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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 738-746, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679813

RESUMO

Determining pathogenicity of genomic variation identified by next-generation sequencing techniques can be supported by recurrent disruptive variants in the same gene in phenotypically similar individuals. However, interpretation of novel variants in a specific gene in individuals with mild-moderate intellectual disability (ID) without recognizable syndromic features can be challenging and reverse phenotyping is often required. We describe 24 individuals with a de novo disease-causing variant in, or partial deletion of, the F-box only protein 11 gene (FBXO11, also known as VIT1 and PRMT9). FBXO11 is part of the SCF (SKP1-cullin-F-box) complex, a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex catalyzing the ubiquitination of proteins destined for proteasomal degradation. Twenty-two variants were identified by next-generation sequencing, comprising 2 in-frame deletions, 11 missense variants, 1 canonical splice site variant, and 8 nonsense or frameshift variants leading to a truncated protein or degraded transcript. The remaining two variants were identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization and consisted of a partial deletion of FBXO11. All individuals had borderline to severe ID and behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, aggression) were observed in most of them. The most relevant common facial features included a thin upper lip and a broad prominent space between the paramedian peaks of the upper lip. Other features were hypotonia and hyperlaxity of the joints. We show that de novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of ID. The current series show the power of reverse phenotyping in the interpretation of novel genetic variances in individuals who initially did not appear to have a clear recognizable phenotype.

2.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 10(4)2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28790152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpretation of missense variants can be especially difficult when the variant is also found in control populations. This is what we encountered for the LMNA c.992G>A (p.(Arg331Gln)) variant. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of this variant, we combined an evaluation of clinical data with functional experiments and morphological studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical data of 23 probands and 35 family members carrying this variant were retrospectively collected. A time-to-event analysis was performed to compare the course of the disease with carriers of other LMNA mutations. Myocardial biopsies were studied with electron microscopy and by measuring force development of the sarcomeres. Morphology of the nuclear envelope was assessed with immunofluorescence on cultured fibroblasts. The phenotype in probands and family members was characterized by atrioventricular conduction disturbances (61% and 44%, respectively), supraventricular arrhythmias (69% and 52%, respectively), and dilated cardiomyopathy (74% and 14%, respectively). LMNA p.(Arg331Gln) carriers had a significantly better outcome regarding the composite end point (malignant ventricular arrhythmias, end-stage heart failure, or death) compared with carriers of other pathogenic LMNA mutations. A shared haplotype of 1 Mb around LMNA suggested a common founder. The combined logarithm of the odds score was 3.46. Force development in membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes was reduced because of decreased myofibril density. Structural nuclear LMNA-associated envelope abnormalities, that is, blebs, were confirmed by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical, morphological, functional, haplotype, and segregation data all indicate that LMNA p.(Arg331Gln) is a pathogenic founder mutation with a phenotype reminiscent of other LMNA mutations but with a more benign course.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/genética , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Adulto , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Haplótipos , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Membrana Nuclear/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcômeros/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 27(10): 905-910, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739181

RESUMO

Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) often exhibit delayed motor and cognitive development, including delayed onset of ambulation. Data on age when loss of independent ambulation occurs are well established for DMD; however, age at onset of walking has not been well described. We hypothesize that an effective medication given in early infancy would advance the age when walking is achieved so that it is closer to age-matched norms, and that this discrete event could serve as the primary outcome measure in a clinical trial. This study examined three data sets, Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network (MD STARnet); Dutch Natural History Survey (DNHS); and Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy (PPMD). The distribution of onset of ambulation in DMD (mean ± SD) and median age, in months, at the onset of ambulation was 17.3 (±5.5) and 16.0 in MD STARnet, 21.8 (±7.1) and 20.0 in DNHS, and 16.1 (±4.4) and 15 in PPMD. Age of ambulation in these data sets were all significantly later (P <0.001) than the corresponding age for typically developing boys, 12.1 (±1.8). A hypothetical clinical trial study design and power analyses are presented based on these data.


