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1.
Virulence ; 11(1): 730-738, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490754

RESUMO

The mounting evidence supporting the capacity of Plasmodium vivax to cause severe disease has prompted the need for a better characterization of the resulting clinical complications. India is making progress with reducing malaria, but epidemics of severe vivax malaria in Gujarat, one of the main contributors to the vivax malaria burden in the country, have been reported recently and may be the result of a decrease in transmission and immune development. Over a period of one year, we enrolled severe malaria patients admitted at the Civil Hospital in Ahmedabad, the largest city in Gujarat, to investigate the morbidity of severe vivax malaria compared to severe falciparum malaria. Patients were submitted to standard thorough clinical and laboratory investigations and only PCR-confirmed infections were selected for the present study. Severevivax malaria (30 patients) was more frequent than severe falciparum malaria (8 patients) in our setting, and it predominantly affected adults (median age 32 years, interquartile range 22.5 years). This suggests a potential age shift in anti-malarial immunity, likely to result from the recent decrease in transmission across India. The clinical presentation of severe vivax patients was in line with previous reports, with jaundice as the most common complication. Our findings further support the need for epidemiological studies combining clinical characterization of severe vivax malaria and serological evaluation of exposure markers to monitor the impact of elimination programmes.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17095, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745160

RESUMO

Malaria in India, while decreasing, remains a serious public health problem, and the contribution of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections to its persistence is poorly understood. We conducted community surveys and clinic studies at three sites in India differing in their eco-epidemiologies: Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Nadiad (Gujarat), and Rourkela (Odisha), during 2012-2015. A total of 6,645 subject blood samples were collected for Plasmodium diagnosis by microscopy and PCR, and an extensive clinical questionnaire completed. Malaria prevalence ranged from 3-8% by PCR in community surveys (24 infections in Chennai, 56 in Nadiad, 101 in Rourkela), with Plasmodium vivax dominating in Chennai (70.8%) and Nadiad (67.9%), and Plasmodium falciparum in Rourkela (77.3%). A proportional high burden of asymptomatic and submicroscopic infections was detected in community surveys in Chennai (71% and 71%, respectively, 17 infections for both) and Rourkela (64% and 31%, 65 and 31 infections, respectively). In clinic studies, a proportional high burden of infections was identified as submicroscopic in Rourkela (45%, 42 infections) and Chennai (19%, 42 infections). In the community surveys, anemia and fever were significantly more common among microscopic than submicroscopic infections. Exploratory spatial analysis identified a number of potential malaria hotspots at all three sites. There is a considerable burden of submicroscopic and asymptomatic malaria in malarious regions in India, which may act as a reservoir with implications for malaria elimination strategies.

