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1.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 13, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are known to preferentially co-locate to active regulatory elements in tissues and cell types relevant to disease aetiology. Further characterisation of associated cell type-specific regulation can broaden our understanding of how GWAS signals may contribute to disease risk. RESULTS: To gain insight into potential functional mechanisms underlying GWAS associations, we developed FORGE2 ( https://forge2.altiusinstitute.org/ ), which is an updated version of the FORGE web tool. FORGE2 uses an expanded atlas of cell type-specific regulatory element annotations, including DNase I hotspots, five histone mark categories and 15 hidden Markov model (HMM) chromatin states, to identify tissue- and cell type-specific signals. An analysis of 3,604 GWAS from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS catalogue yielded at least one significant disease/trait-tissue association for 2,057 GWAS, including > 400 associations specific to epigenomic marks in immune tissues and cell types, > 30 associations specific to heart tissue, and > 60 associations specific to brain tissue, highlighting the key potential of tissue- and cell type-specific regulatory elements. Importantly, we demonstrate that FORGE2 analysis can separate previously observed accessible chromatin enrichments into different chromatin states, such as enhancers or active transcription start sites, providing a greater understanding of underlying regulatory mechanisms. Interestingly, tissue-specific enrichments for repressive chromatin states and histone marks were also detected, suggesting a role for tissue-specific repressed regions in GWAS-mediated disease aetiology. CONCLUSION: In summary, we demonstrate that FORGE2 has the potential to uncover previously unreported disease-tissue associations and identify new candidate mechanisms. FORGE2 is a transparent, user-friendly web tool for the integrative analysis of loci discovered from GWAS.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880450

RESUMO

Antidepressants are an effective treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), although individual response is unpredictable and highly variable. Whilst the mode of action of antidepressants is incompletely understood, many medications are associated with changes in DNA methylation in genes that are plausibly linked to their mechanisms. Studies of DNA methylation may therefore reveal the biological processes underpinning the efficacy and side effects of antidepressants. We performed a methylome-wide association study (MWAS) of self-reported antidepressant use accounting for lifestyle factors and MDD in Generation Scotland (GS:SFHS, N = 6428, EPIC array) and the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR, N = 2449, 450 K array) and ran a meta-analysis of antidepressant use across these two cohorts. We found ten CpG sites significantly associated with self-reported antidepressant use in GS:SFHS, with the top CpG located within a gene previously associated with mental health disorders, ATP6V1B2 (ß = -0.055, pcorrected = 0.005). Other top loci were annotated to genes including CASP10, TMBIM1, MAPKAPK3, and HEBP2, which have previously been implicated in the innate immune response. Next, using penalised regression, we trained a methylation-based score of self-reported antidepressant use in a subset of 3799 GS:SFHS individuals that predicted antidepressant use in a second subset of GS:SFHS (N = 3360, ß = 0.377, p = 3.12 × 10-11, R2 = 2.12%). In an MWAS analysis of prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, we showed convergent findings with those based on self-report. In NTR, we did not find any CpGs significantly associated with antidepressant use. The meta-analysis identified the two CpGs of the ten above that were common to the two arrays used as being significantly associated with antidepressant use, although the effect was in the opposite direction for one of them. Antidepressants were associated with epigenetic alterations in loci previously associated with mental health disorders and the innate immune system. These changes predicted self-reported antidepressant use in a subset of GS:SFHS and identified processes that may be relevant to our mechanistic understanding of clinically relevant antidepressant drug actions and side effects.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 198, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on long-term alcohol consumption is relevant for medical and public health research, disease therapy, and other areas. Recently, DNA methylation-based inference of alcohol consumption from blood was reported with high accuracy, but these results were based on employing the same dataset for model training and testing, which can lead to accuracy overestimation. Moreover, only subsets of alcohol consumption categories were used, which makes it impossible to extrapolate such models to the general population. By using data from eight population-based European cohorts (N = 4677), we internally and externally validated the previously reported biomarkers and models for epigenetic inference of alcohol consumption from blood and developed new models comprising all data from all categories. RESULTS: By employing data from six European cohorts (N = 2883), we empirically tested the reproducibility of the previously suggested biomarkers and prediction models via ten-fold internal cross-validation. In contrast to previous findings, all seven models based on 144-CpGs yielded lower mean AUCs compared to the models with less CpGs. For instance, the 144-CpG heavy versus non-drinkers model gave an AUC of 0.78 ± 0.06, while the 5 and 23 CpG models achieved 0.83 ± 0.05, respectively. The transportability of the models was empirically tested via external validation in three independent European cohorts (N = 1794), revealing high AUC variance between datasets within models. For instance, the 144-CpG heavy versus non-drinkers model yielded AUCs ranging from 0.60 to 0.84 between datasets. The newly developed models that considered data from all categories showed low AUCs but gave low AUC variation in the external validation. For instance, the 144-CpG heavy and at-risk versus light and non-drinkers model achieved AUCs of 0.67 ± 0.02 in the internal cross-validation and 0.61-0.66 in the external validation datasets. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of our internal and external validation demonstrate that the previously reported prediction models suffer from both overfitting and accuracy overestimation. Our results show that the previously proposed biomarkers are not yet sufficient for accurate and robust inference of alcohol consumption from blood. Overall, our findings imply that DNA methylation prediction biomarkers and models need to be improved considerably before epigenetic inference of alcohol consumption from blood can be considered for practical applications.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5618, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584077