Assuntos
Idade de Início , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/diagnóstico , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Determinação de Ponto Final/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Caminhada/fisiologia
4.
Genome Med ; 8(1): 131, 2016 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27964749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Krüppel-type zinc finger genes (ZNF) constitute a large yet relatively poorly characterized gene family. ZNF genes encode proteins that recognize specific DNA motifs in gene promotors. They act as transcriptional co-activators or -repressors via interaction with chromatin remodeling proteins and other transcription factors. Only few ZNF genes are currently linked to human disorders and identification of ZNF gene-associated human diseases may help understand their function. Here we provide genetic, statistical, and clinical evidence to support association of ZNF148 with a new intellectual disability (ID) syndrome disorder. METHODS: Routine diagnostic exome sequencing data were obtained from 2172 patients with ID and/or multiple congenital anomalies. RESULTS: In a cohort of 2172 patient-parent trios referred for routine diagnostic whole exome sequencing for ID and/or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) in the period 2012-2016, four patients were identified who carried de novo heterozygous nonsense or frameshift mutations in the ZNF148 gene. This was the only ZNF gene with recurrent truncating de novo mutations in this cohort. All mutations resulted in premature termination codons in the last exon of ZNF148. The number of the de novo truncating mutations in the ZNF148 gene was significantly enriched (p = 5.42 × 10-3). The newly described ZNF148-associated syndrome is characterized by underdevelopment of the corpus callosum, mild to moderate developmental delay and ID, variable microcephaly or mild macrocephaly, short stature, feeding problems, facial dysmorphisms, and cardiac and renal malformations. CONCLUSIONS: We propose ZNF148 as a gene involved in a newly described ID syndrome with a recurrent phenotype and postulate that the ZNF148 is a hitherto unrecognized but crucial transcription factor in the development of the corpus callosum. Our study illustrates the advantage of whole exome sequencing in a large cohort using a parent-offspring trio approach for identifying novel genes involved in rare human diseases.


Assuntos
Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Sequência de Bases , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/patologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/patologia , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
5.
Epileptic Disord ; 18(2): 123-36, 2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267311

RESUMO

KCNH1 mutations have been identified in patients with Zimmermann-Laband syndrome and Temple-Baraitser syndrome, as well as patients with uncharacterized syndromes with intellectual disability and overlapping features. These syndromes include dysmorphic facial features, nail hypo/aplasia, thumb and skeletal anomalies, intellectual disability, and seizures. We report the epilepsy phenotype in patients with KCNH1 mutations. Demographic data, electroclinical features, response to antiepileptic drugs, and results of significant diagnostic investigations of nine patients carrying mutations in KCNH1 were obtained from referring centres. Epilepsy was present in 7/9 patients. Both generalized and focal tonic-clonic seizures were observed. Complete seizure control was achieved with pharmacological treatment in 2/7 patients; polytherapy was required in 4/7 patients. Status epilepticus occurred in 4/7 patients. EEG showed a diffusely slow background in 7/7 patients with epilepsy, with variable epileptiform abnormalities. Cerebral folate deficiency and an increase in urinary hypoxanthine and uridine were observed in one patient. Epilepsy is a key phenotypic feature in most individuals with KCNH1-related syndromes, suggesting a direct role of KCNH1 in epileptogenesis, although the underlying mechanism is not understood.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/genética , Fibromatose Gengival/genética , Hallux/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Unhas Malformadas/genética , Polegar/anormalidades , Anormalidades Múltiplas/tratamento farmacológico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/tratamento farmacológico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fibromatose Gengival/tratamento farmacológico , Fibromatose Gengival/fisiopatologia , Hallux/fisiopatologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/tratamento farmacológico , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Unhas Malformadas/tratamento farmacológico , Unhas Malformadas/fisiopatologia , Síndrome , Polegar/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Med Genomics ; 9: 7, 2016 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26846091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical and genetic heterogeneity in monogenetic disorders represents a major diagnostic challenge. Although the presence of particular clinical features may aid in identifying a specific cause in some cases, the majority of patients remain undiagnosed. Here, we investigated the utility of whole-exome sequencing as a diagnostic approach for establishing a molecular diagnosis in a highly heterogeneous group of patients with varied intellectual disability and microcephaly. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 38 patients, including three sib-pairs, in addition to or in parallel with genetic analyses that were performed during the diagnostic work-up of the study participants. RESULTS: In ten out of these 35 families (29 %), we found mutations in genes already known to be related to a disorder in which microcephaly is a main feature. Two unrelated patients had mutations in the ASPM gene. In seven other patients we found mutations in RAB3GAP1, RNASEH2B, KIF11, ERCC8, CASK, DYRK1A and BRCA2. In one of the sib-pairs, mutations were found in the RTTN gene. Mutations were present in seven out of our ten families with an established etiological diagnosis with recessive inheritance. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that whole-exome sequencing is a powerful tool for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with highly heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability with microcephaly. Our results confirm that autosomal recessive disorders are highly prevalent among patients with microcephaly.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/complicações , Microcefalia/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 95(6): 698-707, 2014 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25434003