3.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(8): e376-e393, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Girls and women need effective, safe, and affordable menstrual products. Single-use products are regularly selected by agencies for resource-poor settings; the menstrual cup is a less known alternative. We reviewed international studies on menstrual cup leakage, acceptability, and safety and explored menstrual cup availability to inform programmes. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Popline, Cinahl, Global Health database, Emerald, Google Scholar, Science.gov, and WorldWideScience from database inception to May 14, 2019, for quantitative or qualitative studies published in English on experiences and leakage associated with menstrual cups, and adverse event reports. We also screened the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database from the US Food and Drug Administration for events related to menstrual cups. To be eligible for inclusion, the material needed to have information on leakage, acceptability, or safety of menstrual cups. The main outcome of interest was menstrual blood leakage when using a menstrual cup. Safety outcomes of interest included serious adverse events; vaginal abrasions and effects on vaginal microflora; effects on the reproductive, digestive, or urinary tract; and safety in poor sanitary conditions. Findings were tabulated or combined by use of forest plots (random-effects meta-analysis). We also did preliminary estimates on costs and environmental savings potentially associated with cups. This systematic review is registered on PROSPERO, number CRD42016047845. FINDINGS: Of 436 records identified, 43 studies were eligible for analysis (3319 participants). Most studies reported on vaginal cups (27 [63%] vaginal cups, five [12%] cervical cups, and 11 [25%] mixed types of cups or unknown) and 15 were from low-income and middle-income countries. 22 studies were included in qualitative or quantitative syntheses, of which only three were of moderate-to-high quality. Four studies made a direct comparison between menstrual cups and usual products for the main outcome of leakage and reported leakage was similar or lower for menstrual cups than for disposable pads or tampons (n=293). In all qualitative studies, the adoption of the menstrual cup required a familiarisation phase over several menstrual cycles and peer support improved uptake (two studies in developing countries). In 13 studies, 73% (pooled estimate: n=1144; 95% CI 59-84, I2=96%) of participants wished to continue use of the menstrual cup at study completion. Use of the menstrual cup showed no adverse effects on the vaginal flora (four studies, 507 women). We identified five women who reported severe pain or vaginal wounds, six reports of allergies or rashes, nine of urinary tract complaints (three with hydronephrosis), and five of toxic shock syndrome after use of the menstrual cup. Dislodgement of an intrauterine device was reported in 13 women who used the menstrual cup (eight in case reports, and five in one study) between 1 week and 13 months of insertion of the intrauterine device. Professional assistance to aid removal of menstrual cup was reported among 47 cervical cup users and two vaginal cup users. We identified 199 brands of menstrual cup, and availability in 99 countries with prices ranging US$0·72-46·72 (median $23·3, 145 brands). INTERPRETATION: Our review indicates that menstrual cups are a safe option for menstruation management and are being used internationally. Good quality studies in this field are needed. Further studies are needed on cost-effectiveness and environmental effect comparing different menstrual products. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, Department for International Development, and Wellcome Trust.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 572, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a diagnostic surveillance study to identify Plasmodium, dengue virus, chikungunya virus, and Orientia tsutsugamushi infections among febrile patients who underwent triage for malaria in the outpatient department at Ispat General Hospital, Rourkela, Odisha, India. METHODS: Febrile patients were enrolled from January 2016-January 2017. Blood smears and small volumes or vacutainers of blood were collected from study participants to carry out diagnostic assays. Malaria was diagnosed using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), microscopy, and PCR. Dengue, chikungunya, and scrub typhus infections were identified using rapid diagnostic test kits and ELISA. RESULTS: Nine hundred and fifty-four patients were prospectively enrolled in our study. The majority of patients were male (58.4%) and more than 15 years of age (66.4%). All 954 enrollees underwent additional testing for malaria; a subset of enrollees (293/954) that had larger volumes of plasma available was also tested for dengue, chikungunya and scrub typhus by either RDT or ELISA or both tests. Fifty-four of 954 patients (5.7%) were positive for malaria by RDT, or microscopy, or PCR. Seventy-four of 293 patients (25.3%) tested positive for dengue by either RDT or ELISA, and 17 of 293 patients (5.8%) tested positive for chikungunya-specific IgM by either ELISA or RDT. Ten of 287 patients tested (3.5%) were positive for scrub typhus by ELISA specific for scrub typhus IgM. Seventeen patients among 290 (5.9%) with results for ≥3 infections tested positive for more than one infection. Patients with scrub typhus and chikungunya had high rates of co-infection: of the 10 patients positive for scrub typhus, six were positive for dengue (p = 0.009), and five of 17 patients positive for chikungunya (by RDT or ELISA) were also diagnosed with malaria (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Dengue, chikungunya and scrub typhus are important etiologies of non-malarial febrile illness in Rourkela, Odisha, and comorbidity should be considered. Routine febrile illness surveillance is required to accurately establish the prevalence of these infections in this region, to offer timely treatment, and to implement appropriate methods of control.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/etiologia , Dengue/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia
5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(5): 546-556, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine threatens the antimalarial effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to assess the associations between markers of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in P falciparum and the effectiveness of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine IPTp for malaria-associated outcomes. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched databases (from Jan 1, 1990 to March 1, 2018) for clinical studies (aggregated data) or surveys (individual participant data) that reported data on low birthweight (primary outcome) and malaria by sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine IPTp dose, and for studies that reported on molecular markers of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. Studies that involved only HIV-infected women or combined interventions were excluded. We did a random-effects meta-analysis (clinical studies) or multivariate log-binomial regression (surveys) to obtain summarised dose-response data (relative risk reduction [RRR]) and multivariate meta-regression to explore the modifying effects of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance (as indicated by Ala437Gly, Lys540Glu, and Ala581Gly substitutions in the dhps gene). This study is registered with PROSPERO, number 42016035540. FINDINGS: Of 1097 records screened, 57 studies were included in the aggregated-data meta-analysis (including 59 457 births). The RRR for low birthweight declined with increasing prevalence of dhps Lys540Glu (ptrend=0·0060) but not Ala437Gly (ptrend=0·35). The RRR was 7% (95% CI 0 to 13) in areas of high resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (Lys540Glu ≥90% in east and southern Africa; n=11), 21% (14 to 29) in moderate-resistance areas (Ala437Gly ≥90% [central and west Africa], or Lys540Glu ≥30% to <90% [east and southern Africa]; n=16), and 27% (21 to 33) in low-resistance areas (Ala437Gly <90% [central and west Africa], or Lys540Glu <30% [east and southern Africa]; n=30; ptrend=0·0054 [univariate], I2=69·5%). The overall RRR in all resistance strata was 21% (17 to 25). In the analysis of individual participant data from 13 surveys (42 394 births), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine IPTp was associated with reduced prevalence of low birthweight in areas with a Lys540Glu prevalence of more than 90% and Ala581Gly prevalence of less than 10% (RRR 10% [7 to 12]), but not in those with an Ala581Gly prevalence of 10% or higher (pooled Ala581Gly prevalence 37% [range 29 to 46]; RRR 0·5% [-16 to 14]; 2326 births). INTERPRETATION: The effectiveness of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine IPTp is reduced in areas with high resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine among P falciparum parasites, but remains associated with reductions in low birthweight even in areas where dhps Lys540Glu prevalence exceeds 90% but where the sextuple-mutant parasite (harbouring the additional dhps Ala581Gly mutation) is uncommon. Therapeutic alternatives to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine IPTp are needed in areas where the prevalence of the sextuple-mutant parasite exceeds 37%. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium (funded through a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine), Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership.

