is the most strongly conserved between mice and humans and tumor-related genes the most divergent. CONCLUSIONS: This work contributes to discerning evolutionary patterns between mice and humans in terms of gene interactions. Conservation of co-expression is a powerful approach to identify gene targets and processes with potential similarity and divergence between mice and humans, which has implications for drug testing and other studies employing the mouse as a model organism.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Epistasia Genética , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Especificidade de Órgãos
6.
Cell Rep ; 10(1): 112-22, 2015 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25565328

RESUMO

The bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) is estimated to live over 200 years and is possibly the longest-living mammal. These animals should possess protective molecular adaptations relevant to age-related diseases, particularly cancer. Here, we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the bowhead whale genome and two transcriptomes from different populations. Our analysis identifies genes under positive selection and bowhead-specific mutations in genes linked to cancer and aging. In addition, we identify gene gain and loss involving genes associated with DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation, cancer, and aging. Our results expand our understanding of the evolution of mammalian longevity and suggest possible players involved in adaptive genetic changes conferring cancer resistance. We also found potentially relevant changes in genes related to additional processes, including thermoregulation, sensory perception, dietary adaptations, and immune response. Our data are made available online (http://www.bowhead-whale.org) to facilitate research in this long-lived species.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca/genética , Evolução Molecular , Longevidade/genética , Animais , Genoma , Humanos , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 43(Database issue): D1124-32, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25361971

RESUMO

Co-expression networks have proven effective at assigning putative functions to genes based on the functional annotation of their co-expressed partners, in candidate gene prioritization studies and in improving our understanding of regulatory networks. The growing number of genome resequencing efforts and genome-wide association studies often identify loci containing novel genes and there is a need to infer their functions and interaction partners. To facilitate this we have expanded GeneFriends, an online database that allows users to identify co-expressed genes with one or more user-defined genes. This expansion entails an RNA-seq-based co-expression map that includes genes and transcripts that are not present in the microarray-based co-expression maps, including over 10,000 non-coding RNAs. The results users obtain from GeneFriends include a co-expression network as well as a summary of the functional enrichment among the co-expressed genes. Novel insights can be gathered from this database for different splice variants and ncRNAs, such as microRNAs and lincRNAs. Furthermore, our updated tool allows candidate transcripts to be linked to diseases and processes using a guilt-by-association approach. GeneFriends is freely available from http://www.GeneFriends.org and can be used to quickly identify and rank candidate targets relevant to the process or disease under study.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Humanos , Internet
8.
BMC Genomics ; 13: 535, 2012 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23039964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many diseases have been well characterized at the molecular level, the underlying mechanisms are often unknown. Nearly half of all human genes remain poorly studied, yet these genes may contribute to a number of disease processes. Genes involved in common biological processes and diseases are often co-expressed. Using known disease-associated genes in a co-expression analysis may help identify and prioritize novel candidate genes for further study. RESULTS: We have created an online tool, called GeneFriends, which identifies co-expressed genes in over 1,000 mouse microarray datasets. GeneFriends can be used to assign putative functions to poorly studied genes. Using a seed list of disease-associated genes and a guilt-by-association method, GeneFriends allows users to quickly identify novel genes and transcription factors associated with a disease or process. We tested GeneFriends using seed lists for aging, cancer, and mitochondrial complex I disease. We identified several candidate genes that have previously been predicted as relevant targets. Some of the genes identified are already being tested in clinical trials, indicating the effectiveness of this approach. Co-expressed transcription factors were investigated, identifying C/ebp genes as candidate regulators of aging. Furthermore, several novel candidate genes, that may be suitable for experimental or clinical follow-up, were identified. Two of the novel candidates of unknown function that were co-expressed with cancer-associated genes were selected for experimental validation. Knock-down of their human homologs (C1ORF112 and C12ORF48) in HeLa cells slowed growth, indicating that these genes of unknown function, identified by GeneFriends, may be involved in cancer. CONCLUSIONS: GeneFriends is a resource for biologists to identify and prioritize novel candidate genes involved in biological processes and complex diseases. It is an intuitive online resource that will help drive experimentation. GeneFriends is available online at: http://genefriends.org/.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Animais , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/deficiência , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Humanos , Internet , Camundongos , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Neoplasias/genética
9.
Mol Biosyst ; 8(4): 1339-49, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22327899

RESUMO

Caloric restriction, a reduction in calorie intake without malnutrition, retards age-related degeneration and extends lifespan in several organisms. CR induces multiple changes, yet its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work, we first performed a meta-analysis of microarray CR studies in mammals and identified genes and processes robustly altered due to CR. Our results reveal a complex array of CR-induced changes and we re-identified several genes and processes previously associated with CR, such as growth hormone signalling, lipid metabolism and immune response. Moreover, our results highlight novel associations with CR, such as retinol metabolism and copper ion detoxification, as well as hint of a strong effect of CR on circadian rhythms that in turn may contribute to metabolic changes. Analyses of our signatures by integrating co-expression data, information on genetic mutants, and transcription factor binding site analysis revealed candidate regulators of transcriptional modules in CR. Our results hint at a transcriptional module involved in sterol metabolism regulated by Srebf1. A putative regulatory role of Ppara was also identified. Overall, our conserved molecular signatures of CR provide a comprehensive picture of CR-induced changes and help understand its regulatory mechanisms.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Mamíferos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
10.
Bioinformatics ; 27(23): 3300-5, 2011 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21994229

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Gene expression profiles have been widely used to study disease states. It may be possible, however, to gather insights into human diseases by comparing gene expression profiles of healthy organs with different disease incidence or severity. We tested this hypothesis and developed an approach to identify candidate genes associated with disease development by focusing on cancer incidence since it varies greatly across human organs. RESULTS: We normalized organ-specific cancer incidence by organ weight and found that reproductive organs tend to have a higher mass-normalized cancer incidence, which could be due to evolutionary trade-offs. Next, we performed a genome-wide scan to identify genes whose expression across healthy organs correlates with organ-specific cancer incidence. We identified a large number of genes, including genes previously associated with tumorigenesis and new candidate genes. Most genes exhibiting a positive correlation with cancer incidence were related to ribosomal and transcriptional activity, translation and protein synthesis. Organs with enhanced transcriptional and translational activation may have higher cell proliferation and therefore be more likely to develop cancer. Furthermore, we found that organs with lower cancer incidence tend to express lower levels of known cancer-associated genes. Overall, these results demonstrate how genes and processes that predispose organs to specific diseases can be identified using gene expression profiles from healthy tissues. Our approach can be applied to other diseases and serve as foundation for further oncogenomic analyses. CONTACT: jp@senescence.info SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos
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