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1.
Clin Genet ; 93(5): 1000-1007, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393965

RESUMO

De novo variants in the gene encoding cyclin-dependent kinase 13 (CDK13) have been associated with congenital heart defects and intellectual disability (ID). Here, we present the clinical assessment of 15 individuals and report novel de novo missense variants within the kinase domain of CDK13. Furthermore, we describe 2 nonsense variants and a recurrent frame-shift variant. We demonstrate the synthesis of 2 aberrant CDK13 transcripts in lymphoblastoid cells from an individual with a splice-site variant. Clinical characteristics of the individuals include mild to severe ID, developmental delay, behavioral problems, (neonatal) hypotonia and a variety of facial dysmorphism. Congenital heart defects were present in 2 individuals of the current cohort, but in at least 42% of all known individuals. An overview of all published cases is provided and does not demonstrate an obvious genotype-phenotype correlation, although 2 individuals harboring a stop codons at the end of the kinase domain might have a milder phenotype. Overall, there seems not to be a clinically recognizable facial appearance. The variability in the phenotypes impedes an à vue diagnosis of this syndrome and therefore genome-wide or gene-panel driven genetic testing is needed. Based on this overview, we provide suggestions for clinical work-up and management of this recently described ID syndrome.

2.
Hum Genet ; 134(10): 1089-97, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26264464

RESUMO

KCNH1 mutations have recently been described in six individuals with Temple-Baraitser syndrome (TMBTS) and six individuals with Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS). TMBTS is characterized by intellectual disability (ID), epilepsy, dysmorphic facial features, broad thumbs and great toes with absent/hypoplastic nails. ZLS is characterized by facial dysmorphism including coarsening of the face and a large nose, gingival enlargement, ID, hypoplasia of terminal phalanges and nails and hypertrichosis. In this study, we present four additional unrelated individuals with de novo KCNH1 mutations from ID cohorts. We report on a novel recurrent pathogenic KCNH1 variant in three individuals and add a fourth individual with a previously TMBTS-associated KCNH1 variant. Neither TMBTS nor ZLS was suspected clinically. KCNH1 encodes a voltage-gated potassium channel, which is not only highly expressed in the central nervous system, but also seems to play an important role during development. Clinical evaluation of our mutation-positive individuals revealed that one of the main characteristics of TMBTS/ZLS, namely the pronounced nail hypoplasia of the great toes and thumbs, can be mild and develop over time. Clinical comparison of all published KCNH1 mutation-positive individuals revealed a similar facial but variable limb phenotype. KCNH1 mutation-positive individuals present with severe ID, neonatal hypotonia, hypertelorism, broad nasal tip, wide mouth, nail a/hypoplasia, a proximal implanted and long thumb and long great toes. In summary, we show that the phenotypic variability of individuals with KCNH1 mutations is more pronounced than previously expected, and we discuss whether KCNH1 mutations allow for "lumping" or for "splitting" of TMBTS and ZLS.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/genética , Fibromatose Gengival/genética , Hallux/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Unhas Malformadas/genética , Polegar/anormalidades , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Feminino , Fibromatose Gengival/patologia , Hallux/patologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Unhas Malformadas/patologia , Polegar/patologia
4.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 1(1): 99-109, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27858664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle disease. No curative therapy is currently available, but in recent decades standards of care have improved. These improvements include the use of corticosteroids and mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE: To present a detailed population based report of the DMD disease course in The Netherlands (1980-2006) and evaluate the effect of changes in care by comparing it with an historical Dutch DMD cohort (1961-1974). METHODS: Information about DMD patients was gathered through the Dutch Dystrophinopathy Database using a standardized questionnaire and information from treating physicians. RESULTS: The study population involved 336 DMD patients (70% of the estimated prevalence), of whom 285 were still alive. Mean age at disease milestones was: diagnosis 4.3 years, wheelchair dependence 9.7 years, scoliosis surgery 14 years, cardiomyopathy (fractional shortening <27%) 15 years, mechanical ventilation 17 years and death 19 years. Within our cohort, corticosteroid use was associated with an increased age of wheelchair dependence from 9.8 to 11.6 years (p < 0.001). When comparing the recent cohort to the historical cohort, mean survival improved from 17 to 27 years (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The current study gives detailed information about the disease course of DMD patients, provides evidence for the positive effect of steroid treatment and mechanical ventilation and supports the use of patient registries as a valuable resource for evaluating improvements in care.