6.
Malar J ; 17(1): 411, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meghalaya, one of eight states in the northeastern region of India, has been reported to carry a high malaria burden. However, malaria surveillance, epidemiology, and vector studies are sparse, and no reviews combining these topics with malaria prevention and control strategies have been published in recent years. Furthermore, no analysis of surveillance data has been published documenting the changes in epidemiology following the first distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) statewide in 2016. METHODS: A hybrid approach was used to describe the status of malaria in Meghalaya. First, a literature search was performed using the terms 'malaria' and 'Meghalaya'. Second, data were obtained from the Meghalaya State Malaria Control Programme for 2006-2017 for analysis of trends. Data from 3 years 2015-2017 were analysed further by district and year to assess changes in malaria incidence and distribution following the introduction of LLINs. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Like malaria in mainland India, malaria in Meghalaya is complex, with both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites in circulation, multiple Anopheles vector species, and reports of both unusual and severe malaria syndromes across all age groups. Integrated statewide malaria epidemiology, vector, and prevention and control data for Meghalaya are not readily available, and published studies are largely focused on a single topic or a single district or region of the state. Although malaria prevention and control approaches are available, (e.g. spraying, LLINs, personal repellents), their use and effectiveness is also not well characterized in the literature. Analysis of state malaria control programme data indicates that case incidence and related fatalities in Meghalaya have declined over the last decade. This could be attributed to changes in treatment guidelines and/or statewide distribution of effective prevention methods such as LLINs. Since the distribution of more than 900,000 LLINs in 2016, the malaria caseload has declined significantly in most Meghalaya districts, excluding the remote and geographically isolated South Garo Hills. Additionally, the proportion of adult malaria cases (15+ years of age versus children 0-14 years) in most districts was significantly greater following LLIN distribution, which likely reflects common lifestyle practices in these areas (e.g. adults working during night hours; small children in the households receiving priority for bed net protection). While reduction in malaria case incidence and related deaths is clear, the changes in malaria transmission and clinical manifestation have not been characterized. Routine epidemiology and vector surveillance combined with real-time data reporting are essential for the continued reduction and eventual elimination of malaria in Meghalaya.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Malária Falciparum , Malária Vivax , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Prevalência
7.
Reprod Health ; 15(1): 139, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30119636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A menstrual cup can be a good solution for menstrual hygiene management in economically challenged settings. As part of a pilot study we assessed uptake and maintenance of cup use among young school girls in Kenya. METHODS: A total of 192 girls between 14 to 16 years were enrolled in 10 schools in Nyanza Province, Western Kenya; these schools were assigned menstrual cups as part of the cluster-randomized pilot study. Girls were provided with menstrual cups in addition to training and guidance on use, puberty education, and instructions for menstrual hygiene. During repeated individual visits with nurses, girls reported use of the menstrual cup and nurses recorded colour change of the cup. RESULTS: Girls were able to keep their cups in good condition, with only 12 cups (6.3%) lost (dropped in toilet, lost or destroyed). Verbally reported cup use increased from 84% in the first 3 months (n = 143) to 96% after 9 months (n = 74). Colour change of the cup, as 'uptake' indicator of use, was detected in 70.8% of 192 participants, with a median time of 5 months (range 1-14 months). Uptake differed by school and was significantly higher among girls who experienced menarche within the past year (adjusted risk ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60), and was faster among girls enrolled in the second study year (hazard ratio 3.93, 95% CI 2.09-7.38). The kappa score comparing self-report and cup colour observation was 0.044 (p = 0.028), indicating that agreement was only slightly higher than by random chance. CONCLUSIONS: Objective evidence through cup colour change suggests school girls in rural Africa can use menstrual cups, with uptake improving with peer group education and over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17486946 . Retrospectively registered 09 December 2014.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Menstruação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Menarca , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Maturidade Sexual
8.
PLoS Med ; 14(8): e1002373, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28792500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four studies previously indicated that the effect of malaria infection during pregnancy on the risk of low birthweight (LBW; <2,500 g) may depend upon maternal nutritional status. We investigated this dependence further using a large, diverse study population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated the interaction between maternal malaria infection and maternal anthropometric status on the risk of LBW using pooled data from 14,633 pregnancies from 13 studies (6 cohort studies and 7 randomized controlled trials) conducted in Africa and the Western Pacific from 1996-2015. Studies were identified by the Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative using a convenience sampling approach and were eligible for pooling given adequate ethical approval and availability of essential variables. Study-specific adjusted effect estimates were calculated using inverse probability of treatment-weighted linear and log-binomial regression models and pooled using a random-effects model. The adjusted risk of delivering a baby with LBW was 8.8% among women with malaria infection at antenatal enrollment compared to 7.7% among uninfected women (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.42]; N = 13,613), 10.5% among women with malaria infection at delivery compared to 7.9% among uninfected women (aRR 1.32 [95% CI: 1.08, 1.62]; N = 11,826), and 15.3% among women with low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC <23 cm) at enrollment compared to 9.5% among women with MUAC ≥ 23 cm (aRR 1.60 [95% CI: 1.36, 1.87]; N = 9,008). The risk of delivering a baby with LBW was 17.8% among women with both malaria infection and low MUAC at enrollment compared to 8.4% among uninfected women with MUAC ≥ 23 cm (joint aRR 2.13 [95% CI: 1.21, 3.73]; N = 8,152). There was no evidence of synergism (i.e., excess risk due to interaction) between malaria infection and MUAC on the multiplicative (p = 0.5) or additive scale (p = 0.9). Results were similar using body mass index (BMI) as an anthropometric indicator of nutritional status. Meta-regression results indicated that there may be multiplicative interaction between malaria infection at enrollment and low MUAC within studies conducted in Africa; however, this finding was not consistent on the additive scale, when accounting for multiple comparisons, or when using other definitions of malaria and malnutrition. The major limitations of the study included availability of only 2 cross-sectional measurements of malaria and the limited availability of ultrasound-based pregnancy dating to assess impacts on preterm birth and fetal growth in all studies. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women with malnutrition and malaria infection are at increased risk of LBW compared to women with only 1 risk factor or none, but malaria and malnutrition do not act synergistically.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Malária/parasitologia , Desnutrição/etiologia , Ilhas do Pacífico/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência
9.
BMJ Open ; 6(12): e012697, 2016 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28003287

