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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22292, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339858

RESUMO

New therapies are an urgent medical need in all breast cancer subgroups. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) is suggested as a potential new molecular target. We examined the prevalence mGluR1 expression in different clinically relevant breast cancer subgroups and determined its association with prognosis. In this retrospective cohort, 394 consecutive primary breast cancer tissues were incorporated into a tissue microarray and immunohistochemically stained for mGluR1. The prevalence of mGluR1 protein expression in different breast cancer subgroups was evaluated and correlated with metastasis-free survival (MFS) and overall survival (OS). In total, 56% (n = 219) breast cancer tissues had mGluR1 expression. In estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors, 31% (n = 18/58) had mGluR1 expression that was significantly associated with MFS (HR 5.00, 95% CI 1.03-24.35, p = 0.046) in multivariate analysis, independently from other prognostic factors. Of the 44 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), 25% (n = 11) expressed mGluR1. mGluR1 expression in TNBC was significantly associated with shorter MFS (HR 8.60, 95% CI 1.06-20.39, p = 0.044) and with poor OS (HR 16.07, 95% CI 1.16-223.10, p = 0.039). In conclusion, mGluR1 is frequently expressed in breast cancer. In ER-negative breast cancer and in TNBC mGluR1 protein expression is an unfavorable prognostic marker. This study provides rationale to explore mGluR1 as a novel target for breast cancer treatment, especially for the more aggressive TNBC.

2.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122801

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

3.
Virchows Arch ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929565

RESUMO

In female breast cancer (BC), elastosis is strongly related to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression. Male breast cancers almost invariably express ERα; so, the aim of this study was to investigate elastosis frequency in invasive male BC as well as clinicopathological correlations, in comparison with females. A total of 177 male BC cases and 135 female BC cases were included, all ERα-positive and invasive carcinoma of no special type. Elastosis on H&E-stained slides was scored in a four-tiered system as elastosis grade (EG) 0 (no elastosis) to EG3 (high amount of elastosis). EG scores in male BC were correlated to histopathological characteristics and overall surviva and compared with female BC EG scores. Male BC showed some degree of elastosis in 26/117 cases (22.2%) with none showing EG3, while female BC cases showed elastosis in 89/135 cases (65.9%) with 21.5% showing EG3 (p < 0.001). This difference retained its significance in multivariate logistic regression. In male BC cases, no significant correlations were found between the amount of elastosis and age, grade, mitotic activity index, and PgR. In addition, no significant prognostic value of elastosis was seen. In conclusion, despite high ERα expression, male BC showed significantly less elastosis than female BC. Elastosis did not show clinicopathological correlations or prognostic value. Therefore, elastosis seems to be a less useful ERα tissue biomarker with less clinical significance in male BC compared with females, pointing towards important BC sex differences.

4.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(13): 5296-5302, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are currently two widely used methods for preoperative localization of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast: wire-guided localization (WGL) and radioactive seed localization (RSL). Several studies compared these localization techniques in small cohorts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the surgical resection margin status between RSL and WGL in a large national cohort of patients with DCIS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included patients from the Dutch Pathology Registry who underwent breast-conserving surgery for DCIS by either RSL (n = 1851) or WGL (n = 2187) between 2009 and 2019. Several clinicopathological characteristics were compared between these two groups, including resection margin status and number of re-excisions. RESULTS: Patients undergoing RSL were younger (p = 0.014) and were more often diagnosed with a large DCIS (p = 0.013), high grade DCIS (p < 0.001) and comedonecrosis (p < 0.001) compared with patients undergoing WGL. There was no significant difference in resection margin status between both groups (p = 0.089) and the number of re-excisions (p = 0.429). However, in case of re-excision, patients in the RSL group were more often treated with breast-conserving surgery (p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: In this large national cohort study of patients with DCIS, we demonstrated that there was no difference in resection margin status between both procedures, or in the number of re-excisions, but patients in the RSL group were more often treated with breast-conserving therapy in case of a re-excision.

