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2.
Gene Ther ; 26(7-8): 338-346, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296934

RESUMO

Gene doping confers health risks for athletes and is a threat to fair competition in sports. Therefore the anti-doping community has given attention on its detection. Previously published polymerase chain reaction-based methodologies for gene doping detection are targeting exon-exon junctions in the intron-less transgene. However, because these junctions are known, it would be relatively easy to evade detection by tampering with the copyDNA sequences. We have developed a targeted next-generation sequencing based assay for the detection of all exon-exon junctions of the potential doping genes, EPO, IGF1, IGF2, GH1, and GH2, which is resistant to tampering. Using this assay, all exon-exon junctions of copyDNA of doping genes could be detected with a sensitivity of 1296 copyDNA copies in 1000 ng of genomic DNA. In addition, promotor regions and plasmid-derived sequences are readily detectable in our sequence data. While we show the reliability of our method for a selection of genes, expanding the panel to detect other genes would be straightforward. As we were able to detect plasmid-derived sequences, we expect that genes with manipulated junctions, promotor regions, and plasmid or virus-derived sequences will also be readily detected.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2837, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253775

RESUMO

The diagnostic yield of exome and genome sequencing remains low (8-70%), due to incomplete knowledge on the genes that cause disease. To improve this, we use RNA-seq data from 31,499 samples to predict which genes cause specific disease phenotypes, and develop GeneNetwork Assisted Diagnostic Optimization (GADO). We show that this unbiased method, which does not rely upon specific knowledge on individual genes, is effective in both identifying previously unknown disease gene associations, and flagging genes that have previously been incorrectly implicated in disease. GADO can be run on www.genenetwork.nl by supplying HPO-terms and a list of genes that contain candidate variants. Finally, applying GADO to a cohort of 61 patients for whom exome-sequencing analysis had not resulted in a genetic diagnosis, yields likely causative genes for ten cases.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Componente Principal , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152171

RESUMO

Many workers are daily exposed to occupational agents like gases/fumes, mineral dust or biological dust, which could induce adverse health effects. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, have been suggested to play a role. We therefore aimed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) upon occupational exposures in never-smokers and investigated if these DMRs associated with gene expression levels. To determine the effects of occupational exposures independent of smoking, 903 never-smokers of the LifeLines cohort study were included. We performed three genome-wide methylation analyses (Illumina 450 K), one per occupational exposure being gases/fumes, mineral dust and biological dust, using robust linear regression adjusted for appropriate confounders. DMRs were identified using comb-p in Python. Results were validated in the Rotterdam Study (233 never-smokers) and methylation-expression associations were assessed using Biobank-based Integrative Omics Study data (n = 2802). Of the total 21 significant DMRs, 14 DMRs were associated with gases/fumes and 7 with mineral dust. Three of these DMRs were associated with both exposures (RPLP1 and LINC02169 (2×)) and 11 DMRs were located within transcript start sites of gene expression regulating genes. We replicated two DMRs with gases/fumes (VTRNA2-1 and GNAS) and one with mineral dust (CCDC144NL). In addition, nine gases/fumes DMRs and six mineral dust DMRs significantly associated with gene expression levels. Our data suggest that occupational exposures may induce differential methylation of gene expression regulating genes and thereby may induce adverse health effects. Given the millions of workers that are exposed daily to occupational exposures, further studies on this epigenetic mechanism and health outcomes are warranted.