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative has pooled together 13 studies with the hope of improving understanding of malaria-nutrition interactions during pregnancy and to foster collaboration between nutritionists and malariologists. PARTICIPANTS: Data were pooled on 14 635 singleton, live birth pregnancies from women who had participated in 1 of 13 pregnancy studies. The 13 studies cover 8 countries in Africa and Papua New Guinea in the Western Pacific conducted from 1996 to 2015. FINDINGS TO DATE: Data are available at the time of antenatal enrolment of women into their respective parent study and at delivery. The data set comprises essential data such as malaria infection status, anthropometric assessments of maternal nutritional status, presence of anaemia and birth weight, as well as additional variables such gestational age at delivery for a subset of women. Participating studies are described in detail with regard to setting and primary outcome measures, and summarised data are available from each contributing cohort. FUTURE PLANS: This pooled birth cohort is the largest pregnancy data set to date to permit a more definite evaluation of the impact of plausible interactions between poor nutritional status and malaria infection in pregnant women on fetal growth and gestational length. Given the current comparative lack of large pregnancy cohorts in malaria-endemic settings, compilation of suitable pregnancy cohorts is likely to provide adequate statistical power to assess malaria-nutrition interactions, and could point towards settings where such interactions are most relevant. The M3 cohort may thus help to identify pregnant women at high risk of adverse outcomes who may benefit from tailored intensive antenatal care including nutritional supplements and alternative or intensified malaria prevention regimens, and the settings in which these interventions would be most effective.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Malária/complicações , Desnutrição/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Complicações na Gravidez , Adulto , África , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Papua Nova Guiné , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal
10.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0164963, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27824884

