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1.
J Chem Phys ; 157(22): 224201, 2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36546808

RESUMO

We present a sub-picosecond resolved investigation of the structural solvent reorganization and geminate recombination dynamics following 400 nm two-photon excitation and photodetachment of a valence p electron from the aqueous atomic solute, I-(aq). The measurements utilized time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (TR-XANES) spectroscopy and X-ray Solution Scattering (TR-XSS) at the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray free electron laser in a laser pump/x-ray probe experiment. The XANES measurements around the L1-edge of the generated nascent iodine atoms (I0) yield an average electron ejection distance from the iodine parent of 7.4 ± 1.5 Å with an excitation yield of about 1/3 of the 0.1M NaI aqueous solution. The kinetic traces of the XANES measurement are in agreement with a purely diffusion-driven geminate iodine-electron recombination model without the need for a long-lived (I0:e-) contact pair. Nonequilibrium classical molecular dynamics simulations indicate a delayed response of the caging H2O solvent shell and this is supported by the structural analysis of the XSS data: We identify a two-step process exhibiting a 0.1 ps delayed solvent shell reorganization time within the tight H-bond network and a 0.3 ps time constant for the mean iodine-oxygen distance changes. The results indicate that most of the reorganization can be explained classically by a transition from a hydrophilic cavity with a well-ordered first solvation shell (hydrogens pointing toward I-) to an expanded cavity around I0 with a more random orientation of the H2O molecules in a broadened first solvation shell.

2.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 1048932, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36567947

RESUMO

The high intensity of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) can damage solution-phase samples on every scale, ranging from the molecular or electronic structure of a sample to the macroscopic structure of a liquid microjet. By using a large surface area liquid sheet microjet as a sample target instead of a standard cylindrical microjet, the incident X-ray spot size can be increased such that the incident intensity falls below the damage threshold. This capability is becoming particularly important for high repetition rate XFELs, where destroying a target with each pulse would require prohibitively large volumes of sample. We present here a study of microfluidic liquid sheet dimensions as a function of liquid flow rate. Sheet lengths, widths and thickness gradients are shown for three styles of nozzles fabricated from isotropically etched glass. In-vacuum operation and sample recirculation using these nozzles is demonstrated. The effects of intense XFEL pulses on the structure of a liquid sheet are also briefly examined.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 129(5): 056001, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960558

RESUMO

Time-resolved scattering experiments enable imaging of materials at the molecular scale with femtosecond time resolution. However, in disordered media they provide access to just one radial dimension thus limiting the study of orientational structure and dynamics. Here we introduce a rigorous and practical theoretical framework for predicting and interpreting experiments combining optically induced anisotropy and time-resolved scattering. Using impulsive nuclear Raman and ultrafast x-ray scattering experiments of chloroform and simulations, we demonstrate that this framework can accurately predict and elucidate both the spatial and temporal features of these experiments.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(5): 058001, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397240

RESUMO

We report observations of nanosecond nonuniform colloidal dynamics in a free flowing liquid jet using ultrafast x-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy. Utilizing a nanosecond double-bunch mode, the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser produced pairs of femtosecond coherent hard x-ray pulses. By exploring anisotropy in the visibility of summed speckle patterns which relates to the correlation functions, we evaluate not only the average particle flow rate in a colloidal nanoparticle jet, but also the nonuniform flow field within. The methodology presented here establishes the foundation for the study of nano- and atomic-scale inhomogeneous fluctuations in complex matter using x-ray free electron laser sources.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1672, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723266

RESUMO

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enable obtaining novel insights in structural biology. The recently available MHz repetition rate XFELs allow full data sets to be collected in shorter time and can also decrease sample consumption. However, the microsecond spacing of MHz XFEL pulses raises new challenges, including possible sample damage induced by shock waves that are launched by preceding pulses in the sample-carrying jet. We explored this matter with an X-ray-pump/X-ray-probe experiment employing haemoglobin microcrystals transported via a liquid jet into the XFEL beam. Diffraction data were collected using a shock-wave-free single-pulse scheme as well as the dual-pulse pump-probe scheme. The latter, relative to the former, reveals significant degradation of crystal hit rate, diffraction resolution and data quality. Crystal structures extracted from the two data sets also differ. Since our pump-probe attributes were chosen to emulate EuXFEL operation at its 4.5 MHz maximum pulse rate, this prompts concern about such data collection.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas/química , Hemoglobinas/efeitos da radiação , Injeções a Jato/métodos , Lasers , Cristalografia por Raios X , Elétrons , Humanos , Injeções a Jato/instrumentação , Técnicas de Sonda Molecular , Raios X
6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(22): 226001, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315438

RESUMO

Resolving the structural dynamics of the initial steps of chemical reactions is challenging. We report the femtosecond time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering of the photodissociation of diiodomethane in cyclohexane. The data reveal with structural detail how the molecule dissociates into radicals, how the radicals collide with the solvent, and how they form the photoisomer. We extract how translational and rotational kinetic energy is dispersed into the solvent. We also find that 85% of the primary radical pairs are confined to their original solvent cage and discuss how this influences the downstream recombination reactions.