RESUMO

Monozygotic (MZ) twins and higher-order multiples arise when a zygote splits during pre-implantation stages of development. The mechanisms underpinning this event have remained a mystery. Because MZ twinning rarely runs in families, the leading hypothesis is that it occurs at random. Here, we show that MZ twinning is strongly associated with a stable DNA methylation signature in adult somatic tissues. This signature spans regions near telomeres and centromeres, Polycomb-repressed regions and heterochromatin, genes involved in cell-adhesion, WNT signaling, cell fate, and putative human metastable epialleles. Our study also demonstrates a never-anticipated corollary: because identical twins keep a lifelong molecular signature, we can retrospectively diagnose if a person was conceived as monozygotic twin.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Gemelaridade Monozigótica/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adulto , Finlândia , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
5.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 688464, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393852

RESUMO

We examined the performance of methylation scores (MS) and polygenic scores (PGS) for birth weight, BMI, prenatal maternal smoking exposure, and smoking status to assess the extent to which MS could predict these traits and exposures over and above the PGS in a multi-omics prediction model. MS may be seen as the epigenetic equivalent of PGS, but because of their dynamic nature and sensitivity of non-genetic exposures may add to complex trait prediction independently of PGS. MS and PGS were calculated based on genotype data and DNA-methylation data in blood samples from adults (Illumina 450 K; N = 2,431; mean age 35.6) and in buccal samples from children (Illumina EPIC; N = 1,128; mean age 9.6) from the Netherlands Twin Register. Weights to construct the scores were obtained from results of large epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) based on whole blood or cord blood methylation data and genome-wide association studies (GWASs). In adults, MSs in blood predicted independently from PGSs, and outperformed PGSs for BMI, prenatal maternal smoking, and smoking status, but not for birth weight. The largest amount of variance explained by the multi-omics prediction model was for current vs. never smoking (54.6%) of which 54.4% was captured by the MS. The two predictors captured 16% of former vs. never smoking initiation variance (MS:15.5%, PGS: 0.5%), 17.7% of prenatal maternal smoking variance (MS:16.9%, PGS: 0.8%), 11.9% of BMI variance (MS: 6.4%, PGS 5.5%), and 1.9% of birth weight variance (MS: 0.4%, PGS: 1.5%). In children, MSs in buccal samples did not show independent predictive value. The largest amount of variance explained by the two predictors was for prenatal maternal smoking (2.6%), where the MSs contributed 1.5%. These results demonstrate that blood DNA MS in adults explain substantial variance in current smoking, large variance in former smoking, prenatal smoking, and BMI, but not in birth weight. Buccal cell DNA methylation scores have lower predictive value, which could be due to different tissues in the EWAS discovery studies and target sample, as well as to different ages. This study illustrates the value of combining polygenic scores with information from methylation data for complex traits and exposure prediction.

6.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 24(3): 155-159, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308812

RESUMO

Strong associations between neural tube defects (NTDs) and monozygotic (MZ) twinning have long been noted, and it has been suggested that NTD cases who do not present as MZ twins may be the survivors of MZ twinning events. We have recently shown that MZ twins carry a strong, distinctive DNA methylation signature and have developed an algorithm based on genomewide DNA methylation array data that distinguishes MZ twins from dizygotic twins and other relatives at well above chance level. We have applied this algorithm to published methylation data from five fetal tissues (placental chorionic villi, kidney, spinal cord, brain and muscle) collected from spina bifida cases (n = 22), anencephalic cases (n = 15) and controls (n = 19). We see no difference in signature between cases and controls, providing no support for a common etiological role of MZ twinning in NTDs. The strong associations therefore continue to await elucidation.