RESUMO

Given the high morbidity for mother and fetus associated with malaria in pregnancy, safe and efficacious drugs are needed for treatment. Artemisinin derivatives are the most effective antimalarials, but are associated with teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in animal models when used in early pregnancy. However, several organ systems are still under development later in pregnancy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women treated with artemisinins monotherapy or as artemisinin-based combination therapy during the 2nd or 3rd trimesters relative to pregnant women who received non-artemisinin antimalarials or none at all. Pooled odds ratio (POR) were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model with a 0.5 continuity correction for zero events. Eligible studies were identified through Medline, Embase, and the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium Library. Twenty studies (11 cohort studies and 9 randomized controlled trials) contributed to the analysis, with 3,707 women receiving an artemisinin, 1,951 a non-artemisinin antimalarial, and 13,714 no antimalarial. The PORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for stillbirth, fetal loss, and congenital anomalies when comparing artemisinin versus quinine were 0.49 (95% CI 0.24-0.97, I2 = 0%, 3 studies); 0.58 (95% CI 0.31-1.16, I2 = 0%, 6 studies); and 1.00 (95% CI 0.27-3.75, I2 = 0%, 3 studies), respectively. The PORs comparing artemisinin users to pregnant women who received no antimalarial were 1.13 (95% CI 0.77-1.66, I2 = 86.7%, 3 studies); 1.10 (95% CI 0.79-1.54, I2 = 0%, 4 studies); and 0.79 (95% CI 0.37-1.67, I2 = 0%, 3 studies) for miscarriage, stillbirth and congenital anomalies respectively. Treatment with artemisinin in 2nd and 3rd trimester was not associated with increased risks of congenital malformations or miscarriage and may be was associated with a reduced risk of stillbirths compared to quinine. This study updates the reviews conducted by the WHO in 2002 and 2006 and supports the current WHO malaria treatment guidelines malaria in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Espontâneo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Quinina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 9(1): 418, 2016 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27465199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repellents such as coils, vaporizers, mats and creams can be used to reduce the risk of malaria and other infectious diseases. Although evidence for their effectiveness is limited, they are advertised as providing an additional approach to mosquito control in combination with other strategies, e.g. insecticide-treated nets. We examined the use of repellents in India in an urban setting in Chennai (mainly Plasmodium vivax malaria), a peri-urban setting in Nadiad (both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria), and a more rural setting in Raurkela (mainly P. falciparum malaria). METHODS: The use of repellents was examined at the household level during a census, and at the individual level in cross-sectional surveys and among patients visiting a clinic with fever or other symptoms. Factors associated with their use were examined in a multivariate analysis, and the association between malaria and the use of repellents was assessed among survey- and clinic participants. RESULTS: Characteristics of participants differed by region, with more people of higher education present in Chennai. Use of repellents varied between 56-77 % at the household level and between 32-78 % at the individual level. Vaporizers were the main repellents used in Chennai, whereas coils were more common in Nadiad and Raurkela. In Chennai and Nadiad, vaporizers were more likely to be used in households with young male children. Vaporizer use was associated with higher socio-economic status (SES) in households in Chennai and Nadiad, whereas use of coils was greater in the lower SES strata. In Raurkela, there was a higher use of coils among the higher SES strata. Education was associated with the use of a repellent among survey participants in Chennai and clinic study participants in Chennai and Nadiad. Repellent use was associated with less malaria in the clinic study in Chennai and Raurkela, but not in the surveys, with the exception of the use of coils in Nadiad. CONCLUSIONS: Repellents are widely used in India. Their use is influenced by the level of education and SES. Information on effectiveness and guidance on choices may improve rational use.