5.
Neurology ; 77(1): 62-6, 2011 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21700587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac involvement has been reported in carriers of dystrophin mutations giving rise to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). The progress of these abnormalities during long-term follow-up is unknown. We describe the long-term follow-up of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in DMD/BMD carriers. METHODS: A long-term follow-up study was performed among Dutch DMD/BMD carriers first analyzed in 1995. A cardiac history was taken, and all carriers were assigned a functional score to assess skeletal muscle involvement. Electrocardiography and M-mode and 2-D echocardiography were performed. DCM was defined as an enlarged left ventricle with a global left ventricle dysfunction or fractional shortening less than 28%. Slow vital capacity of the lung was measured by a hand-held spirometer. RESULTS: Ninety-nine carriers were monitored with a median follow-up of 9 years (range 7.0-10.6 years). Eleven carriers with DCM (10 DMD, 1 BMD) were identified. Nine of them developed DCM in the follow-up period. One of the patients with DCM reported in the 1995 study died of cardiac failure at age 57 years. DCM was more frequently found in carriers who were functionally symptomatic. CONCLUSION: Cardiac abnormalities in DMD/BMD carriers are progressive, as in patients with DMD/BMD.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/etiologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 9(6): 1225-35, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21435166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Matrix γ-carboxyglutamate protein (MGP), a vitamin K-dependent protein, is recognized as a potent local inhibitor of vascular calcification. Studying patients with Keutel syndrome (KS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from MGP mutations, provides an opportunity to investigate the functions of MGP. The purpose of this study was (i) to investigate the phenotype and the underlying MGP mutation of a newly identified KS patient, and (ii) to investigate MGP species and the effect of vitamin K supplements in KS patients. METHODS: The phenotype of a newly identified KS patient was characterized with specific attention to signs of vascular calcification. Genetic analysis of the MGP gene was performed. Circulating MGP species were quantified and the effect of vitamin K supplements on MGP carboxylation was studied. Finally, we performed immunohistochemical staining of tissues of the first KS patient originally described focusing on MGP species. RESULTS: We describe a novel homozygous MGP mutation (c.61+1G>A) in a newly identified KS patient. No signs of arterial calcification were found, in contrast to findings in MGP knockout mice. This patient is the first in whom circulating MGP species have been characterized, showing a high level of phosphorylated MGP and a low level of carboxylated MGP. Contrary to expectations, vitamin K supplements did not improve the circulating carboxylated mgp levels. phosphorylated mgp was also found to be present in the first ks patient originally described. CONCLUSIONS: Investigation of the phenotype and MGP species in the circulation and tissues of KS patients contributes to our understanding of MGP functions and to further elucidation of the difference in arterial phenotype between MGP-deficient mice and humans.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/tratamento farmacológico , Calcinose/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Doenças das Cartilagens/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina K/uso terapêutico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Artérias , Calcinose/genética , Calcinose/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/sangue , Doenças das Cartilagens/genética , Doenças das Cartilagens/patologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/genética , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/patologia
7.
J Med Genet ; 47(1): 8-21, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19574260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify genetic causes of COACH syndrome BACKGROUND: COACH syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, Oligophrenia (developmental delay/mental retardation), Ataxia, Coloboma, and Hepatic fibrosis. The vermis hypoplasia falls in a spectrum of mid-hindbrain malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS), making COACH a Joubert syndrome related disorder (JSRD). METHODS: In a cohort of 251 families with JSRD, 26 subjects in 23 families met criteria for COACH syndrome, defined as JSRD plus clinically apparent liver disease. Diagnostic criteria for JSRD were clinical findings (intellectual impairment, hypotonia, ataxia) plus supportive brain imaging findings (MTS or cerebellar vermis hypoplasia). MKS3/TMEM67 was sequenced in all subjects for whom DNA was available. In COACH subjects without MKS3 mutations, CC2D2A, RPGRIP1L and CEP290 were also sequenced. RESULTS: 19/23 families (83%) with COACH syndrome carried MKS3 mutations, compared to 2/209 (1%) with JSRD but no liver disease. Two other families with COACH carried CC2D2A mutations, one family carried RPGRIP1L mutations, and one lacked mutations in MKS3, CC2D2A, RPGRIP1L and CEP290. Liver biopsies from three subjects, each with mutations in one of the three genes, revealed changes within the congenital hepatic fibrosis/ductal plate malformation spectrum. In JSRD with and without liver disease, MKS3 mutations account for 21/232 families (9%). CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in MKS3 are responsible for the majority of COACH syndrome, with minor contributions from CC2D2A and RPGRIP1L; therefore, MKS3 should be the first gene tested in patients with JSRD plus liver disease and/or coloboma, followed by CC2D2A and RPGRIP1L.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Ataxia/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Coloboma/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Med Genet ; 46(10): 716-20, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19586929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Goltz-Gorlin syndrome or focal dermal hypoplasia is a highly variable, X-linked dominant syndrome with abnormalities of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. In 2007, mutations in the PORCN gene were found to be causative in Goltz-Gorlin syndrome. METHOD: A series of 17 patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is reported on, and their phenotype and genotype are described. RESULTS: In 14 patients (13 females and one male), a PORCN mutation was found. Mutations included nonsense (n = 5), frameshift (n = 2), aberrant splicing (n = 2) and missense (n = 5) mutations. No genotype-phenotype correlation was found. All patients with the classical features of the syndrome had a detectable mutation. In three females with atypical signs, no mutation was found. The male patient had classical features and showed mosaicism for a PORCN nonsense mutation in fibroblasts. Two affected sisters had a mutation not detectable in their parents, supporting germline mosaicism. Their father had undergone radiation for testicular cancer in the past. Two classically affected females had three severely affected female fetuses which all had midline thoracic and abdominal wall defects, resembling the pentalogy of Cantrell and the limb-body wall complex. Thoracic and abdominal wall defects were also present in two surviving patients. PORCN mutations can possibly cause pentalogy of Cantrell and limb-body wall complexes as well. Therefore, particularly in cases with limb defects, it seems useful to search for these. CONCLUSIONS: PORCN mutations can be found in all classically affected cases of Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, including males. Somatic and germline mosaicism occur. There is no evident genotype-phenotype correlation.