5.
Mod Pathol ; 33(9): 1773-1782, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341499

RESUMO

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) associated stromal changes and influx of immune cells might be mediators of progression to invasive breast cancer. We studied the interaction between DCIS-associated stromal changes, and immune cell distribution and composition in a well-characterized patient cohort. We included 472 patients with DCIS. The presence of stromal changes, signs of regression, and DCIS-associated immune cell position were determined on hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides. Immune cell composition was characterized by immunohistochemistry (CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, and FOXP3). The number of intraductal immune cells was quantified per mm2. The interaction between stromal changes, signs of DCIS regression, immune cell composition and location was explored. Stromal changes and signs of DCIS regression were identified in 30 and 7% of the patients, respectively. Intraductal immune cells mainly comprised CD68+ macrophages and CD8+ T cells. Patients with stromal changes had significantly less influx of immune cells within the duct. DCIS regression was associated with an increased number of intraductal FOXP3+ T cells. The highest number of intraductal CD8+ T cells was seen in the ER+ HER2+ subtype. We suggest that DCIS-associated stromal changes prevent the interaction between immune cells and DCIS cells. However, in case of DCIS regression, we surmise a direct interaction between DCIS cells and immune cells, in particular FOXP3+ cells. Furthermore, the increased number of intraductal CD8+ T cells in the ER+ HER2+ DCIS subtype suggests a subtype-specific immune response, which is likely to play a role in the distinct biological behavior of different DCIS subtypes.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(3): 581-588, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333294

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA2 mutation carriers are offered annual breast screening with MRI and mammography. The aim of this study was to investigate the supplemental value of mammographic screening over MRI screening alone. METHODS: In this multicenter study, proven BRCA2 mutation carriers, who developed breast cancer during screening using both digital mammography and state-of-art breast MRI, were identified. Clinical data were reviewed to classify cases in screen-detected and interval cancers. Imaging was reviewed to assess the diagnostic value of mammography and MRI, using the Breast Imaging and Data System (BI-RADS) classification allocated at the time of diagnosis. RESULTS: From January 2003 till March 2019, 62 invasive breast cancers and 23 ductal carcinomas in situ were diagnosed in 83 BRCA2 mutation carriers under surveillance. Overall screening sensitivity was 95.2% (81/85). Four interval cancers occurred (4.7% (4/85)). MRI detected 73 of 85 breast cancers (sensitivity 85.8%) and 42 mammography (sensitivity 49.9%) (p < 0.001). Eight mammography-only lesions occurred. In 1 of 17 women younger than 40 years, a 6-mm grade 3 DCIS, retrospectively visible on MRI, was detected with mammography only in a 38-year-old woman. The other 7 mammography-only breast cancers were diagnosed in women aged 50 years and older, increasing sensitivity in this subgroup from 79.5% (35/44) to 95.5% (42/44) (p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In BRCA2 mutation carriers younger than 40 years, the benefit of mammographic screening over MRI was very small. In carriers of 50 years and older, mammographic screening contributed significantly. Hence, we propose to postpone mammographic screening in BRCA2 mutation carriers to at least age 40.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 423-434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three tools are currently available to predict the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). We aimed to compare the performance of the Manchester formula, CBCrisk, and PredictCBC in patients with invasive breast cancer (BC). METHODS: We analyzed data of 132,756 patients (4682 CBC) from 20 international studies with a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Prediction performance included discrimination, quantified as a time-dependent Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary BC, and calibration, quantified as the expected-observed (E/O) ratio at 5 and 10 years and the calibration slope. RESULTS: The AUC at 10 years was: 0.58 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.57-0.59) for CBCrisk; 0.60 (95% CI 0.59-0.61) for the Manchester formula; 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.62) for PredictCBC-1A (for settings where BRCA1/2 mutation status is available) and PredictCBC-1B (for the general population), respectively. The E/O at 10 years: 0.82 (95% CI 0.51-1.32) for CBCrisk; 1.53 (95% CI 0.63-3.73) for the Manchester formula; 1.28 (95% CI 0.63-2.58) for PredictCBC-1A and 1.35 (95% CI 0.65-2.77) for PredictCBC-1B. The calibration slope was 1.26 (95% CI 1.01-1.50) for CBCrisk; 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-1.02) for PredictCBC-1A; 0.81 (95% CI 0.63-0.99) for PredictCBC-1B, and 0.39 (95% CI 0.34-0.43) for the Manchester formula. CONCLUSIONS: Current CBC risk prediction tools provide only moderate discrimination and the Manchester formula was poorly calibrated. Better predictors and re-calibration are needed to improve CBC prediction and to identify low- and high-CBC risk patients for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Mastectomia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/metabolismo , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 30, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is rare in men, but management is focused on tumor characteristics commonly found in female breast cancer. The tumor microenvironment of male breast cancer is less well understood, and insight may improve male breast cancer management. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-MET axis and the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12)/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) axis are prognostic in women with breast cancer. We aimed to investigate these factors in male breast cancer and correlate them with patient survival. METHODS: From 841 Dutch males with breast cancer who were enrolled in the EORTC 10085/TBCRC/BIG/NABCG International Male Breast Cancer Program (NCT01101425) and diagnosed between 1990 and 2010, archival primary tumor samples were collected. Tissue microarrays were constructed with 3 cores per sample and used for immunohistochemical analysis of HGF, c-MET, CXCL12, and CXCR4. Overall survival (OS) of the patients without metastases (M0) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The value of the markers regarding OS was determined using univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses, providing hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: Of 720 out of 841 patients, sufficient tissue was available for analysis; 487 out of 720 patients had M0 disease. Patients with high HGF expression and high CXCL12 expression had a superior OS (low vs high expression of both markers, 7.5 vs 13.0 years, hazard ratio [HR] 0.64, 95% CI 0.49-0.84, P = 0.001 [HGF]; 9.1 vs 15.3 years, HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.87, P = 0.005 [CXCL12]). Multivariate analysis identified HGF as an independent predictor for OS (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47-0.88, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HGF and CXCL12 tumor expression appear to identify male breast cancer patients with a relatively good prognosis. Possibly, this could support male breast cancer-specific management strategies in the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/mortalidade , Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182822