Assuntos
Repelentes de Insetos , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Febre/parasitologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Repelentes de Insetos/efeitos adversos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural , Classe Social , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMJ Open ; 6(3): e010290, 2016 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26936906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the status of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among adolescent girls in India to determine unmet needs. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, The Global Health Database, Google Scholar and references for studies published from 2000 to September 2015 on girls' MHM. SETTING: India. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescent girls. OUTCOME MEASURES: Information on menarche awareness, type of absorbent used, disposal, hygiene, restrictions and school absenteeism was extracted from eligible materials; a quality score was applied. Meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled prevalence (PP), and meta-regression to examine the effect of setting, region and time. RESULTS: Data from 138 studies involving 193 subpopulations and 97,070 girls were extracted. In 88 studies, half of the girls reported being informed prior to menarche (PP 48%, 95% CI 43% to 53%, I(2) 98.6%). Commercial pad use was more common among urban (PP 67%, 57% to 76%, I(2) 99.3%, n=38) than rural girls (PP 32%, 25% to 38%, I(2) 98.6%, n=56, p<0.0001), with use increasing over time (p<0.0001). Inappropriate disposal was common (PP 23%, 16% to 31%, I(2) 99.0%, n=34). Menstruating girls experienced many restrictions, especially for religious activities (PP 0.77, 0.71 to 0.83, I(2) 99.1%, n=67). A quarter (PP 24%, 19% to 30%, I(2) 98.5%, n=64) reported missing school during periods. A lower prevalence of absenteeism was associated with higher commercial pad use in univariate (p=0.023) but not in multivariate analysis when adjusted for region (p=0.232, n=53). Approximately a third of girls changed their absorbents in school facilities (PP 37%, 29% to 46%, I(2) 97.8%, n=17). Half of the girls' homes had a toilet (PP 51%, 36% to 67%, I(2) 99.4%, n=21). The quality of studies imposed limitations on analyses and the interpretation of results (mean score 3 on a scale of 0-7). CONCLUSIONS: Strengthening of MHM programmes in India is needed. Education on awareness, access to hygienic absorbents and disposal of MHM items need to be addressed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015019197.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene/normas , Menarca , Menstruação , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , População Urbana
13.
Malar J ; 15: 67, 2016 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26852118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reactive case detection (RCD) for malaria is a strategy to identify additional malaria infections in areas of low malaria transmission and can complement passive surveillance. This study describes experiences with RCD in two Indian sites, and aimed to synthesize experiences with RCD across endemic countries. METHODS: RCD programmes were piloted in two urban areas of India with a low prevalence of mainly Plasmodium vivax malaria in 2014. Cases were identified in a clinic by microscopy and contacts were screened within 2 weeks; PCR, in addition to microscopy, was used to detect Plasmodium parasites. A systematic review was conducted to identify RCD experiences in the literature. RESULTS: In Chennai, 868 contacts were enrolled for 18 index cases of clinical malaria; in Nadiad, 131 contacts were enrolled for 20 index cases. No new malaria infections were detected in Nadiad among contacts, and four new infections were detected in Chennai (three P. vivax and one Plasmodium falciparum), of which two were among household members of index cases. An additional five studies describing results from an RCD strategy were identified in the literature: four in Africa and one in Thailand. Including the results from India, the average number of contacts screened per index case in a total of seven studies ranged from four to 50, and 126 in a case study in Thailand with one index case. Malaria was detected in 0-45 % of the contacted persons. The average number of index cases needed to be traced to find one new case of malaria ranged from one to five, and could not be assessed in one study in India (no contacts positive for 20 cases). Sharing the household with an index case was associated with a five-fold increased risk of malaria compared to contacts from households without an index case (pooled risk ratio 5.29, 95 % CI 3.31-8.47, I(2) 0 %, four studies). CONCLUSIONS: RCD in areas of low malaria transmission is a labour-intensive strategy, and its benefit is not clear. Studies are needed to assess how RCD can be optimized or into alternatives where interventions are targeted to family members or hotspots.