Assuntos
Hipoplasia Dérmica Focal/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Aciltransferases , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hipoplasia Dérmica Focal/patologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
9.
Eur J Med Genet ; 52(2-3): 77-87, 2009 Mar-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19306953

RESUMO

Array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) screening of large patient cohorts with mental retardation and/or multiple congenital anomalies (MR/MCA) has led to the identification of a number of new microdeletion and microduplication syndromes. Recently, a recurrent copy number variant (CNV) at chromosome 16p11.2 was reported to occur in up to 1% of autistic patients in three large autism studies. In the screening of 4284 patients with MR/MCA with various array platforms, we detected 22 individuals (14 index patients and 8 family members) with deletions in 16p11.2, which are genomically identical to those identified in the autism studies. Though some patients shared a facial resemblance and a tendency to overweight, there was no evidence for a recognizable phenotype. Autism was not the presenting feature in our series. The assembled evidence indicates that recurrent 16p11.2 deletions are associated with variable clinical outcome, most likely arising from haploinsufficiency of one or more genes. The phenotypical spectrum ranges from MR and/or MCA, autism, learning and speech problems, to a normal phenotype.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos de Aprendizagem , Masculino , Distúrbios da Fala , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 140(3): 284-90, 2006 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16411219

RESUMO

We describe a unique case of achondroplasia with associated complications, including severe respiratory problems. Molecular analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3) gene in this patient showed the common p.G380R mutation and a second novel p.L377R mutation. An allele-specific PCR demonstrated that these mutations were on the same allele (cis). Both mutations were not present in the parents and appear to have occurred de novo. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature on an achondroplasia patient with two FGFR3 mutations on the same allele.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia/genética , Mutação , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Acondroplasia/complicações , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/complicações
12.
Genet Couns ; 17(4): 395-400, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17375524