Assuntos
Defeitos do Tubo Neural , Gemelaridade Monozigótica , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/genética , Placenta , Gravidez , Gemelaridade Monozigótica/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(6): 2148-2162, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420481

RESUMO

DNA methylation profiles of aggressive behavior may capture lifetime cumulative effects of genetic, stochastic, and environmental influences associated with aggression. Here, we report the first large meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of aggressive behavior (N = 15,324 participants). In peripheral blood samples of 14,434 participants from 18 cohorts with mean ages ranging from 7 to 68 years, 13 methylation sites were significantly associated with aggression (alpha = 1.2 × 10-7; Bonferroni correction). In cord blood samples of 2425 children from five cohorts with aggression assessed at mean ages ranging from 4 to 7 years, 83% of these sites showed the same direction of association with childhood aggression (r = 0.74, p = 0.006) but no epigenome-wide significant sites were found. Top-sites (48 at a false discovery rate of 5% in the peripheral blood meta-analysis or in a combined meta-analysis of peripheral blood and cord blood) have been associated with chemical exposures, smoking, cognition, metabolic traits, and genetic variation (mQTLs). Three genes whose expression levels were associated with top-sites were previously linked to schizophrenia and general risk tolerance. At six CpGs, DNA methylation variation in blood mirrors variation in the brain. On average 44% (range = 3-82%) of the aggression-methylation association was explained by current and former smoking and BMI. These findings point at loci that are sensitive to chemical exposures with potential implications for neuronal functions. We hope these results to be a starting point for studies leading to applications as peripheral biomarkers and to reveal causal relationships with aggression and related traits.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Agressão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Longevidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(8): 3884-3895, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811260

RESUMO

DNA methylation, which is modulated by both genetic factors and environmental exposures, may offer a unique opportunity to discover novel biomarkers of disease-related brain phenotypes, even when measured in other tissues than brain, such as blood. A few studies of small sample sizes have revealed associations between blood DNA methylation and neuropsychopathology, however, large-scale epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) are needed to investigate the utility of DNA methylation profiling as a peripheral marker for the brain. Here, in an analysis of eleven international cohorts, totalling 3337 individuals, we report epigenome-wide meta-analyses of blood DNA methylation with volumes of the hippocampus, thalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)-three subcortical regions selected for their associations with disease and heritability and volumetric variability. Analyses of individual CpGs revealed genome-wide significant associations with hippocampal volume at two loci. No significant associations were found for analyses of thalamus and nucleus accumbens volumes. Cluster-based analyses revealed additional differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with hippocampal volume. DNA methylation at these loci affected expression of proximal genes involved in learning and memory, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, fatty acid metabolism and type-2 diabetes. These DNA methylation marks, their interaction with genetic variants and their impact on gene expression offer new insights into the relationship between epigenetic variation and brain structure and may provide the basis for biomarker discovery in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric conditions.

9.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(3): 145-155, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635965

RESUMO

Metabolites are small molecules involved in cellular metabolism where they act as reaction substrates or products. The term 'metabolomics' refers to the comprehensive study of these molecules. The concentrations of metabolites in biological tissues are under genetic control, but this is limited by environmental factors such as diet. In adult mono- and dizygotic twin pairs, we estimated the contribution of genetic and shared environmental influences on metabolite levels by structural equation modeling and tested whether the familial resemblance for metabolite levels is mainly explained by genetic or by environmental factors that are shared by family members. Metabolites were measured across three platforms: two based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and one employing mass spectrometry. These three platforms comprised 237 single metabolic traits of several chemical classes. For the three platforms, metabolites were assessed in 1407, 1037 and 1116 twin pairs, respectively. We carried out power calculations to establish what percentage of shared environmental variance could be detected given these sample sizes. Our study did not find evidence for a systematic contribution of shared environment, defined as the influence of growing up together in the same household, on metabolites assessed in adulthood. Significant heritability was observed for nearly all 237 metabolites; significant contribution of the shared environment was limited to 6 metabolites. The top quartile of the heritability distribution was populated by 5 of the 11 investigated chemical classes. In this quartile, metabolites of the class lipoprotein were significantly overrepresented, whereas metabolites of classes glycerophospholipids and glycerolipids were significantly underrepresented.