5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 58, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airflow obstruction is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is defined as either the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70% or < lower limit of normal (LLN). This study aimed to assess the overlap between genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on airflow obstruction using these two definitions in the same population stratified by smoking. METHODS: GWASes were performed in the LifeLines Cohort Study for both airflow obstruction definitions in never-smokers (NS = 5071) and ever-smokers (ES = 4855). The FEV1/FVC < 70% models were adjusted for sex, age, and height; FEV1/FVC < LLN models were not adjusted. Ever-smokers models were additionally adjusted for pack-years and current-smoking. The overlap in significantly associated SNPs between the two definitions and never/ever-smokers was assessed using several p-value thresholds. To quantify the agreement, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the p-values and ORs. Replication was performed in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study (NS = 432, ES = 823). The overlapping SNPs with p < 10- 4 were validated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen and Rotterdam Study cohorts (NS = 1966, ES = 3134) and analysed for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in lung tissue (n = 1087). RESULTS: In the LifeLines cohort, 96% and 93% of the never- and ever-smokers were classified concordantly based on the two definitions. 26 and 29% of the investigated SNPs were overlapping at p < 0.05 in never- and ever-smokers, respectively. At p < 10- 4 the overlap was 4% and 6% respectively, which could be change findings as shown by simulation studies. The effect estimates of the SNPs of the two definitions correlated strongly, but the p-values showed more variation and correlated only moderately. Similar observations were made in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study. Two overlapping SNPs in never-smokers (NFYC and FABP7) had the same direction of effect in the validation cohorts and the NFYC SNP was an eQTL for NFYC-AS1. NFYC is a transcription factor that binds to several known COPD genes, and FABP7 may be involved in abnormal pulmonary development. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of airflow obstruction and the population under study may be important determinants of which SNPs are associated with airflow obstruction. The genes FABP7 and NFYC(-AS1) could play a role in airflow obstruction in never-smokers specifically.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína 7 de Ligação a Ácidos Graxos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Homologia de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
6.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 212, 2018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of COPD. The epigenome, and more specifically DNA methylation, is recognized as important link between these factors. We postulate that DNA methylation is one of the routes by which cigarette smoke influences the development of COPD. In this study, we aim to identify CpG-sites that are associated with cigarette smoke exposure and lung function levels in whole blood and validate these CpG-sites in lung tissue. METHODS: The association between pack years and DNA methylation was studied genome-wide in 658 current smokers with >5 pack years using robust linear regression analysis. Using mediation analysis, we subsequently selected the CpG-sites that were also associated with lung function levels. Significant CpG-sites were validated in lung tissue with pyrosequencing and expression quantitative trait methylation (eQTM) analysis was performed to investigate the association between DNA methylation and gene expression. RESULTS: 15 CpG-sites were significantly associated with pack years and 10 of these were additionally associated with lung function levels. We validated 5 CpG-sites in lung tissue and found several associations between DNA methylation and gene expression. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to validate a panel of CpG-sites that are associated with cigarette smoking and lung function levels in whole blood in the tissue of interest: lung tissue.