7.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(47): 10732-10738, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174757

RESUMO

We have used transient absorption spectroscopy in the UV-visible and X-ray regions to characterize the excited state of CarH, a protein photoreceptor that uses a form of B12, adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), to sense light. With visible excitation, a nanosecond-lifetime photoactive excited state is formed with unit quantum yield. The time-resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure difference spectrum of this state demonstrates that the excited state of AdoCbl in CarH undergoes only modest structural expansion around the central cobalt, a behavior similar to that observed for methylcobalamin rather than for AdoCbl free in solution. We propose a new mechanism for CarH photoreactivity involving formation of a triplet excited state. This allows the sensor to operate with high quantum efficiency and without formation of potentially dangerous side products. By stabilizing the excited electronic state, CarH controls reactivity of AdoCbl and enables slow reactions that yield nonreactive products and bypass bond homolysis and reactive radical species formation.


Assuntos
Cobalto
8.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 27(Pt 3): 608-615, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381760

RESUMO

The ePix10ka2M (ePix10k) is a new large area detector specifically developed for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) applications. The hybrid pixel detector was developed at SLAC to provide a hard X-ray area detector with a high dynamic range, running at the 120 Hz repetition rate of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The ePix10k consists of 16 modules, each with 352 × 384 pixels of 100 µm × 100 µm distributed on four ASICs, resulting in a 2.16 megapixel detector, with a 16.5 cm × 16.5 cm active area and ∼80% coverage. The high dynamic range is achieved with three distinct gain settings (low, medium, high) as well as two auto-ranging modes (high-to-low and medium-to-low). Here the three fixed gain modes are evaluated. The resulting dynamic range (from single photon counting to 10000 photons pixel-1 pulse-1 at 8 keV) makes it suitable for a large number of different XFEL experiments. The ePix10k replaces the large CSPAD in operation since 2011. The dimensions of the two detectors are similar, making the upgrade from CSPAD to ePix10k straightforward for most setups, with the ePix10k improving on experimental performance. The SLAC-developed ePix cameras all utilize a similar platform, are tailored to target different experimental conditions and are designed to provide an upgrade path for future high-repetition-rate XFELs. Here the first measurements on this new ePix10k detector are presented and the performance under typical XFEL conditions evaluated during an LCLS X-ray diffuse scattering experiment measuring the 9.5 keV X-ray photons scattered from a thin liquid jet.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 634, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005815

RESUMO

The non-equilibrium dynamics of electrons and nuclei govern the function of photoactive materials. Disentangling these dynamics remains a critical goal for understanding photoactive materials. Here we investigate the photoinduced dynamics of the [Fe(bmip)2]2+ photosensitizer, where bmip = 2,6-bis(3-methyl-imidazole-1-ylidine)-pyridine, with simultaneous femtosecond-resolution Fe Kα and Kß X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray solution scattering (XSS). This measurement shows temporal oscillations in the XES and XSS difference signals with the same 278 fs period oscillation. These oscillations originate from an Fe-ligand stretching vibrational wavepacket on a triplet metal-centered (3MC) excited state surface. This 3MC state is populated with a 110 fs time constant by 40% of the excited molecules while the rest relax to a 3MLCT excited state. The sensitivity of the Kα XES to molecular structure results from a 0.7% average Fe-ligand bond length shift between the 1 s and 2p core-ionized states surfaces.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 152(7): 074203, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087640

RESUMO

Valence-to-core x-ray emission spectroscopy (VtC XES) combines the sample flexibility and element specificity of hard x-rays with the chemical environment sensitivity of valence spectroscopy. We extend this technique to study geometric and electronic structural changes induced by photoexcitation in the femtosecond time domain via laser-pump, x-ray probe experiments using an x-ray free electron laser. The results of time-resolved VtC XES on a series of ferrous complexes [Fe(CN)2n(2, 2'-bipyridine)3-n]-2n+2, n = 1, 2, 3, are presented. Comparisons of spectra obtained from ground state density functional theory calculations reveal signatures of excited state bond length and oxidation state changes. An oxidation state change associated with a metal-to-ligand charge transfer state with a lifetime of less than 100 fs is observed, as well as bond length changes associated with metal-centered excited states with lifetimes of 13 ps and 250 ps.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(5): 2660-2666, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441480