RESUMO

Mutations in components of the major spliceosome have been described in disorders with craniofacial anomalies, e.g., Nager syndrome and mandibulofacial dysostosis type Guion-Almeida. The U5 spliceosomal complex of eight highly conserved proteins is critical for pre-mRNA splicing. We identified biallelic mutations in TXNL4A, a member of this complex, in individuals with Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS). This rare condition is characterized by bilateral choanal atresia, hearing loss, cleft lip and/or palate, and other craniofacial dysmorphisms. Mutations were found in 9 of 11 affected families. In 8 families, affected individuals carried a rare loss-of-function mutation (nonsense, frameshift, or microdeletion) on one allele and a low-frequency 34 bp deletion (allele frequency 0.76%) in the core promoter region on the other allele. In a single highly consanguineous family, formerly diagnosed as oculo-oto-facial dysplasia, the four affected individuals were homozygous for a 34 bp promoter deletion, which differed from the promoter deletion in the other families. Reporter gene and in vivo assays showed that the promoter deletions led to reduced expression of TXNL4A. Depletion of TXNL4A (Dib1) in yeast demonstrated reduced assembly of the tri-snRNP complex. Our results indicate that BMKS is an autosomal-recessive condition, which is frequently caused by compound heterozygosity of low-frequency promoter deletions in combination with very rare loss-of-function mutations.


Assuntos
Atresia das Cóanas/genética , Surdez/congênito , Deleção de Genes , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Spliceossomos/genética , Alelos , Pré-Escolar , Atresia das Cóanas/diagnóstico , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/genética , Exossomos/genética , Facies , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Genes Reporter , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Spliceossomos/metabolismo
8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(11): 2707-23, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25123976