7.
Front Genet ; 9: 133, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725345

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heritable disease, associated with multiple genetic variants. Specific familial types of COPD may be explained by rare variants, which have not been widely studied. We aimed to discover rare genetic variants underlying COPD through a genome-wide linkage scan. Affected-only analysis was performed using the 6K Illumina Linkage IV Panel in 142 cases clustered in 27 families from a genetic isolate, the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) study. Potential causal variants were identified by searching for shared rare variants in the exome-sequence data of the affected members of the families contributing most to the linkage peak. The identified rare variants were then tested for association with COPD in a large meta-analysis of several cohorts. Significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 15q14-15q25 [logarithm of the odds (LOD) score = 5.52], 11p15.4-11q14.1 (LOD = 3.71) and 5q14.3-5q33.2 (LOD = 3.49). In the chromosome 15 peak, that harbors the known COPD locus for nicotinic receptors, and in the chromosome 5 peak we could not identify shared variants. In the chromosome 11 locus, we identified four rare (minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.02), predicted pathogenic, missense variants. These were shared among the affected family members. The identified variants localize to genes including neuroblast differentiation-associated protein (AHNAK), previously associated with blood biomarkers in COPD, phospholipase C Beta 3 (PLCB3), shown to increase airway hyper-responsiveness, solute carrier family 22-A11 (SLC22A11), involved in amino acid metabolism and ion transport, and metallothionein-like protein 5 (MTL5), involved in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism. Association of SLC22A11 and MTL5 variants were confirmed in the meta-analysis of 9,888 cases and 27,060 controls. In conclusion, we have identified novel rare variants in plausible genes related to COPD. Further studies utilizing large sample whole-genome sequencing should further confirm the associations at chromosome 11 and investigate the chromosome 15 and 5 linked regions.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(5): 379-388, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma might provide novel insights into disease pathogenesis. We did an epigenome-wide association study to assess methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma. METHODS: We did a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) within the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy (MeDALL) project. We examined epigenome-wide methylation using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChips (450K) in whole blood in 207 children with asthma and 610 controls at age 4-5 years, and 185 children with asthma and 546 controls at age 8 years using a cross-sectional case-control design. After identification of differentially methylated CpG sites in the discovery analysis, we did a validation study in children (4-16 years; 247 cases and 2949 controls) from six additional European cohorts and meta-analysed the results. We next investigated whether replicated CpG sites in cord blood predict later asthma in 1316 children. We subsequently investigated cell-type-specific methylation of the identified CpG sites in eosinophils and respiratory epithelial cells and their related gene-expression signatures. We studied cell-type specificity of the asthma association of the replicated CpG sites in 455 respiratory epithelial cell samples, collected by nasal brushing of 16-year-old children as well as in DNA isolated from blood eosinophils (16 with asthma, eight controls [age 2-56 years]) and compared this with whole-blood DNA samples of 74 individuals with asthma and 93 controls (age 1-79 years). Whole-blood transcriptional profiles associated with replicated CpG sites were annotated using RNA-seq data of subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. FINDINGS: 27 methylated CpG sites were identified in the discovery analysis. 14 of these CpG sites were replicated and passed genome-wide significance (p<1·14 × 10-7) after meta-analysis. Consistently lower methylation levels were observed at all associated loci across childhood from age 4 to 16 years in participants with asthma, but not in cord blood at birth. All 14 CpG sites were significantly associated with asthma in the second replication study using whole-blood DNA, and were strongly associated with asthma in purified eosinophils. Whole-blood transcriptional signatures associated with these CpG sites indicated increased activation of eosinophils, effector and memory CD8 T cells and natural killer cells, and reduced number of naive T cells. Five of the 14 CpG sites were associated with asthma in respiratory epithelial cells, indicating cross-tissue epigenetic effects. INTERPRETATION: Reduced whole-blood DNA methylation at 14 CpG sites acquired after birth was strongly associated with childhood asthma. These CpG sites and their associated transcriptional profiles indicate activation of eosinophils and cytotoxic T cells in childhood asthma. Our findings merit further investigations of the role of epigenetics in a clinical context. FUNDING: EU and the Seventh Framework Programme (the MeDALL project).


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Epigênese Genética , Asma/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos
9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(5): 709-722, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422661

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health burden in adults and cigarette smoking is considered the most important environmental risk factor of COPD. Chromosome 15q25.1 locus is associated with both COPD and smoking. Our study aims at understanding the mechanism underlying the association of chromosome 15q25.1 with COPD through epigenetic and transcriptional variation in a population-based setting. To assess if COPD-associated variants in 15q25.1 are methylation quantitative trait loci, epigenome-wide association analysis of four genetic variants, previously associated with COPD (P < 5 × 10-8) in the 15q25.1 locus (rs12914385:C>T-CHRNA3, rs8034191:T>C-HYKK, rs13180:C>T-IREB2 and rs8042238:C>T-IREB2), was performed in the Rotterdam study (n = 1489). All four variants were significantly associated (P < 1.4 × 10-6) with blood DNA methylation of IREB2, CHRNA3 and PSMA4, of which two, including IREB2 and PSMA4, were also differentially methylated in COPD cases and controls (P < 0.04). Further additive and multiplicative effects of smoking were evaluated and no significant effect was observed. To evaluate if these four genetic variants are expression quantitative trait loci, transcriptome-wide association analysis was performed in 1087 lung samples. All four variants were also significantly associated with differential expression of the IREB2 3'UTR in lung tissues (P < 5.4 × 10-95). We conclude that regulatory mechanisms affecting the expression of IREB2 gene, such as DNA methylation, may explain the association between genetic variants in chromosome 15q25.1 and COPD, largely independent of smoking.