RESUMO

We describe a girl with a mosaic isodicentric chromosome 18q with discrete features of trisomy 18. She presented with prenatal growth retardation, prominent occiput, small face, high nasal bridge, large nose, thin lips, a perimembranous ventricular septal defect, and subsequent slow psychomotor development and slow growth. Amosaic isopseudodicentric chromosome 18q was detected in cultured lymphocytes: mos 46,XX,psu idic(18)(q23)[74]/ 46,XX[26]. Monosomy of the distal end of 18q23 could not be confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with RP 1l-565D23, one of the most telomere located probes of 18q23. Isopseudodicentric chromosome 18q is very rare. Most cases are mosaics. The phenotype varies. More or less distinct features of trisomy 18 and monosomy 18q can be found depending on the degree of mosaicism and the breakpoint in 18q.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Mosaicismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Recém-Nascido , Cariotipagem , Fenótipo
13.
Neurogenetics ; 6(4): 201-7, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16240131

RESUMO

Mutation analysis was performed in four apparently unrelated Dutch families with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome. A novel 3-bp deletion encompassing the nucleotides GAG at positions 1,142 to 1,144 of exon 5 of the PANK2 gene was found in all patients. One patient was compound heterozygous; she also carried a novel nonsense mutation (Ser68Stop). The other patients were homozygous for the 1142_1144delGAG mutation. The 1142_1144delGAG mutation was also found in a German patient of unknown descent. We used polymorphic microsatellite markers flanking the PANK2 gene (spanning a region of approximately 8 cM) for haplotype analyses in all these families. A conserved haplotype of 1.5 cM was found for the 1142_1144delGAG mutation carriers. All the Dutch families originated from the same geographical region within the Netherlands. The results indicate a founder effect and suggest that the 1142_1144delGAG mutation probably originated from one common ancestor. It was estimated that this mutation arose at the beginning of the ninth century, approximately 38 generations ago.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Neurodegeneração Associada a Pantotenato-Quinase/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Países Baixos , Linhagem , Polimorfismo Genético
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 136(1): 95-104, 2005 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15887271

RESUMO

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome associated with macroglossia, abdominal wall defects, ear anomalies, and an increased risk for embryonic tumors. Reported tumor risk estimates vary between 4% and 21%. It has been hypothesized that tumor predisposition in BWS is related to the imprinting status of the H19 and LIT1 genes on chromosome 11p15. A loss of imprinting (LOI) of H19 implies a higher tumor risk. However, a systematic analysis of available data is lacking. Therefore, we performed a review and meta-analysis of reported associations between the imprinting status of the LIT1 and H19 genes and the risk for tumor development in BWS. Five publications suitable for meta-analysis were identified by electronic database searches. Sufficient data were available for 402 out of 520 patients. Patients were divided into four groups based on the imprinting status of H19 and LIT1: group I with LOI of LIT1 (45%); group II with LOI of H19 (9%); group III with LOI of LIT1 and LOI of H19 (21%); and group IV with normal imprinting patterns (26%). Differences in tumor risk between groups were studied with random effects meta-analysis. Tumors occurred in 55 patients. The odds of tumor development was significantly lower in group I when compared to group II (OR=0.06; 95% CI: 0.02-0.21) and group III (OR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.04-0.37). Tumor risk did not differ significantly between groups II and III (OR=1.40; 95% CI: 0.56-3.50). Compared to group IV, tumor risk was significantly lower in group I (OR=0.33; 95% CI: 0.12-0.87) and higher in groups II (OR=4.0; 95% CI: 1.5-10.4) and III (OR=2.6; 95% CI: 1.2-5.7). Tumor incidence rate for group IV was 10.6% (95% CI: 3.6-17.7). Calculated absolute risks were 3% for group I, 43% for group II, and 28% for group III, respectively. No Wilms tumor was seen in group I. In total, other tumors were seen with comparable frequencies in groups I-III. The results show a strong association between a LOI of H19 and especially Wilms tumor development in BWS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Fatores de Risco
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 134(4): 450-3, 2005 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15793834