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common microdeletion syndromes. Most patients have a deletion resulting from a recombination of low copy repeat blocks LCR22-A and LCR22-D. Loss of the TBX1 gene is considered the most important cause of the phenotype. A limited number of patients with smaller, overlapping deletions distal to the TBX1 locus have been described in the literature. In these patients, the CRKL gene is deleted. Haploinsufficiency of this gene has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. To distinguish these deletions (comprising the LCR22-B to LCR22-D region) from the more distal 22q11.2 deletions (located beyond LCR22-D), we propose the term "central 22q11.2 deletions". In the present study we report on 27 new patients with such a deletion. Together with information on previously published cases, we review the clinical findings of 52 patients. The prevalence of congenital heart anomalies and the frequency of de novo deletions in patients with a central deletion are substantially lower than in patients with a common or distal 22q11.2 deletion. Renal and urinary tract malformations, developmental delays, cognitive impairments and behavioral problems seem to be equally frequent as in patients with a common deletion. None of the patients had a cleft palate. Patients with a deletion that also encompassed the MAPK1 gene, located just distal to LCR22-D, have a different and more severe phenotype, characterized by a higher prevalence of congenital heart anomalies, growth restriction and microcephaly. Our results further elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome spectrum.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Família , Feminino , Ordem dos Genes , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 14: 323, 2013 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24237863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reported birth prevalences of congenital limb defects (CLD) vary between countries: from 13/10,000 in Finland for the period 1964-1977 to 30.4/10,000 births in Scotland from 1964-1968. Epidemiological studies permit the timely detection of trends in CLD and of associations with other birth defects. The aim of this study is to describe the birth prevalence of CLD in the northern Netherlands. METHODS: In a population-based, epidemiological study we investigated the birth prevalences of CLD for 1981-2010. Data were collected by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in the northern Netherlands (EUROCAT-NNL). We excluded malpositions, club foot, and dislocation/dysplasia of hips or knees. Trends were analysed for the 19-year period 1992-2010 using χ² tests, as well as CLD association with anomalies affecting other organs. RESULTS: The birth prevalence of CLD was 21.1/10,000 births for 1981-2010. There was an overall decrease in non-syndromic limb defects (P = 0.023) caused by a decrease in the prevalence of non-syndromic syndactyly (P < 0.01) in 1992-2010. Of 1,048 children with CLD, 55% were males, 57% had isolated defects, 13% had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and 30% had a recognised syndrome. The upper:lower limb ratio was 2:1, and the left:right side ratio was 1.2:1. Cardiovascular and urinary tract anomalies were common in combination with CLD (37% and 25% of cases with MCA). Digestive-tract anomalies were significantly associated with CLD (P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: The birth prevalence of CLD in the northern Netherlands was 21.1/10,000 births. The birth prevalence of non-syndromic syndactyly dropped from 5.2/10,000 to 1.1/10,000 in 1992-2010.


Assuntos
Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 28(11): 875-87, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24092049

RESUMO

Periconceptional folic acid has been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects, but findings on its effect in oral clefts are largely inconclusive. This case-control study assesses the effects of periconceptional folic acid on cleft risk, using complementary data from the Dutch Oral Cleft Registry and a population-based birth defects registry (Eurocat) of children and foetuses born in the Northern Netherlands between 1997 and 2009. Cases were live-born infants with non-syndromic clefts (n = 367) and controls were infants or foetuses with chromosomal/syndromal (n = 924) or non-folate related anomalies (n = 2,021). We analyzed type/timing/duration of supplement use related to traditional cleft categories as well as to their timing (early/late embryonic periods) and underlying embryological processes (fusion/differentiation defects). Consistent supplement use during the aetiologically relevant period (weeks 0-12 postconception) was associated with an increased risk of clefts (adjusted odds ratio 1.72, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.49), especially of cleft lip/alveolus (3.16, 1.69-5.91). Further analysis systematically showed twofold to threefold increased risks for late differentiation defects-mainly clefts of the lip/alveolus-with no significant associations for early/late fusion defects. Effects were attributable to folic acid and not to other multivitamin components, and inclusion of partial use (not covering the complete aetiologically relevant period) generally weakened associations. In conclusion, this study presents several lines of evidence indicating that periconceptional folic acid in the Northern Netherlands is associated with an increased risk of clefts, in particular of cleft lip/alveolus. This association is strengthened by the specificity, consistency, systematic pattern, and duration of exposure-response relationship of our findings, underlining the need to evaluate public health strategies regarding folic acid and to further investigate potential adverse effects.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/prevenção & controle , Fissura Palatina/prevenção & controle , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Análise Multivariada , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Complexo Vitamínico B/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 92(3): 401-6, 2013 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23395478