10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(2): 027004, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term air pollution exposure is negatively associated with lung function, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully clear. Differential DNA methylation may explain this association. OBJECTIVES: Our main aim was to study the association between long-term air pollution exposure and DNA methylation. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide methylation study using robust linear regression models in 1,017 subjects from the LifeLines cohort study to analyze the association between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5, fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm; PM10, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm) and PM2.5absorbance, indicator of elemental carbon content (estimated with land-use-regression models) with DNA methylation in whole blood (Illumina® HumanMethylation450K BeadChip). Replication of the top hits was attempted in two independent samples from the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg studies (KORA). RESULTS: Depending on the p-value threshold used, we found significant associations between NO2 exposure and DNA methylation for seven CpG sites (Bonferroni corrected threshold p<1.19×10-7) or for 4,980 CpG sites (False Discovery Rate<0.05). The top associated CpG site was annotated to the PSMB9 gene (i.e., cg04908668). None of the seven Bonferroni significant CpG-sites were significantly replicated in the two KORA-cohorts. No associations were found for PM exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term NO2 exposure was genome-wide significantly associated with DNA methylation in the identification cohort but not in the replication cohort. Future studies are needed to further elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying NO2-exposure-related respiratory disease. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2045.

11.
Occup Environ Med ; 75(6): 427-435, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Occupational pesticide exposure is associated with a wide range of diseases, including lung diseases, but it is largely unknown how pesticides influence airway disease pathogenesis. A potential mechanism might be through epigenetic mechanisms, like DNA methylation. Therefore, we assessed associations between occupational exposure to pesticides and genome-wide DNA methylation sites. METHODS: 1561 subjects of LifeLines were included with either no (n=1392), low (n=108) or high (n=61) exposure to any type of pesticides (estimated based on current or last held job). Blood DNA methylation levels were measured using Illumina 450K arrays. Associations between pesticide exposure and 420 938 methylation sites (CpGs) were assessed using robust linear regression adjusted for appropriate confounders. In addition, we performed genome-wide stratified and interaction analyses by gender, smoking and airway obstruction status, and assessed associations between gene expression and methylation for genome-wide significant CpGs (n=2802). RESULTS: In total for all analyses, high pesticide exposure was genome-wide significantly (false discovery rate P<0.05) associated with differential DNA methylation of 31 CpGs annotated to 29 genes. Twenty of these CpGs were found in subjects with airway obstruction. Several of the identified genes, for example, RYR1, ALLC, PTPRN2, LRRC3B, PAX2 and VTRNA2-1, are genes previously linked to either pesticide exposure or lung-related diseases. Seven out of 31 CpGs were associated with gene expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that occupational exposure to pesticides is genome-wide associated with differential DNA methylation. Further research should reveal whether this differential methylation plays a role in the airway disease pathogenesis induced by pesticides.

12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(2): 396-405, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092026

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is among the major health burdens in adults. While cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor, a growing number of genetic variations have been discovered to influence disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modifications may mediate the response of the genome to smoking and regulate gene expression. Chromosome 19q13.2 region is associated with both smoking and COPD, yet its functional role is unclear. Our study aimed to determine whether rs7937 (RAB4B, EGLN2), a top genetic variant in 19q13.2 region identified in genome-wide association studies of COPD, is associated with differential DNA methylation in blood (N = 1490) and gene expression in blood (N = 721) and lungs (N = 1087). We combined genetic and epigenetic data from the Rotterdam Study (RS) to perform the epigenome-wide association analysis of rs7937. Further, we used genetic and transcriptomic data from blood (RS) and from lung tissue (Lung expression quantitative trait loci mapping study), to perform the transcriptome-wide association study of rs7937. Rs7937 was significantly (FDR < 0.05) and consistently associated with differential DNA methylation in blood at 4 CpG sites in cis, independent of smoking. One methylation site (cg11298343-EGLN2) was also associated with COPD (P = 0.001). Additionally, rs7937 was associated with gene expression levels in blood in cis (EGLN2), 42% mediated through cg11298343, and in lung tissue, in cis and trans (NUMBL, EGLN2, DNMT3A, LOC101929709 and PAK2). Our results suggest that changes of DNA methylation and gene expression may be intermediate steps between genetic variants and COPD, but further causal studies in lung tissue should confirm this hypothesis.