RESUMO

We describe three patients with Malpuech syndrome from two families. Previously, 10 patients from 6 families have been reported. Consanguinity in two families suggests autosomal recessive inheritance. Growth retardation, mental retardation, cleft lip, and/or palate, hypertelorism, urogenital abnormalities, and caudal appendage are the key features. Although the spectrum of the features in the reported patients is variable, we do think this syndrome represents a distinct entity. Chromosomal anomalies should be carefully searched for. We discuss differential diagnosis and possible candidate genes and propose diagnostic criteria for Malpuech syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Fenda Labial/patologia , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Evolução Fatal , Transtornos do Crescimento/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Síndrome , Anormalidades Urogenitais/patologia
16.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 28(6): 625-31, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14616831

RESUMO

This review assesses molecular aspects of the rescue of disease-causing mutations in genodermatoses by means of naturally occurring secondary genetic phenomena. Such data have important implications for the design of gene therapy approaches for inherited skin diseases. Reversal of the phenotype depends on three elements: the number of cells involved; the degree of gene reversal; and the specific timing of the reversion. If reversion occurs in somatic cells, revertant mosaicism may occur. This is the situation in which a patient's skin is generally affected by the genodermatosis, but islands of normal skin stand out. These reflect the presence of revertant cells that are sufficient to restore a normal local skin phenotype. Reversion of the original mutation may also be partial, in which case the phenotype may display no, or only limited, improvement. Nevertheless, the phenotype may ameliorate with age if the reverted cells preferentially expand in time or if the time of onset of reversion is after birth. In essence, the complexities of naturally occurring rescue processes are important to understand because the inherent mechanisms may provide clues and insight into optimal therapeutic gene manipulation, and the possibility of mimicking nature in the management of patients with diverse genodermatoses.


Assuntos
Mosaicismo/genética , Dermatopatias Genéticas/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Dermatopatias Genéticas/terapia , Cicatrização/genética
18.
Clin Genet ; 63(3): 224-7, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12694234

RESUMO

A mother and son with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV and unusual congenital anomalies are described. The congenital anomalies include, in the mother, amniotic band-like constrictions on one hand, a unilateral clubfoot, and macrocephaly owing to normal-pressure hydrocephaly and, in the son, an esophageal atresia and hydrocephaly. Protein analysis of collagen III in cultured fibroblasts of the mother showed no abnormalities. However, DNA analysis of the COL3A1 gene revealed a pathogenic mutation (388G-->T) in both the mother and the son. The possible relationship between the observed congenital anomalies and EDS IV are discussed. We stress that DNA analysis of COL3A1 should be performed in all patients when there is a strong suspicion of EDS IV, despite negative findings in a collagen protein analysis.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo III/genética , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/patologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Feminino , Fibroblastos/química , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação Puntual , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Am J Med Genet ; 112(4): 390-3, 2002 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12376942

RESUMO

We present two unrelated patients with various duplications in the caudal region. One patient presented with a duplication of the distal spine from L4, left double ureter, duplication of the vagina and cervix, and duplication of the distal colon. The second patient was diagnosed with a duplication of the colon, bladder, vagina and uterus. The first patient had an unaffected monozygotic twin sister. Dominguez et al. [1993: Am J Dis Child 147:1048-1052] presented six similar cases, and introduced the name "caudal duplication syndrome." The pathogenesis of the caudal duplication anomaly is unclear. The possibility of a polytopic primary developmental field defect or a disruptive sequence are discussed. On the other hand, somatic or germline mutations in certain developmental genes could be involved, as illustrated by the mouse mutations disorganisation and fused. DNA-analysis of the AXIN1 gene, the human homologue of the gene responsible for fused, performed in our first patient, did not show any apparent pathogenic mutation.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Vértebras Lombares/anormalidades , Proteínas Repressoras , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Anormalidades Urogenitais , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteína Axina , Colo do Útero/anormalidades , Criança , Colo/anormalidades , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/anormalidades , Humanos , Lactente , Proteínas/genética , Ureter/anormalidades , Bexiga Urinária/anormalidades , Útero/anormalidades , Vagina/anormalidades
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