RESUMO

Loss of Y-chromosome (LOY) is associated with increased cancer mortality in males. The prevalence of LOY in male breast cancer (BC) is unknown. The aim of this study is to assess the presence and prognostic effect of LOY during male BC progression. We included male BC patients diagnosed between 1989 and 2009 (n = 796). A tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed to perform immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), using an X and Y probe. We also performed this FISH on a selected number of patients using whole tissue slides to study LOY during progression from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive BC. In total, LOY was present in 12.7% (n = 92) of cases, whereby LOY was associated with ER and PR negative tumors (p = 0.017 and p = 0.01). LOY was not associated with the outcome. Using whole slides including invasive BC and adjacent DCIS (n = 22), we detected a concordant LOY status between both components in 17 patients. In conclusion, LOY is an early event in male breast carcinogenesis, which generally starts at the DCIS stage and is associated with ER and PR negative tumors.

10.
Mol Oncol ; 14(4): 671-685, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058674

RESUMO

Intratumour heterogeneity fuels carcinogenesis and allows circumventing specific targeted therapies. HER2 gene amplification is associated with poor outcome in invasive breast cancer. Heterogeneous HER2 amplification has been described in 5-41% of breast cancers. Here, we investigated the genetic differences between HER2-positive and HER2-negative admixed breast cancer components. We performed an in-depth analysis to explore the potential heterogeneity in the somatic mutational landscape of each individual tumour component. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue of ten patients with at least one HER2-negative and at least one HER2-positive component was microdissected. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed using a customized 53-gene panel. Somatic mutations and copy number variations were analysed. Overall, the tumours showed a heterogeneous distribution of 12 deletions, 9 insertions, 32 missense variants and 7 nonsense variants in 26 different genes, which are (likely) pathogenic. Three splice site alterations were identified. One patient had an EGFR copy number gain restricted to a HER2-negative in situ component, resulting in EGFR protein overexpression. Two patients had FGFR1 copy number gains in at least one tumour component. Two patients had an 8q24 gain in at least one tumour component, resulting in a copy number increase in MYC and PVT1. One patient had a CCND1 copy number gain restricted to a HER2-negative tumour component. No common alternative drivers were identified in the HER2-negative tumour components. This series of 10 breast cancers with heterogeneous HER2 gene amplification illustrates that HER2 positivity is not an unconditional prerequisite for the maintenance of tumour growth. Many other molecular aberrations are likely to act as alternative or collaborative drivers. This study demonstrates that breast carcinogenesis is a dynamically evolving process characterized by a versatile somatic mutational profile, of which some genetic aberrations will be crucial for cancer progression, and others will be mere 'passenger' molecular anomalies.