Assuntos
Metaboloma/genética , Metabolômica , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adulto , Dieta , Doenças em Gêmeos , Meio Ambiente , Família , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
10.
Hypertension ; 76(1): 195-205, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520614

RESUMO

We conducted an epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis on blood pressure (BP) in 4820 individuals of European and African ancestry aged 14 to 69. Genome-wide DNA methylation data from peripheral leukocytes were obtained using the Infinium Human Methylation 450k BeadChip. The epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis identified 39 BP-related CpG sites with P<1×10-5. In silico replication in the CHARGE consortium of 17 010 individuals validated 16 of these CpG sites. Out of the 16 CpG sites, 13 showed novel association with BP. Conversely, out of the 126 CpG sites identified as being associated (P<1×10-7) with BP in the CHARGE consortium, 21 were replicated in the current study. Methylation levels of all the 34 CpG sites that were cross-validated by the current study and the CHARGE consortium were heritable and 6 showed association with gene expression. Furthermore, 9 CpG sites also showed association with BP with P<0.05 and consistent direction of the effect in the meta-analysis of the Finnish Twin Cohort (199 twin pairs and 4 singletons; 61% monozygous) and the Netherlands Twin Register (266 twin pairs and 62 singletons; 84% monozygous). Bivariate quantitative genetic modeling of the twin data showed that a majority of the phenotypic correlations between methylation levels of these CpG sites and BP could be explained by shared unique environmental rather than genetic factors, with 100% of the correlations of systolic BP with cg19693031 (TXNIP) and cg00716257 (JDP2) determined by environmental effects acting on both systolic BP and methylation levels.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma/genética , Hipertensão Essencial/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Hipertensão Essencial/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Essencial/etnologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296350

RESUMO

Biomarkers are of interest as potential diagnostic and predictive instruments in personalized medicine. We present the first urinary metabolomics biomarker study of childhood aggression. We aim to examine the association of urinary metabolites and neurotransmitter ratios involved in key metabolic and neurotransmitter pathways in a large cohort of twins (N = 1,347) and clinic-referred children (N = 183) with an average age of 9.7 years. This study is part of ACTION (Aggression in Children: Unraveling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and InterventiON strategies), in which we developed a standardized protocol for large-scale collection of urine samples in children. Our analytical design consisted of three phases: a discovery phase in twins scoring low or high on aggression (N = 783); a replication phase in twin pairs discordant for aggression (N = 378); and a validation phase in clinical cases and matched twin controls (N = 367). In the discovery phase, 6 biomarkers were significantly associated with childhood aggression, of which the association of O-phosphoserine (ß = 0.36; SE = 0.09; p = 0.004), and gamma-L-glutamyl-L-alanine (ß = 0.32; SE = 0.09; p = 0.01) remained significant after multiple testing. Although non-significant, the directions of effect were congruent between the discovery and replication analyses for six biomarkers and two neurotransmitter ratios and the concentrations of 6 amines differed between low and high aggressive twins. In the validation analyses, the top biomarkers and neurotransmitter ratios, with congruent directions of effect, showed no significant associations with childhood aggression. We find suggestive evidence for associations of childhood aggression with metabolic dysregulation of neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Although replication is required, our findings provide starting points to investigate causal and pleiotropic effects of these dysregulations on childhood aggression.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 39, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911595

RESUMO

Metabolomics examines the small molecules involved in cellular metabolism. Approximately 50% of total phenotypic differences in metabolite levels is due to genetic variance, but heritability estimates differ across metabolite classes. We perform a review of all genome-wide association and (exome-) sequencing studies published between November 2008 and October 2018, and identify >800 class-specific metabolite loci associated with metabolite levels. In a twin-family cohort (N = 5117), these metabolite loci are leveraged to simultaneously estimate total heritability (h2total), and the proportion of heritability captured by known metabolite loci (h2Metabolite-hits) for 309 lipids and 52 organic acids. Our study reveals significant differences in h2Metabolite-hits among different classes of lipids and organic acids. Furthermore, phosphatidylcholines with a high degree of unsaturation have higher h2Metabolite-hits estimates than phosphatidylcholines with low degrees of unsaturation. This study highlights the importance of common genetic variants for metabolite levels, and elucidates the genetic architecture of metabolite classes.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise Química do Sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Metabolômica , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Gêmeos/genética
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(2): 253-263, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558840