RESUMO

Ohdo syndrome comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by intellectual disability (ID) and typical facial features, including blepharophimosis. Clinically, these blepharophimosis-ID syndromes have been classified in five distinct subgroups, including the Maat-Kievit-Brunner (MKB) type, which, in contrast to the others, is characterized by X-linked inheritance and facial coarsening at older age. We performed exome sequencing in two families, each with two affected males with Ohdo syndrome MKB type. In the two families, MED12 missense mutations (c.3443G>A [p.Arg1148His] or c.3493T>C [p.Ser1165Pro]) segregating with the phenotype were identified. Upon subsequent analysis of an additional cohort of nine simplex male individuals with Ohdo syndrome, one additional de novo missense change (c.5185C>A [p.His1729Asn]) in MED12 was detected. The occurrence of three different hemizygous missense mutations in three unrelated families affected by Ohdo syndrome MKB type shows that mutations in MED12 are the underlying cause of this X-linked form of Ohdo syndrome. Together with the recently described KAT6B mutations resulting in Ohdo syndrome Say/Barber/Biesecker/Young/Simpson type, our findings point to aberrant chromatin modification as being central to the pathogenesis of Ohdo syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Blefarofimose/genética , Blefaroptose/genética , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
12.
Nat Genet ; 44(3): 277-84, 2012 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22306653

RESUMO

Perlman syndrome is a congenital overgrowth syndrome inherited in an autosomal recessive manner that is associated with Wilms tumor susceptibility. We mapped a previously unknown susceptibility locus to 2q37.1 and identified germline mutations in DIS3L2, a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe dis3 gene, in individuals with Perlman syndrome. Yeast dis3 mutant strains have mitotic abnormalities. Yeast Dis3 and its human homologs, DIS3 and DIS3L1, have exoribonuclease activity and bind to the core RNA exosome complex. DIS3L2 has a different intracellular localization and lacks the PIN domain found in DIS3 and DIS3L1; nevertheless, we show that DIS3L2 has exonuclease activity. DIS3L2 inactivation was associated with mitotic abnormalities and altered expression of mitotic checkpoint proteins. DIS3L2 overexpression suppressed the growth of human cancer cell lines, and knockdown enhanced the growth of these cells. We also detected evidence of DIS3L2 mutations in sporadic Wilms tumor. These observations suggest that DIS3L2 has a critical role in RNA metabolism and is essential for the regulation of cell growth and division.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Macrossomia Fetal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Bases , Divisão Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Genes cdc/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Dados de Sequência Molecular , RNA/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 20(2): 161-5, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21934709

RESUMO

The correct interpretation of copy number gains in patients with developmental delay and multiple congenital anomalies is hampered by the large number of copy number variations (CNVs) encountered in healthy individuals. The variable phenotype associated with copy number gains makes interpretation even more difficult. Literature shows that inheritence, size and presence in healthy individuals are commonly used to decide whether a certain copy number gain is pathogenic, but no general consensus has been established. We aimed to develop guidelines for interpreting gains detected by array analysis using array CGH data of 300 patients analysed with the 105K Agilent oligo array in a diagnostic setting. We evaluated the guidelines in a second, independent, cohort of 300 patients. In the first 300 patients 797 gains of four or more adjacent oligonucleotides were observed. Of these, 45.4% were de novo and 54.6% were familial. In total, 94.8% of all de novo gains and 87.1% of all familial gains were concluded to be benign CNVs. Clinically relevant gains ranged from 288 to 7912 kb in size, and were significantly larger than benign gains and gains of unknown clinical relevance (P < 0.001). Our study showed that a threshold of 200 kb is acceptable in a clinical setting, whereas heritability does not exclude a pathogenic nature of a gain. Evaluation of the guidelines in the second cohort of 300 patients revealed that the interpretation guidelines were clear, easy to follow and efficient.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 155A(11): 2739-45, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21990140

