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1.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear to what extent adherence to dietary guidelines may specifically affect visceral fat and liver fat. We aimed to study the association between the Dutch Healthy Diet Index (DHD-index) and total body fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) in middle-aged men and women. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, VAT was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 2580 participants, and HTGC by proton-MR spectroscopy in 2083 participants. Habitual dietary intake and physical activity were estimated by questionnaire. Adherence to the current Dutch dietary guidelines was estimated by the 2015 DHD-index score based on the thirteen components (vegetables, fruit, wholegrain products, legumes, nuts, dairy, fish, tea, liquid fats, red meat, processed meat, sweetened beverages, and alcohol). The DHD-index ranges between 0 and 130 with a higher score indicating a healthier diet. We used linear regression to examine associations of the DHD-index with VAT and HTGC, adjusted for age, smoking, education, ethnicity, basal metabolic rate, energy restricted diet, menopausal state, physical activity, total energy intake, and total body fat. We additionally excluded the components one by one to examine individual contributions to the associations. RESULTS: Included participants (43% men) had a mean (SD) age of 56 (6) years and DHD-index score of 71 (15). A 10-point higher DHD-index score was associated with 2.3 cm2 less visceral fat (95% CI; -3.5; -1.0 cm2) and less liver fat (0.94 times, 95% CI; 0.90; 0.98). Of all components, exclusion of dairy attenuated the associations with TBF and VAT. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the dietary guidelines as estimated by the DHD-index was associated with less total body fat, and with less visceral and liver fat after adjustment for total body fat. These findings might contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms underlying associations between dietary habits and cardiometabolic diseases.

2.
J Nutr ; 149(4): 649-658, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty liver is the leading cause of chronic liver diseases and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Besides alcohol consumption, energy-containing nonalcoholic beverages may contribute to liver fat accumulation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the consumption of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages and their mutual replacement in relation to hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) in middle-aged men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, HTGC was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Habitual consumption of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. All beverages were converted to standard servings and to percentage of total energy intake (En%). We performed linear regression to examine the association of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages with HTGC, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, ethnicity, physical activity, total energy intake, and total body fat. We studied replacement of alcoholic beverages with nonalcoholic beverages per 1 serving/d and per 5 En%/d. RESULTS: After exclusion of individuals with missing values, 1966 participants (47% men) were analyzed, with a mean ± SD age of 55 ± 6 y, BMI of 26 ± 4 kg/m2, and HTGC of 5.7% ± 7.9%. Each extra alcoholic serving per day was associated with more liver fat (1.09 times; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.12). Replacing 5 En% of alcoholic beverages with milk was associated with less liver fat (0.89 times; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.98), whereas replacement with 5 En% of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with liver fat to an extent similar to alcoholic beverages (1.00 times; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.09). CONCLUSION: In a population-based cohort, consumption of each extra daily alcoholic beverage was associated with more liver fat. In isocaloric replacement of alcoholic beverages, milk was associated with less liver fat, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages were equally associated with liver fat. This suggests that intake of alcohol and sugars may contribute to liver fat accumulation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03410316.

3.
J Nutr ; 149(2): 304-313, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) are major risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association of dietary intake of the main food groups with VAT and HTGC in middle-aged men and women. METHODS: We used data from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, a population-based study including 6671 participants aged 45-65 y at baseline. In this cross-sectional analysis, VAT and HTGC were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, respectively, as the primary outcomes. Habitual intake of main food groups (dairy, meat, fish, fruits and vegetables, sweet snacks, and fats and oils) was estimated through the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. We examined associations of intake of different food groups with VAT and HTGC by linear regression analysis stratified by sex and adjusted for age, smoking, education, ethnicity, physical activity, basal metabolic rate, energy-restricted diet, menopausal state, and total energy intake. RESULTS: In women, a 100-g/d higher intake of dairy was associated with 2.0 cm2 less VAT (95% CI: -3.4, -0.7 cm2) and a 0.95-fold lower HTGC (95% CI: 0.90-, 0.99-fold). Moreover, a 100-g/d higher intake of fruit and vegetables was associated with 1.6 cm2 less VAT (95% CI: -2.9, -0.2 cm2) in women. Fruit and vegetables were negatively associated (0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.00) with HTGC, and sweet snacks were positively associated (1.29; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.63). Patterns were weaker but similar in men. Fish intake was not associated with VAT or HTGC and plant-based fat and oil intake were only associated with VAT after adjustment for total body fat. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some variation in the strength of the associations between men and women, dietary intake of sweet snacks was positively associated with HTGC, and fruit and vegetable intake were negatively associated with visceral and liver fat content. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov with identifier NCT03410316.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Frutas , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Lanches , Verduras , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade
4.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(3)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941034

RESUMO

SCOPE: Body weight responds variably to the intake of dairy foods. Genetic variation may contribute to inter-individual variability in associations between body weight and dairy consumption. METHODS AND RESULTS: A genome-wide interaction study to discover genetic variants that account for variation in BMI in the context of low-fat, high-fat and total dairy intake in cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Data from nine discovery studies (up to 25 513 European descent individuals) were meta-analyzed. Twenty-six genetic variants reached the selected significance threshold (p-interaction <10-7) , and six independent variants (LINC01512-rs7751666, PALM2/AKAP2-rs914359, ACTA2-rs1388, PPP1R12A-rs7961195, LINC00333-rs9635058, AC098847.1-rs1791355) were evaluated meta-analytically for replication of interaction in up to 17 675 individuals. Variant rs9635058 (128 kb 3' of LINC00333) was replicated (p-interaction = 0.004). In the discovery cohorts, rs9635058 interacted with dairy (p-interaction = 7.36 × 10-8) such that each serving of low-fat dairy was associated with 0.225 kg m-2 lower BMI per each additional copy of the effect allele (A). A second genetic variant (ACTA2-rs1388) approached interaction replication significance for low-fat dairy exposure. CONCLUSION: Body weight responses to dairy intake may be modified by genotype, in that greater dairy intake may protect a genetic subgroup from higher body weight.

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