13.
Pediatrics ; 140(4)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic whole-genome sequencing has been explored in critically ill newborns, hoping to improve their clinical care and replace time-consuming and/or invasive diagnostic testing. A previous retrospective study in a research setting showed promising results with diagnoses in 57%, but patients were highly selected for known and likely Mendelian disorders. The aim of our prospective study was to assess the speed and yield of rapid targeted genomic diagnostics for clinical application. METHODS: We included 23 critically ill children younger than 12 months in ICUs over a period of 2 years. A quick diagnosis could not be made after routine clinical evaluation and diagnostics. Targeted analysis of 3426 known disease genes was performed by using whole-genome sequencing data. We measured diagnostic yield, turnaround times, and clinical consequences. RESULTS: A genetic diagnosis was obtained in 7 patients (30%), with a median turnaround time of 12 days (ranging from 5 to 23 days). We identified compound heterozygous mutations in the EPG5 gene (Vici syndrome), the RMND1 gene (combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-11), and the EIF2B5 gene (vanishing white matter), and homozygous mutations in the KLHL41 gene (nemaline myopathy), the GFER gene (progressive mitochondrial myopathy), and the GLB1 gene (GM1-gangliosidosis). In addition, a 1p36.33p36.32 microdeletion was detected in a child with cardiomyopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid targeted genomics combined with copy number variant detection adds important value in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care setting. It led to a fast diagnosis in 30% of critically ill children for whom the routine clinical workup was unsuccessful.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Genômica/métodos , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(10): 1099-1105, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832563

RESUMO

Diagnostics using next generation sequencing (NGS) requires high-quality interdisciplinary collaboration. In order to gain insight into this crucial collaborative process, we made video recordings of a new multidisciplinary team at work in the clinical genetics department of the University Medical Centre Groningen. Conversation Analysis was used to investigate the ways in which the team members deal with the disciplinary boundaries between them. We found that the team established different 'participation frames' in which to discuss recurring topics. Patients were discussed only by the medical doctors, whereas results of genetic tests were discussed by doctors, molecular biologists and genetic laboratory technicians. Information technology (IT) aspects were discussed by biologists, genetics analysts and bio-informaticians, but not doctors. We then interviewed team members who said they believed that the division of labour embodied in these participation frames contributes to achieving their team's goals.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/normas , Processos Grupais , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Biologia Computacional/organização & administração , Biologia Computacional/normas , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Pediatria/organização & administração , Pediatria/normas
15.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 25, 2017 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28056824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation has been found to associate with disease, aging and environmental exposure, but it is unknown how genome, environment and disease influence DNA methylation dynamics in childhood. RESULTS: By analysing 538 paired DNA blood samples from children at birth and at 4-5 years old and 726 paired samples from children at 4 and 8 years old from four European birth cohorts using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 k chip, we have identified 14,150 consistent age-differential methylation sites (a-DMSs) at epigenome-wide significance of p < 1.14 × 10-7. Genes with an increase in age-differential methylation were enriched in pathways related to 'development', and were more often located in bivalent transcription start site (TSS) regions, which can silence or activate expression of developmental genes. Genes with a decrease in age-differential methylation were involved in cell signalling, and enriched on H3K27ac, which can predict developmental state. Maternal smoking tended to decrease methylation levels at the identified da-DMSs. We also found 101 a-DMSs (0.71%) that were regulated by genetic variants using cis-differential Methylation Quantitative Trait Locus (cis-dMeQTL) mapping. Moreover, a-DMS-associated genes during early development were significantly more likely to be linked with disease. CONCLUSION: Our study provides new insights into the dynamic epigenetic landscape of the first 8 years of life.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fumar/efeitos adversos
16.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 6, 2017 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28093075

RESUMO

We present Gene-Aware Variant INterpretation (GAVIN), a new method that accurately classifies variants for clinical diagnostic purposes. Classifications are based on gene-specific calibrations of allele frequencies from the ExAC database, likely variant impact using SnpEff, and estimated deleteriousness based on CADD scores for >3000 genes. In a benchmark on 18 clinical gene sets, we achieve a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 76.9%. This accuracy is unmatched by 12 other tools. We provide GAVIN as an online MOLGENIS service to annotate VCF files and as an open source executable for use in bioinformatic pipelines. It can be found at http://molgenis.org/gavin .