11.
Mod Pathol ; 33(3): 354-366, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534203

RESUMO

Histopathological assessment of ductal carcinoma in situ, a nonobligate precursor of invasive breast cancer, is characterized by considerable interobserver variability. Previously, post hoc dichotomization of multicategorical variables was used to determine the "ideal" cutoffs for dichotomous assessment. The present international multicenter study evaluated interobserver variability among 39 pathologists who performed upfront dichotomous evaluation of 149 consecutive ductal carcinomas in situ. All pathologists independently assessed nuclear atypia, necrosis, solid ductal carcinoma in situ architecture, calcifications, stromal architecture, and lobular cancerization in one digital slide per lesion. Stromal inflammation was assessed semiquantitatively. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were quantified as percentages and dichotomously assessed with a cutoff at 50%. Krippendorff's alpha (KA), Cohen's kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated for the appropriate variables. Lobular cancerization (KA = 0.396), nuclear atypia (KA = 0.422), and stromal architecture (KA = 0.450) showed the highest interobserver variability. Stromal inflammation (KA = 0.564), dichotomously assessed tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (KA = 0.520), and comedonecrosis (KA = 0.539) showed slightly lower interobserver disagreement. Solid ductal carcinoma in situ architecture (KA = 0.602) and calcifications (KA = 0.676) presented with the lowest interobserver variability. Semiquantitative assessment of stromal inflammation resulted in a slightly higher interobserver concordance than upfront dichotomous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes assessment (KA = 0.564 versus KA = 0.520). High stromal inflammation corresponded best with dichotomously assessed tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes when the cutoff was set at 10% (kappa = 0.881). Nevertheless, a post hoc tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes cutoff set at 20% resulted in the highest interobserver agreement (KA = 0.669). Despite upfront dichotomous evaluation, the interobserver variability remains considerable and is at most acceptable, although it varies among the different histopathological features. Future studies should investigate its impact on ductal carcinoma in situ prognostication. Forthcoming machine learning algorithms may be useful to tackle this substantial diagnostic challenge.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(2): 505-517, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649042

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In breast cancer, response rates to immune therapies are generally low and differ significantly across molecular subtypes, urging a better understanding of immunogenicity and immune evasion. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We interrogated large gene-expression data sets including 867 node-negative, treatment-naïve breast cancer patients (microarray data) and 347 breast cancer patients (whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome data) according to parameters of T cells as well as immune microenvironment in relation to patient survival. RESULTS: We developed a 109-immune gene signature that captures abundance of CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and is prognostic in basal-like, her2, and luminal B breast cancer, but not in luminal A or normal-like breast cancer. Basal-like and her2 are characterized by highest CD8 TIL abundance, highest T-cell clonality, highest frequencies of memory T cells, and highest antigenicity, yet only the former shows highest expression level of immune and metabolic checkpoints and highest frequency of myeloid suppressor cells. Also, luminal B shows a high antigenicity and T-cell clonality, yet a low abundance of CD8 TILs. In contrast, luminal A and normal-like both show a low antigenicity, and notably, a low and high abundance of CD8 TILs, respectively, which associates with T-cell influx parameters, such as expression of adhesion molecules. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data argue that not only CD8 T-cell presence itself, but rather T-cell clonality, T-cell subset distribution, coinhibition, and antigen presentation reflect occurrence of a CD8 T-cell response in breast cancer subtypes, which have been aborted by distinct T-cell-suppressive mechanisms, providing a rationale for subtype-specific combination immune therapies.