RESUMO

A partial deletion of chromosome band 2p25.3 (2pter) is a rarely described cytogenetic aberration in patients with intellectual disability (ID). Using microarrays we identified deletions of 2p25.3, sized 0.37-3.13 Mb, in three adult siblings and three unrelated patients. All patients had ID, obesity or overweight and/or a square-shaped stature without overt facial dysmorphic features. Combining our data with phenotypic and genotypic data of three patients from the literature we defined the minimal region of overlap which contained one gene, i.e., MYT1L. MYT1L is highly transcribed in the mouse embryonic brain where its expression is restricted to postmitotic differentiating neurons. In mouse-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) models, MYT1L is essential for inducing functional mature neurons. These resemble excitatory cortical neurons of the forebrain, suggesting a role for MYT1L in development of cognitive functions. Furthermore, MYT1L can directly convert human fibroblasts into functional neurons in conjunction with other transcription factors. MYT1L duplication was previously reported in schizophrenia, indicating that the gene is dosage-sensitive and that shared neurodevelopmental pathways may be affected in ID and schizophrenia. Finally, deletion of MYT1, another member of the Myelin Transcription Factor family involved in neurogenesis and highly similar to MYT1L, was recently described in ID as well. The identification of MYT1L as candidate gene for ID justifies further molecular studies aimed at detecting mutations and for mechanistic studies on its role in neuron development and on neuropathogenic effects of haploinsufficiency.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Cariótipo Anormal , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Masculino , Metáfase , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurogênese , Obesidade/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Sobrepeso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Hum Mutat ; 32(10): 1100-7, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21681854

RESUMO

Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a heritable blistering disorder that can be inherited autosomal dominantly (DDEB) or recessively (RDEB) and covers a group of several distinctive phenotypes. A large number of unique COL7A1 mutations have been shown to underlie DEB. Although general genotype-phenotype correlation rules have emerged, many exceptions to these rules exist, compromising disease diagnosing and genetic counseling. We therefore constructed the International DEB Patient Registry (http://www.deb-central.org), aimed at worldwide collection and sharing of phenotypic and genotypic information on DEB. As of May 2011, this MOLGENIS-based registry contains detailed information on 508 published and 71 unpublished patients and their 388 unique COL7A1 mutations, and includes all combinations of mutations. The current registry RDEB versus DDEB ratio of 4:1, if compared to prevalence figures, suggests underreporting of DDEB in the literature. Thirty-eight percent of mutations stored introduce a premature termination codon (PTC) and 43% an amino acid change. Submission wizards allow users to quickly and easily share novel information. This registry will be of great help in disease diagnosing and genetic counseling and will lead to novel insights, especially in the rare phenotypes of which there is often lack of understanding. Altogether, this registry will greatly benefit the DEB patients.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo VII/genética , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Epidermólise Bolhosa Distrófica/genética , Mutação , Sistema de Registros , Epidermólise Bolhosa Distrófica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Internet , Fenótipo , Sistema de Registros/normas , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferramenta de Busca
16.
J Med Genet ; 48(3): 160-7, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21113014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inversa type of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB-I) is a rare variant of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, characterised by blistering in the body flexures, trunk, and mucosa. The cause of this specific distribution is unknown. So far, 20 COL7A1 genotypes have been described in RDEB-I and genotype-phenotype correlations have not been studied extensively. The aim of the study was to gain more insight into the pathophysiology of this intriguing RDEB-I phenotype. METHODS: Twenty Dutch and British RDEB-I patients, and full genotypes in 18 of them, were identified. The literature on RDEB-I genotypes was reviewed and an extensive genotype-phenotype correlation study for RDEB-I was conducted. RESULTS: All 20 patients had generalised blistering at birth and during early infancy. In most patients, the age of transition from generalised to inversa distribution was before the age of 4 years. A spectrum of disease severity, ranging from the mildest 'mucosal only' phenotype to the severest phenotype with limited acral involvement, was noted. The 29 genotypes of these RDEB-I patients and those reported in the literature revealed that RDEB-I is associated with specific recessive arginine and glycine substitutions in the triple helix domain of type VII collagen. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Why these specific arginine and glycine substitutions cause the inversa distribution remains unknown. It was not possible to identify clear differences in location and nature of substituting amino acids between these mutations and missense mutations causing other RDEB phenotypes. It is hypothesised that the higher skin temperature in the affected areas plays an important role in the pathophysiology of RDEB-I.