RESUMO

Insights into individual differences in gene expression and its heritability (h2) can help in understanding pathways from DNA to phenotype. We estimated the heritability of gene expression of 52,844 genes measured in whole blood in the largest twin RNA-Seq sample to date (1497 individuals including 459 monozygotic twin pairs and 150 dizygotic twin pairs) from classical twin modeling and identity-by-state-based approaches. We estimated for each gene h2total, composed of cis-heritability (h2cis, the variance explained by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cis-window of the gene), and trans-heritability (h2res, the residual variance explained by all other genome-wide variants). Mean h2total was 0.26, which was significantly higher than heritability estimates earlier found in a microarray-based study using largely overlapping (>60%) RNA samples (mean h2 = 0.14, p = 6.15 × 10-258). Mean h2cis was 0.06 and strongly correlated with beta of the top cis expression quantitative loci (eQTL, ρ = 0.76, p < 10-308) and with estimates from earlier RNA-Seq-based studies. Mean h2res was 0.20 and correlated with the beta of the corresponding trans-eQTL (ρ = 0.04, p < 1.89 × 10-3) and was significantly higher for genes involved in cytokine-cytokine interactions (p = 4.22 × 10-15), many other immune system pathways, and genes identified in genome-wide association studies for various traits including behavioral disorders and cancer. This study provides a thorough characterization of cis- and trans-h2 estimates of gene expression, which is of value for interpretation of GWAS and gene expression studies.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA-Seq/métodos , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
15.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 623-636, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666148

RESUMO

The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) is a national register in which twins, multiples and their parents, siblings, spouses and other family members participate. Here we describe the NTR resources that were created from more than 30 years of data collections; the development and maintenance of the newly developed database systems, and the possibilities these resources create for future research. Since the early 1980s, the NTR has enrolled around 120,000 twins and a roughly equal number of their relatives. The majority of twin families have participated in survey studies, and subsamples took part in biomaterial collection (e.g., DNA) and dedicated projects, for example, for neuropsychological, biomarker and behavioral traits. The recruitment into the NTR is all inclusive without any restrictions on enrollment. These resources - the longitudinal phenotyping, the extended pedigree structures and the multigeneration genotyping - allow for future twin-family research that will contribute to gene discovery, causality modeling, and studies of genetic and cultural inheritance.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/psicologia , Família , Feminino , Seguimentos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744183

RESUMO

Breastfeeding has long-term benefits for children that may be mediated via the epigenome. This pathway has been hypothesized, but the number of empirical studies in humans is small and mostly done by using peripheral blood as the DNA source. We performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) in buccal cells collected around age nine (mean = 9.5) from 1006 twins recruited by the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). An age-stratified analysis examined if effects attenuate with age (median split at 10 years; n<10 = 517, mean age = 7.9; n>10 = 489, mean age = 11.2). We performed replication analyses in two independent cohorts from the NTR (buccal cells) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (peripheral blood), and we tested loci previously associated with breastfeeding in epigenetic studies. Genome-wide DNA methylation was assessed with the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) in the NTR and with the HumanMethylation450 Bead Chip in the ALSPAC. The duration of breastfeeding was dichotomized ('never' vs. 'ever'). In the total sample, no robustly associated epigenome-wide significant CpGs were identified (α = 6.34 × 10-8). In the sub-group of children younger than 10 years, four significant CpGs were associated with breastfeeding after adjusting for child and maternal characteristics. In children older than 10 years, methylation differences at these CpGs were smaller and non-significant. The findings did not replicate in the NTR sample (n = 98; mean age = 7.5 years), and no nearby sites were associated with breastfeeding in the ALSPAC study (n = 938; mean age = 7.4). Of the CpG sites previously reported in the literature, three were associated with breastfeeding in children younger than 10 years, thus showing that these CpGs are associated with breastfeeding in buccal and blood cells. Our study is the first to show that breastfeeding is associated with epigenetic variation in buccal cells in children. Further studies are needed to investigate if methylation differences at these loci are caused by breastfeeding or by other unmeasured confounders, as well as what mechanism drives changes in associations with age.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos , Gêmeos/genética
17.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 235, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of analysis strategies are available for DNA methylation (DNAm) array and RNA-seq datasets, but it is unclear which strategies are best to use. We compare commonly used strategies and report how they influence results in large cohort studies. RESULTS: We tested the associations of DNAm and RNA expression with age, BMI, and smoking in four different cohorts (n = ~ 2900). By comparing strategies against the base model on the number and percentage of replicated CpGs for DNAm analyses or genes for RNA-seq analyses in a leave-one-out cohort replication approach, we find the choice of the normalization method and statistical test does not strongly influence the results for DNAm array data. However, adjusting for cell counts or hidden confounders substantially decreases the number of replicated CpGs for age and increases the number of replicated CpGs for BMI and smoking. For RNA-seq data, the choice of the normalization method, gene expression inclusion threshold, and statistical test does not strongly influence the results. Including five principal components or excluding correction of technical covariates or cell counts decreases the number of replicated genes. CONCLUSIONS: Results were not influenced by the normalization method or statistical test. However, the correction method for cell counts, technical covariates, principal components, and/or hidden confounders does influence the results.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(11): 1055-1074, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494793