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variação Genética , Software , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(2): 533-540, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27612410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a striking proportion (25% to 45%) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are never-smokers, most genetic susceptibility studies have not focused on this group exclusively. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify common genetic variants associated with FEV1 and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FVC) in never-smokers. METHODS: Genome-wide association studies were performed in 5070 never-smokers of the identification cohort LifeLines, and results (P < 10-5) were verified by using a meta-analysis of the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study and the Rotterdam Study I-III (total n = 1966). Furthermore, we aimed to assess the effects of the replicated variants in more detail by performing genetic risk score, expression quantitative trait loci, and variant*ever-smoking interaction analyses. RESULTS: We identified associations between the FEV1/FVC ratio and 5 common genetic variants in the identification cohort, and 2 of these associations were replicated. The 2 variants annotated to the genes hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) and family with sequence similarity 13 member A (FAM13A) were shown to have an additive effect on FEV1/FVC levels in the genetic risk score analysis; were associated with gene expression of HHIP and FAM13A in lung tissue, respectively; and were genome-wide significant in a meta-analysis including both identification and 4 verification cohorts (P < 2.19 × 10-7). Finally, we did not identify significant interactions between the variants and ever smoking. Results of the FEV1 identification analysis were not replicated. CONCLUSION: The genes HHIP and FAM13A confer a risk for airway obstruction in general that is not driven exclusively by cigarette smoking, which is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Pulmão/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0159609, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27490946

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have revealed several common genetic risk variants for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, little is known about the contribution of rare, large effect genetic variants to UC susceptibility. In this study, we performed a deep targeted re-sequencing of 122 genes in Dutch UC patients in order to investigate the contribution of rare variants to the genetic susceptibility to UC. The selection of genes consists of 111 established human UC susceptibility genes and 11 genes that lead to spontaneous colitis when knocked-out in mice. In addition, we sequenced the promoter regions of 45 genes where known variants exert cis-eQTL-effects. Targeted pooled re-sequencing was performed on DNA of 790 Dutch UC cases. The Genome of the Netherlands project provided sequence data of 500 healthy controls. After quality control and prioritization based on allele frequency and pathogenicity probability, follow-up genotyping of 171 rare variants was performed on 1021 Dutch UC cases and 1166 Dutch controls. Single-variant association and gene-based analyses identified an association of rare variants in the MUC2 gene with UC. The associated variants in the Dutch population could not be replicated in a German replication cohort (1026 UC cases, 3532 controls). In conclusion, this study has identified a putative role for MUC2 on UC susceptibility in the Dutch population and suggests a population-specific contribution of rare variants to UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Mucina-2/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Países Baixos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Eur J Med Genet ; 58(12): 642-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26548497

RESUMO

Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by low levels of cortisol despite high adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels, due to the reduced ability of the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol in response to stimulation by ACTH. FGD is a heterogeneous disorder for which causal mutations have been identified in MC2R, MRAP, MCM4 and TXNRD2. Also mutations in STAR and CYP11A1 can sometimes present with a phenotype resembling FGD. Recently, it has been indicated that FGD can also be caused by mutations in NNT (nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase). We identified a 6.67 Mb homozygous region harboring the NNT gene by SNP haplotyping in a 1-year old Dutch boy presenting with FGD, but without mutations in MC2R and MRAP. Exome-sequencing revealed a novel homozygous mutation (NM_012343.3: c.1259dupG) in NNT that was predicted to be disease-causing. The mutation is located in exon 9 and creates a frameshift leading to a premature stop-codon (p.His421Serfs*4) that is known to result in FGD. Both parents were shown to be heterozygous carriers. We reviewed the literature for all the reported NNT mutations and their clinical presentation. The median age of disease onset in 23 reported patients, including the present patient, was 12 months (range 3 days-39 months). There was no difference in age of disease onset between truncating and non-truncating NNT mutations. Based on recent literature, we advise to monitor patients with FGD due to NNT mutations for possible combined mineralocorticoid insufficiency and extra-adrenal manifestations.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Adrenal/genética , Homozigoto , Mutagênese Insercional , Mutação , NADP Trans-Hidrogenase Específica para A ou B/genética , Alelos , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , NADP Trans-Hidrogenase Específica para A ou B/química , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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