Assuntos
Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Células Clonais/imunologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
13.
Int J Cancer ; 146(5): 1189-1197, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018242

RESUMO

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a nonobligate precursor of invasive breast cancer, accounting for 20 % of screen-detected breast cancers. Little is known about the natural progression of DCIS because most patients undergo surgery upon diagnosis. Many DCIS patients are likely being overtreated, as it is believed that only around 50 % of DCIS will progress to invasive carcinoma. Robust prognostic markers for progression to invasive carcinoma are lacking. In the past, studies have investigated women who developed a recurrence after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and compared them with those who did not. However, where there is no recurrence, the patient has probably been adequately treated. The present narrative review advocates a new research strategy, wherein only those patients with a recurrence are studied. Approximately half of the recurrences are invasive cancers, and half are DCIS. So-called "recurrences" are probably most often the result of residual disease. The new approach allows us to ask: why did some residual DCIS evolve to invasive cancers and others not? This novel strategy compares the group of patients that developed in situ recurrence with the group of patients that developed invasive recurrence after BCS. The differences between these groups could then be used to develop a robust risk stratification tool. This tool should estimate the risk of synchronous and metachronous invasive carcinoma when DCIS is diagnosed in a biopsy. Identification of DCIS patients at low risk for developing invasive carcinoma will individualize future therapy and prevent overtreatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Conduta Expectante/métodos , Biópsia , Mama/patologia , Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/cirurgia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia Segmentar , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prevalência , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos
14.
Mod Pathol ; 33(2): 196-205, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375764

RESUMO

Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast includes several subtypes with a divergent biological behavior. Data regarding the composition of ductal carcinoma in situ-associated immune cells and their potential role in progression is limited. We studied ductal carcinoma in situ-associated immune response by characterizing immune cell subsets according to ductal carcinoma in situ subtypes. Ductal carcinoma in situ-associated tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density was evaluated based on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections from 473 patients. Cases were subtyped based on ER, PR, and HER2. Patients were categorized as TIL-high or low. Ductal carcinoma in situ-associated immune cells of TIL-high cases were immunostained on whole slides with CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, FOXP3, and PD-L1 (SP142 and SP263). In total, 131/473 patients (28.0%) were considered as TIL-high. The percentage of TIL-high cases was significantly higher in HER2+ and triple-negative ductal carcinoma in situ (P < 0.0001). Overall, no statistical difference in immune cell composition according to subtypes was found. However, individual subtype comparison showed that ER+ HER2+ cases had a significantly higher proportion of CD8+ T cells compared with triple-negative cases (P = 0.047). In TIL-high cases, PD-L1-SP142 expression on tumor cells was associated with subtype (P = 0.037); the lowest number of positive cases was observed in the HER2+ subtype (independent of ER). However, in TIL-high ductal carcinoma in situ, PD-L1 expression by both clones was limited. In conclusion, high numbers of TILs are predominantly observed in HER+ and triple negative ductal carcinoma in situ. The ER+ HER2+ subtype seems to attract a higher proportion of CD8+ T cells compared with the triple negative subtype. Among TIL-high cases, the HER2+ subgroup had the lowest PD-L1-SP142 expression on tumor cells. This suggests a more pronounced antitumor immunity in HER2+ ductal carcinoma in situ, which could play a role in its biological behavior.