RESUMO

Femtosecond-resolved Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurements of solvated transition metal complexes are successfully implemented at the X-ray Free Electron Laser LCLS. Benchmark experiments on [Fe(terpy)2]2+ in solution show a signal-to-noise ratio on the order of 500, comparable to typical 100 ps-resolution synchrotron measurements. In the few femtoseconds after photoexcitation, we observe the EXAFS fingerprints of a short-lived (∼100 fs) intermediate as well as those of a vibrationally hot long-lived (∼ns) excited state.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(1): 364-372, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602726

RESUMO

Iron N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes have received a great deal of attention recently because of their growing potential as light sensitizers or photocatalysts. We present a sub-ps X-ray spectroscopy study of an FeII NHC complex that identifies and quantifies the states involved in the deactivation cascade after light absorption. Excited molecules relax back to the ground state along two pathways: After population of a hot 3 MLCT state, from the initially excited 1 MLCT state, 30 % of the molecules undergo ultrafast (150 fs) relaxation to the 3 MC state, in competition with vibrational relaxation and cooling to the relaxed 3 MLCT state. The relaxed 3 MLCT state then decays much more slowly (7.6 ps) to the 3 MC state. The 3 MC state is rapidly (2.2 ps) deactivated to the ground state. The 5 MC state is not involved in the deactivation pathway. The ultrafast partial deactivation of the 3 MLCT state constitutes a loss channel from the point of view of photochemical efficiency and highlights the necessity to screen transition-metal complexes for similar ultrafast decays to optimize photochemical performance.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(18): 5484-5489, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483136

RESUMO

Polarized transient X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) was used to probe the excited-state structure of a photostable B12 antivitamin (Coß-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-ethynylcobalamin, F2PhEtyCbl). A drop-on-demand delivery system synchronized to the LCLS X-ray free electron laser pulses was implemented and used to measure the XANES difference spectrum 12 ps following excitation, exposing only ∼45 µL of sample. Unlike cyanocobalamin (CNCbl), where the Co-C bond expands 15-20%, the excited state of F2PhEtyCbl is characterized by little change in the Co-C bond, suggesting that the acetylide linkage raises the barrier for expansion of the Co-C bond. In contrast, the lower axial Co-NDMB bond is elongated in the excited state of F2PhEtyCbl by ca. 10% or more, comparable to the 10% elongation observed for Co-NDMB in CNCbl.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Modelos Moleculares , Vitamina B 12/antagonistas & inibidores , Carbono/química , Cobalto/química , Cinética , Conformação Molecular , Processos Fotoquímicos , Teoria Quântica , Termodinâmica , Raios X
15.
Sci Adv ; 5(8): eaax3346, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453340

RESUMO

Charge order is universal among high-T c cuprates, but its relation to superconductivity is unclear. While static order competes with superconductivity, dynamic order may be favorable and even contribute to Cooper pairing. Using time-resolved resonant soft x-ray scattering at a free-electron laser, we show that the charge order in prototypical La2-x Ba x CuO4 exhibits transverse fluctuations at picosecond time scales. These sub-millielectron volt excitations propagate by Brownian-like diffusion and have an energy scale remarkably close to the superconducting T c. At sub-millielectron volt energy scales, the dynamics are governed by universal scaling laws defined by the propagation of topological defects. Our results show that charge order in La2-x Ba x CuO4 exhibits dynamics favorable to the in-plane superconducting tunneling and establish time-resolved x-rays as a means to study excitations at energy scales inaccessible to conventional scattering techniques.

16.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(28): 6042-6048, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290669

RESUMO

We use picosecond time-resolved polarized X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements to probe the structure of the long-lived photoexcited state of methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and the cob(II)alamin photoproduct formed following photoexcitation of adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl, coenzyme B12). For MeCbl, we used 520 nm excitation and a time delay of 100 ps to avoid the formation of cob(II)alamin. We find only small spectral changes in the equatorial and axial directions, which we interpret as arising from small (<∼0.05 Å) changes in both the equatorial and axial distances. This confirms expectations based on prior UV-visible transient absorption measurements and theoretical simulations. We do not find evidence for the significant elongation of the Co-C bond reported by Subramanian [ J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2018 , 9 , 1542 - 1546 ] following 400 nm excitation. For AdoCbl, we resolve the difference XANES contributions along three unique molecular axes by exciting with both 540 and 365 nm light, demonstrating that the spectral changes are predominantly polarized along the axial direction, consistent with the loss of axial ligation. These data suggest that the microsecond "recombination product" identified by Subramanian et al. is actually the cob(II)alamin photoproduct that is produced following bond homolysis of MeCbl with 400 nm excitation. Our results highlight the pronounced advantage of using polarization-selective transient X-ray absorption for isolating structural dynamics in systems undergoing atomic displacements that are strongly correlated to the exciting optical polarization.