Assuntos
Malária/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 93(3 Suppl): 79-86, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26259945

RESUMO

Molecular epidemiology leverages genetic information to study the risk factors that affect the frequency and distribution of malaria cases. This article describes molecular epidemiologic investigations currently being carried out by the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) network in a variety of malaria-endemic settings. First, we discuss various novel approaches to understand malaria incidence and gametocytemia, focusing on Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Second, we describe and compare different parasite genotyping methods commonly used in malaria epidemiology and population genetics. Finally, we discuss potential applications of molecular epidemiological tools and methods toward malaria control and elimination efforts.


Assuntos
Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/genética , Plasmodium/genética , Fluxo Gênico/genética , Genética Populacional , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/genética , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética
15.
Malar J ; 14: 206, 2015 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25986152

RESUMO

In 2014, a global 'Call to Action' seminar for the scale-up of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy was held during the 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. This report summarizes the presentations and main discussion points from the meeting.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Medicina Tropical , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Humanos , Louisiana , Gravidez
17.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e87743, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24551064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Malaria prevention and iron supplementation are associated with improved maternal and infant outcomes. However, evidence from studies in children suggests iron may adversely modify the risk of malaria. We reviewed the evidence in pregnancy of the association between malaria and markers of iron status, iron supplementation or parenteral treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Global Health Library, and the Malaria in Pregnancy library to identify studies that investigated the association between iron status, iron treatment or supplementation during pregnancy and malaria. Thirty one studies contributed to the analysis; 3 experimental and 28 observational studies. Iron supplementation was not associated with an increased risk of P. falciparum malaria during pregnancy or delivery in Africa (summary Relative Risk = 0.89, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.66-1.20, I(2) = 78.8%, 5 studies). One study in Asia reported an increased risk of P. vivax within 30 days of iron supplementation (e.g. adjusted Hazard Ratio = 1.75, 95% CI 1.14-2.70 for 1-15 days), but not after 60 days. Iron deficiency (based on ferritin and C-reactive protein) was associated with lower odds for malaria infection (summary Odds Ratio = 0.35, 0.24-0.51, I(2) = 59.2%, 5 studies). With the exception of the acute phase protein ferritin, biomarkers of iron deficiency were generally not associated with malaria infection. CONCLUSIONS: Iron supplementation was associated with a temporal increase in P vivax, but not with an increased risk of P. falciparum; however, data are insufficient to rule out the potential for an increased risk of P. falciparum. Iron deficiency was associated with a decreased malaria risk in pregnancy only when measured with ferritin. Until there is more evidence, it is prudent to provide iron in combination with malaria prevention during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ferro/efeitos adversos , Malária Falciparum/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/induzido quimicamente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Infusões Parenterais , Ferro/deficiência , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/sangue , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Receptores da Transferrina/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Solubilidade , Transferrina/metabolismo
18.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 13(12): 1029-42, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24054085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa are especially vulnerable to malaria. Recommended prevention strategies include intermittent preventive treatment with two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and the use of insecticide-treated nets. However, progress with implementation has been slow and the Roll Back Malaria Partnership target of 80% coverage of both interventions by 2010 has not been met. We aimed to review the coverage of intermittent preventive treatment, insecticide-treated nets, and antenatal care for pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa and to explore associations between coverage and individual and country-level factors, including the role of funding for malaria prevention. METHODS: We used data from nationally representative household surveys from 2009-11 to estimate coverage of intermittent preventive treatment, use of insecticide-treated nets, and attendance at antenatal clinics by pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Using demographic data for births and published data for malaria exposure, we also estimated the number of malaria-exposed births (livebirths and stillbirths combined) for 2010 by country. We used meta-regression analysis to investigate the factors associated with coverage of intermittent preventive treatment and use of insecticide-treated nets. RESULTS: Of the 21·4 million estimated malaria-exposed births across 27 countries in 2010, an estimated 4·6 million (21·5%, 95% CI 19·3-23·7) were born to mothers who received intermittent preventive treatment. Insecticide-treated nets were used during pregnancy for 10·5 million of 26·9 million births across 37 countries (38·8%, 34·6-43·0). Antenatal care was attended at least once by 16·3 of 20·8 million women in 2010 (78·3%, 75·2-81·4; n=26 countries) and at least twice by 14·7 