15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 144, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for contralateral breast cancer (CBC), with the consequent burden of further treatment and potentially less favorable prognosis. We aimed to develop and validate a CBC risk prediction model and evaluate its applicability for clinical decision-making. METHODS: We included data of 132,756 invasive non-metastatic breast cancer patients from 20 studies with 4682 CBC events and a median follow-up of 8.8 years. We developed a multivariable Fine and Gray prediction model (PredictCBC-1A) including patient, primary tumor, and treatment characteristics and BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, accounting for the competing risks of death and distant metastasis. We also developed a model without BRCA1/2 mutation status (PredictCBC-1B) since this information was available for only 6% of patients and is routinely unavailable in the general breast cancer population. Prediction performance was evaluated using calibration and discrimination, calculated by a time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary breast cancer, and an internal-external cross-validation procedure. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the net benefit of the model to quantify clinical utility. RESULTS: In the multivariable model, BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, family history, and systemic adjuvant treatment showed the strongest associations with CBC risk. The AUC of PredictCBC-1A was 0.63 (95% prediction interval (PI) at 5 years, 0.52-0.74; at 10 years, 0.53-0.72). Calibration-in-the-large was -0.13 (95% PI: -1.62-1.37), and the calibration slope was 0.90 (95% PI: 0.73-1.08). The AUC of Predict-1B at 10 years was 0.59 (95% PI: 0.52-0.66); calibration was slightly lower. Decision curve analysis for preventive contralateral mastectomy showed potential clinical utility of PredictCBC-1A between thresholds of 4-10% 10-year CBC risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a reasonably calibrated model to predict the risk of CBC in women of European-descent; however, prediction accuracy was moderate. Our model shows potential for improved risk counseling, but decision-making regarding contralateral preventive mastectomy, especially in the general breast cancer population where limited information of the mutation status in BRCA1/2 is available, remains challenging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/prevenção & controle , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357602

RESUMO

The underlying mechanism of the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a non-obligate precursor of invasive breast cancer (IBC), has yet to be elucidated. In IBC, Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing Enzyme, Catalytic Polypeptide-Like 3B (APOBEC3B) is upregulated in a substantial proportion of cases and is associated with higher mutational load and poor prognosis. However, APOBEC3B expression has never been studied in DCIS. We performed mRNA expression analysis of APOBEC3B in synchronous DCIS and IBC and surrounding normal cells. RNA was obtained from 53 patients. The tumors were categorized based on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide (PIK3CA) mutation status. APOBEC3B mRNA levels were measured by RT-qPCR. The expression levels of paired DCIS and adjacent IBC were compared, including subgroup analyses. The normal cells expressed the lowest levels of APOBEC3B. No differences in expression were found between DCIS and IBC. Subgroup analysis showed that APOBEC3B was the highest in the ER subgroups of DCIS and IBC. While there was no difference in APOBEC3B between wild-type versus mutated PIK3CA DCIS, APOBEC3B was higher in wild-type versus PIK3CA-mutated IBC. In summary, our data show that APOBEC3B is already upregulated in DCIS. This suggests that APOBEC3B could already play a role in early carcinogenesis. Since APOBEC3B is a gain-of-function mutagenic enzyme, patients could benefit from the therapeutic targeting of APOBEC3B in the early non-invasive stage of breast cancer.

18.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 26(5): 471-482, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844755

RESUMO

PIK3CA is one of the most frequently mutated genes in invasive breast cancer (IBC). These mutations are generally associated with hyper-activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway, which involves increased phosphorylation of AKT (p-AKT). This pathway is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor PTEN. Data are limited regarding the variant allele frequency (VAF) of PIK3CA, PTEN and p-AKT expression during various stages of breast carcinogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gain insight into PIK3CA VAF and associated PTEN and p-AKT expression during the progression from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to IBC. We isolated DNA from DCIS tissue, synchronous IBC and metastasis when present. These samples were pre-screened for PIK3CA hotspot mutations using the SNaPshot assay and, if positive, validated and quantified by digital PCR. PTEN and p-AKT expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using the Histo-score (H-score). Differences in PIK3CA VAF, PTEN and p-AKT H-scores between DCIS and IBC were analyzed. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 17 out of 73 DCIS samples, 16 out of 73 IBC samples and 3 out of 23 lymph node metastasis. We detected a significantly higher VAF of PIK3CA in the DCIS component compared to the adjacent IBC component (P = 0.007). The expression of PTEN was significantly higher in DCIS compared to the IBC component in cases with a wild-type (WT) PIK3CA status (P = 0.007), while it remained similar in both components when PIK3CA was mutated. There was no difference in p-AKT expression between DCIS and the IBC component. In conclusion, our data suggest that PIK3CA mutations could be essential specifically in early stages of breast carcinogenesis. In addition, these mutations do not co-occur with PTEN expression during DCIS progression to IBC in the majority of patients. These results may contribute to further unraveling the process of breast carcinogenesis, and this could aid in the development of patient-specific treatment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Neoplasias Inflamatórias Mamárias/patologia , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Inflamatórias Mamárias/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico
19.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 26(6): 575-584, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921768