17.
Chem Sci ; 10(22): 5749-5760, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293761

RESUMO

Light-driven molecular reactions are dictated by the excited state potential energy landscape, depending critically on the location of conical intersections and intersystem crossing points between potential surfaces where non-adiabatic effects govern transition probabilities between distinct electronic states. While ultrafast studies have provided significant insight into electronic excited state reaction dynamics, experimental approaches for identifying and characterizing intersections and seams between electronic states remain highly system dependent. Here we show that for 3d transition metal systems simultaneously recorded X-ray diffuse scattering and X-ray emission spectroscopy at sub-70 femtosecond time-resolution provide a solid experimental foundation for determining the mechanistic details of excited state reactions. In modeling the mechanistic information retrieved from such experiments, it becomes possible to identify the dominant trajectory followed during the excited state cascade and to determine the relevant loci of intersections between states. We illustrate our approach by explicitly mapping parts of the potential energy landscape dictating the light driven low-to-high spin-state transition (spin crossover) of [Fe(2,2'-bipyridine)3]2+, where the strongly coupled nuclear and electronic dynamics have been a source of interest and controversy. We anticipate that simultaneous X-ray diffuse scattering and X-ray emission spectroscopy will provide a valuable approach for mapping the reactive trajectories of light-triggered molecular systems involving 3d transition metals.

18.
Opt Lett ; 44(10): 2582-2585, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090737

RESUMO

We present the concept and a prototypical implementation of a compact x-ray split-delay system that is capable of performing continuous on-the-fly delay scans over a range of ∼10 ps with sub-100 nanoradian pointing stability. The system consists of four channel-cut silicon crystals, two of which have gradually varying gap sizes from intentional 5 deg asymmetric cuts. The delay adjustment is realized by linear motions of these two monolithic varying-gap channel cuts, where the x-ray beam experiences pairs of anti-parallel reflections, and thus becomes less sensitive in output beam pointing to motion imperfections of the translation stages. The beam splitting is accomplished by polished crystal edges. A high degree of mutual coherence between the two branches at the focus is observed by analyzing small-angle coherent x-ray scattering patterns. We envision a wide range of applications including single-shot x-ray pulse temporal diagnostics, studies of high-intensity x-ray-matter interactions, as well as measurement of dynamics in disordered material systems using split-pulse x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy.

19.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 3): 629-634, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074425

RESUMO

An X-ray emission spectrometer that can detect the sulfur Kα emission lines with large throughput and a high energy resolution is presented. The instrument is based on a large d-spacing perfect Bragg analyzer that diffracts the sulfur Kα emission at close to backscattering angles. This facilitates the application of efficient concepts routinely employed in hard X-ray spectrometers towards the tender X-ray regime. The instrument described in this work is based on an energy-dispersive von Hamos geometry that is well suited for photon-in photon-out spectroscopy at X-ray free-electron laser and synchrotron sources. Comparison of its performance with previously used instrumentation is presented through measurements using sulfur-containing species performed at the LCLS. It is shown that the overall signal intensity is increased by a factor of ∼15. Implementation of this approach in the design of a tender X-ray spectroscopy endstation for LCLS-II is also discussed.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(6): 063001, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822093

RESUMO

We report x-ray free electron laser experiments addressing ground-state structural dynamics of the diplatinum anion Pt_{2}POP_{4} following photoexcitation. The structural dynamics are tracked with <100 fs time resolution by x-ray scattering, utilizing the anisotropic component to suppress contributions from the bulk solvent. The x-ray data exhibit a strong oscillatory component with period 0.28 ps and decay time 2.2 ps, and structural analysis of the difference signal directly shows this as arising from ground-state dynamics along the PtPt coordinate. These results are compared with multiscale Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations and demonstrate how off-resonance excitation can be used to prepare a vibrationally cold excited-state population complemented by a structure-dependent depletion of the ground-state population which subsequently evolves in time, allowing direct tracking of ground-state structural dynamics.

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