Assuntos
Arginina/genética , Colágeno Tipo VII/genética , Epidermólise Bolhosa Distrófica/genética , Epidermólise Bolhosa Distrófica/fisiopatologia , Glicina/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Colágeno Tipo VII/metabolismo , Genes Recessivos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Fenótipo , Pele/fisiopatologia
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 18(9): 999-1005, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20531442

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly is a severe malformation of the brain characterized by abnormal formation and separation of the developing central nervous system. The prevalence is 1:250 during early embryogenesis, the live-born prevalence is 1:16 000. The etiology of HPE is extremely heterogeneous and can be teratogenic or genetic. We screened four known HPE genes in a Dutch cohort of 86 non-syndromic HPE index cases, including 53 family members. We detected 21 mutations (24.4%), 3 in SHH, 9 in ZIC2 and 9 in SIX3. Eight mutations involved amino-acid substitutions, 7 ins/del mutations, 1 frame-shift, 3 identical poly-alanine tract expansions and 2 gene deletions. Pathogenicity of mutations was presumed based on de novo character, predicted non-functionality of mutated proteins, segregation of mutations with affected family-members or combinations of these features. Two mutations were reported previously. SNP array confirmed detected deletions; one spanning the ZIC2/ZIC5 genes (approx. 100 kb) the other a 1.45 Mb deletion including SIX2/SIX3 genes. The mutation percentage (24%) is comparable with previous reports, but we detected significantly less mutations in SHH: 3.5 vs 10.7% (P=0.043) and significantly more in SIX3: 10.5 vs 4.3% (P=0.018). For TGIF1 and ZIC2 mutation the rate was in conformity with earlier reports. About half of the mutations were de novo, one was a germ line mosaic. The familial mutations displayed extensive heterogeneity in clinical manifestation. Of seven familial index patients only two parental carriers showed minor HPE signs, five were completely asymptomatic. Therefore, each novel mutation should be considered as a risk factor for clinically manifest HPE, with the caveat of reduced clinical penetrance.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Olho/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Hum Mutat ; 31(6): 656-66, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20340138

RESUMO

Wnt signaling is a crucial component of the cell machinery orchestrating a series of physiological processes such as cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Among the plethora of roles that Wnt signaling plays, its canonical branch regulates eye organogenesis and angiogenesis. Mutations in the genes encoding the low density lipoprotein receptor protein 5 (LRP5) and frizzled 4 (FZD4), acting as coreceptors for Wnt ligands, cause familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). Moreover, mutations in the gene encoding NDP, a ligand for these Wnt receptors, cause Norrie disease and FEVR. Both FEVR and Norrie disease share similar phenotypic characteristics, including abnormal vascularization of the peripheral retina and formation of fibrovascular masses in the eye that can lead to blindness. In this mutation update, we report 21 novel variants for FZD4, LRP5, and NDP, and discuss the putative functional consequences of missense mutations. In addition, we provide a comprehensive overview of all previously published variants in the aforementioned genes and summarize the phenotypic characteristics in mouse models carrying mutations in the orthologous genes. The increasing molecular understanding of Wnt signaling, related to ocular development and blood supply, offers more tools for accurate disease diagnosis that may be important in the development of therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Receptores Frizzled/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/genética , Mutação , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Vitreorretinopatia Proliferativa/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas do Olho/química , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Saúde da Família , Receptores Frizzled/química , Receptores Frizzled/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/química , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/metabolismo , Proteína-5 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
20.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 154C(1): 170-5, 2010 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20104609

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) and ectrodactyly represent congenital malformations of the developing forebrain and developing digits, respectively. The combination of these conditions is rare, with only 15 cases known to date (12 previously reported, and 3 new cases described here). While the findings in these patients overlap with previously described genetic conditions, the similarity in phenotypes among these patients has led to the establishment of a at least one distinct syndrome: HPE, ectrodactyly, and bilateral cleft lip-palate syndrome (OMIM 300571). There has been great interest in identifying a genetic cause for the findings in patients with HPE and ectrodactyly; however the cause(s) of this rare association still remain unknown.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/complicações , Holoprosencefalia/complicações , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Feto Abortado/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fenda Labial/complicações , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico , Fissura Palatina/genética , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/diagnóstico , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Holoprosencefalia/classificação , Holoprosencefalia/diagnóstico , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
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