RESUMO

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the male breast is very rare and has hardly been studied molecularly. In males, we compared methylation status of 25 breast cancer-related genes in pure DCIS (n = 18) and invasive breast carcinoma (IBC) with adjacent DCIS (DCIS-AIC) (n = 44) using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results were compared to female breast cancer (BC). There were no significant differences in methylation features between male pure DCIS, DCIS-AIC and IBC after correction for multiple comparisons. In paired analysis of IBC and adjacent DCIS, CADM1 showed a significantly higher absolute methylation percentage in DCIS (P = 0.002). In cluster analysis, two clusters stood out with respectively infrequent and frequent methylation (GATA5, KLLN, PAX6, PAX5, CDH13, MSH6 and WT1 were frequently methylated). Compared to female DCIS, methylation was in general much less common in male DCIS, especially for VHL, ESR1, CDKN2A, CD44, CHFR, BRCA2, RB1 and STK11. In contrast, THBS1 and GATA5 were more frequently methylated in male DCIS. In conclusion, there is frequent methylation of GATA5, KLLN, PAX6, PAX5, CDH13, MSH6 and WT1 in male DCIS. Since there was little change in the methylation status for the studied genes from pure male DCIS to DCIS-AIC and IBC, methylation of these seven genes is more likely to occur early in male breast carcinogenesis. Based on the current markers male DCIS seems to be an epigenetically more advanced precursor of male BC, although in comparison to its female counterpart it appears that fewer loci harbor methylation, pointing to differences between male and female breast carcinogenesis with regard to the studied loci.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/genética , Metilação de DNA , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/metabolismo , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Inflamatórias Mamárias/genética , Neoplasias Inflamatórias Mamárias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Inflamatórias Mamárias/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 175(2): 451-458, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756285

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and HER2 status are essential in guiding treatment decisions in breast cancer patients. In daily life, the ER/PR/HER2 status is expected to be commonly tested twice, i.e., at diagnosis using material from tumor needle biopsies, and after tumor resection using full tumor tissue material. This study explored the discordance of ER/PR/HER2 between tumor needle biopsies and full tumor resection material using real-world patient-level data from Dutch breast cancer patients. METHODS: Pathology reports of 11,054 breast cancer patients were derived from PALGA (Dutch Pathology Registry). Discordance was calculated for multiple combinations of the ER/PR/HER2 receptor status. The influence of patient and tumor characteristics on the probability of having discordant test results was analyzed using multiple logistic regression models (separately for ER, PR and HER2). RESULTS: For 1279 patients (14.4%), at least one of the receptors (ER/PR/HER2) was determined on both biopsy and tumor tissue material. The majority had concordant test results for ER (n = 916; 94.8%), PR (n = 1170; 86.7%), and HER2 (n = 881; 98.1%). Patients having an ER- and HER2-positive but PR-negative biopsy classification, BR grade III, and < 10% tumor tissue remaining after neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) have the highest probability of ER discordant test results (OR 4.991; p = 83.31%). The probability of discordance in PR is based on different sets of patient and tumor characteristics. Potential cost savings from omitting multiple tests if concordance can be perfectly predicted can be up to €205,000 yearly. CONCLUSIONS: Double testing of ER/PR/HER2 is less common than expected. Discordance in ER/PR/HER2 test results between tumor needle biopsy taken at the time of diagnosis and tumor resection material is very low, especially in patients not receiving any form of neoadjuvant therapy. These results imply that a substantial number of tests can potentially be omitted in specific subgroups of breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Estrogênios/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Progesterona/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética
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