of 19·6 million women (75·1%, 72·9-77·3; n=22 countries). For the countries with previous estimates for 2007, coverage of intermittent preventive treatment increased from 13·1% (11·9-14·3) to 21·2% (18·9-23·5; n=14 countries) and use of insecticide-treated nets increased from 17·9% (15·1-20·7) to 41·6% (37·2-46·0; n=24 countries) in 2010. A fall in coverage by more than 10% was seen in two of 24 countries for intermittent preventive treatment and in three of 30 countries for insecticide-treated nets. High disbursement of funds for malaria control and a long time interval since adoption of the relevant policy were associated with the highest coverage of intermittent preventive treatment. High disbursement of funds for malaria control and high total fertility rate were associated with the greatest use of insecticide-treated nets, whereas a high per-head gross domestic product (GDP) was associated with less use of nets than was a lower GDP. Coverage of intermittent preventive treatment showed greater inequity overall than use of insecticide-treated nets, with richer, educated, and urban women more likely to receive preventive treatment than their poorer, uneducated, rural counterparts. INTERPRETATION: Although coverage of intermittent preventive treatment and use of insecticide-treated nets by pregnant women has increased in most countries, coverage remains far below international targets, despite fairly high rates of attendance at antenatal clinics. The effect of the implementation of WHO's 2012 policy update for intermittent preventive treatment, which aims to simplify the message and align preventive treatment with the focused antenatal care schedule, should be assessed to find out whether it leads to improvements in coverage. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquiteiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Combinação de Medicamentos , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Pirimetamina/administração & dosagem , Sulfadoxina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Med ; 10(7): e1001488, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23935459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy has important consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the World Health Organization-recommended prevention strategy for pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is low. We conducted a systematic review to explore factors affecting delivery, access, and use of IPTp and ITNs among healthcare providers and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched the Malaria in Pregnancy Library and Global Health Database from 1 January 1990 to 23 April 2013, without language restriction. Data extraction was performed by two investigators independently, and data was appraised for quality and content. Data on barriers and facilitators, and the effect of interventions, were explored using content analysis and narrative synthesis. We conducted a meta-analysis of determinants of IPTp and ITN uptake using random effects models, and performed subgroup analysis to evaluate consistency across interventions and study populations, countries, and enrolment sites. We did not perform a meta-ethnography of qualitative data. Ninety-eight articles were included, of which 20 were intervention studies. Key barriers to the provision of IPTp and ITNs were unclear policy and guidance on IPTp; general healthcare system issues, such as stockouts and user fees; health facility issues stemming from poor organisation, leading to poor quality of care; poor healthcare provider performance, including confusion over the timing of each IPTp dose; and women's poor antenatal attendance, affecting IPTp uptake. Key determinants of IPTp coverage were education, knowledge about malaria/IPTp, socio-economic status, parity, and number and timing of antenatal clinic visits. Key determinants of ITN coverage were employment status, education, knowledge about malaria/ITNs, age, and marital status. Predictors showed regional variations. CONCLUSIONS: Delivery of ITNs through antenatal clinics presents fewer problems than delivery of IPTp. Many obstacles to IPTp delivery are relatively simple barriers that could be resolved in the short term. Other barriers are more entrenched within the overall healthcare system or socio-economic/cultural contexts, and will require medium- to long-term strategies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Malária/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Pirimetamina/uso terapêutico , Sulfadoxina/uso terapêutico , África ao Sul do Saara , Assistência à Saúde , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 89(1 Suppl): 29-40, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23629929

RESUMO

We interviewed caretakers of 1,043 children < 5 years old in a baseline cross-sectional survey (April to May 2007) and > 20,000 children on five separate subsequent occasions (May of 2009 to December 31, 2010) to assess healthcare seeking patterns for diarrhea. Diarrhea prevalence during the preceding 2 weeks ranged from 26% at baseline to 4-11% during 2009-2010. Caretakers were less likely to seek healthcare outside the home for infants (versus older children) with diarrhea (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.33, confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-0.87). Caretakers of children with reduced food intake (aOR = 3.42, CI = 1.37-8.53) and sunken eyes during their diarrheal episode were more likely to seek care outside home (aOR = 4.76, CI = 1.13-8.89). Caretakers with formal education were more likely to provide oral rehydration solution (aOR = 3.01, CI = 1.41-6.42) and visit a healthcare facility (aOR = 3.32, CI = 1.56-7.07). Studies calculating diarrheal incidence and healthcare seeking should account for seasonal trends. Improving caretakers' knowledge of home management could prevent severe diarrhea.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Diarreia Infantil/epidemiologia , Diarreia Infantil/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia Infantil/fisiopatologia , Diarreia Infantil/terapia , Feminino , Hidratação , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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