RESUMO

Inferring a person's smoking habit and history from blood is relevant for complementing or replacing self-reports in epidemiological and public health research, and for forensic applications. However, a finite DNA methylation marker set and a validated statistical model based on a large dataset are not yet available. Employing 14 epigenome-wide association studies for marker discovery, and using data from six population-based cohorts (N = 3764) for model building, we identified 13 CpGs most suitable for inferring smoking versus non-smoking status from blood with a cumulative Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.901. Internal fivefold cross-validation yielded an average AUC of 0.897 ± 0.137, while external model validation in an independent population-based cohort (N = 1608) achieved an AUC of 0.911. These 13 CpGs also provided accurate inference of current (average AUCcrossvalidation 0.925 ± 0.021, AUCexternalvalidation0.914), former (0.766 ± 0.023, 0.699) and never smoking (0.830 ± 0.019, 0.781) status, allowed inferring pack-years in current smokers (10 pack-years 0.800 ± 0.068, 0.796; 15 pack-years 0.767 ± 0.102, 0.752) and inferring smoking cessation time in former smokers (5 years 0.774 ± 0.024, 0.760; 10 years 0.766 ± 0.033, 0.764; 15 years 0.767 ± 0.020, 0.754). Model application to children revealed highly accurate inference of the true non-smoking status (6 years of age: accuracy 0.994, N = 355; 10 years: 0.994, N = 309), suggesting prenatal and passive smoking exposure having no impact on model applications in adults. The finite set of DNA methylation markers allow accurate inference of smoking habit, with comparable accuracy as plasma cotinine use, and smoking history from blood, which we envision becoming useful in epidemiology and public health research, and in medical and forensic applications.


Assuntos
Cotinina/sangue , Metilação de DNA , DNA/sangue , Epigenômica/métodos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumar/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
19.
Bioinformatics ; 35(22): 4767-4769, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161210

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The Illumina Infinium EPIC BeadChip is a new high-throughput array for DNA methylation analysis, extending the earlier 450k array by over 400 000 new sites. Previously, a method named eFORGE was developed to provide insights into cell type-specific and cell-composition effects for 450k data. Here, we present a significantly updated and improved version of eFORGE that can analyze both EPIC and 450k array data. New features include analysis of chromatin states, transcription factor motifs and DNase I footprints, providing tools for epigenome-wide association study interpretation and epigenome editing. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: eFORGE v2.0 is implemented as a web tool available from https://eforge.altiusinstitute.org and https://eforge-tf.altiusinstitute.org/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica , Cromatina , Ilhas de CpG , Desoxirribonuclease I , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Software
20.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(3): 164-176, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198125

RESUMO

A literature review was carried out to identify pre and perinatal characteristics associated with variation in Apgar scores in population-based studies. The parameters identified in the literature search were included in the classical twin design study to estimate effects of pre and perinatal factors shared and nonshared by twins and to test for a contribution of genetic factors in 1- and 5-min Apgar scores in a large sample of Dutch monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample included MZ and DZ twins (N = 5181 pairs) recruited by the Netherlands Twin Register shortly after birth, with data on prenatal characteristics and Apgar scores at first and/or fifth minutes. The ordinal regression and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the effects of characteristics identified in the literature review and to estimate genetic and nongenetic variance components. The literature review identified 63 papers. Consistent with the review, we observed statistically significant effects of birth order, zygosity and gestational age (GA) for 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of both twins. Apgar scores are higher in first-born versus second-born twins and DZ first-born versus MZ first-born twins. Birth weight had an effect on the 5-min Apgar of the first born. Fetal presentation and mode of delivery had different effects on Apgar scores of first- and second-born twins. Parental characteristics and chorionicity did not have significant main effects on Apgar scores. The MZ twins' Apgar correlations equaled the DZ Apgar correlations. Our analyses suggest that individual differences in 1- and 5-min Apgar scores are attributable to shared and nonshared pre and perinatal factors, but not to genotypic factors of the newborns. The main predictors of Apgar scores are birth order, zygosity, GA, birth weight, mode of delivery and fetal presentation.


Assuntos
Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Países Baixos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
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