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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2075-2082, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361404

RESUMO

Zinc finger protein 462 (ZNF462) is a relatively newly discovered vertebrate specific protein with known critical roles in embryonic development in animal models. Two case reports and a case series study have described the phenotype of 10 individuals with ZNF462 loss of function variants. Herein, we present 14 new individuals with loss of function variants to the previous studies to delineate the syndrome of loss of function in ZNF462. Collectively, these 24 individuals present with recurring phenotypes that define a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Most have some form of developmental delay (79%) and a minority has autism spectrum disorder (33%). Characteristic facial features include ptosis (83%), down slanting palpebral fissures (58%), exaggerated Cupid's bow/wide philtrum (54%), and arched eyebrows (50%). Metopic ridging or craniosynostosis was found in a third of study participants and feeding problems in half. Other phenotype characteristics include dysgenesis of the corpus callosum in 25% of individuals, hypotonia in half, and structural heart defects in 21%. Using facial analysis technology, a computer algorithm applying deep learning was able to accurately differentiate individuals with ZNF462 loss of function variants from individuals with Noonan syndrome and healthy controls. In summary, we describe a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome associated with haploinsufficiency of ZNF462 that has distinct clinical characteristics and facial features.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 403-412, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303265

RESUMO

POU3F3, also referred to as Brain-1, is a well-known transcription factor involved in the development of the central nervous system, but it has not previously been associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report the identification of 19 individuals with heterozygous POU3F3 disruptions, most of which are de novo variants. All individuals had developmental delays and/or intellectual disability and impairments in speech and language skills. Thirteen individuals had characteristic low-set, prominent, and/or cupped ears. Brain abnormalities were observed in seven of eleven MRI reports. POU3F3 is an intronless gene, insensitive to nonsense-mediated decay, and 13 individuals carried protein-truncating variants. All truncating variants that we tested in cellular models led to aberrant subcellular localization of the encoded protein. Luciferase assays demonstrated negative effects of these alleles on transcriptional activation of a reporter with a FOXP2-derived binding motif. In addition to the loss-of-function variants, five individuals had missense variants that clustered at specific positions within the functional domains, and one small in-frame deletion was identified. Two missense variants showed reduced transactivation capacity in our assays, whereas one variant displayed gain-of-function effects, suggesting a distinct pathophysiological mechanism. In bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) interaction assays, all the truncated POU3F3 versions that we tested had significantly impaired dimerization capacities, whereas all missense variants showed unaffected dimerization with wild-type POU3F3. Taken together, our identification and functional cell-based analyses of pathogenic variants in POU3F3, coupled with a clinical characterization, implicate disruptions of this gene in a characteristic neurodevelopmental disorder.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 283-301, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353023

RESUMO

The RNA polymerase II complex (pol II) is responsible for transcription of all ∼21,000 human protein-encoding genes. Here, we describe sixteen individuals harboring de novo heterozygous variants in POLR2A, encoding RPB1, the largest subunit of pol II. An iterative approach combining structural evaluation and mass spectrometry analyses, the use of S. cerevisiae as a model system, and the assessment of cell viability in HeLa cells allowed us to classify eleven variants as probably disease-causing and four variants as possibly disease-causing. The significance of one variant remains unresolved. By quantification of phenotypic severity, we could distinguish mild and severe phenotypic consequences of the disease-causing variants. Missense variants expected to exert only mild structural effects led to a malfunctioning pol II enzyme, thereby inducing a dominant-negative effect on gene transcription. Intriguingly, individuals carrying these variants presented with a severe phenotype dominated by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay. Conversely, individuals carrying variants expected to result in complete loss of function, thus reduced levels of functional pol II from the normal allele, exhibited the mildest phenotypes. We conclude that subtle variants that are central in functionally important domains of POLR2A cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay through a dominant-negative effect on pol-II-mediated transcription of DNA.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089205

RESUMO

RNA polymerase III (Pol III) is an essential 17-subunit complex responsible for the transcription of small housekeeping RNAs such as transfer RNAs and 5S ribosomal RNA. Biallelic variants in four genes (POLR3A, POLR3B, and POLR1C and POLR3K) encoding Pol III subunits have previously been found in individuals with (neuro-) developmental disorders. In this report, we describe three individuals with biallelic variants in POLR3GL, a gene encoding a Pol III subunit that has not been associated with disease before. Using whole exome sequencing in a monozygotic twin and an unrelated individual, we detected homozygous and compound heterozygous POLR3GL splice acceptor site variants. RNA sequencing confirmed the loss of full-length POLR3GL RNA transcripts in blood samples of the individuals. The phenotypes of the described individuals are mainly characterized by axial endosteal hyperostosis, oligodontia, short stature, and mild facial dysmorphisms. These features largely fit within the spectrum of phenotypes caused by previously described biallelic variants in POLR3A, POLR3B, POLR1C, and POLR3K. These findings further expand the spectrum of POLR3-related disorders and implicate that POLR3GL should be included in genetic testing if such disorders are suspected.

5.
Cell Stem Cell ; 24(2): 257-270.e8, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595499

RESUMO

Self-renewal and differentiation of pluripotent murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is regulated by extrinsic signaling pathways. It is less clear whether cellular metabolism instructs developmental progression. In an unbiased genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen, we identified components of a conserved amino-acid-sensing pathway as critical drivers of ESC differentiation. Functional analysis revealed that lysosome activity, the Ragulator protein complex, and the tumor-suppressor protein Folliculin enable the Rag GTPases C and D to bind and seclude the bHLH transcription factor Tfe3 in the cytoplasm. In contrast, ectopic nuclear Tfe3 represses specific developmental and metabolic transcriptional programs that are associated with peri-implantation development. We show differentiation-specific and non-canonical regulation of Rag GTPase in ESCs and, importantly, identify point mutations in a Tfe3 domain required for cytoplasmic inactivation as potentially causal for a human developmental disorder. Our work reveals an instructive and biomedically relevant role of metabolic signaling in licensing embryonic cell fate transitions.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 164-178, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580808

RESUMO

SMARCC2 (BAF170) is one of the invariable core subunits of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling BAF (BRG1-associated factor) complex and plays a crucial role in embryogenesis and corticogenesis. Pathogenic variants in genes encoding other components of the BAF complex have been associated with intellectual disability syndromes. Despite its significant biological role, variants in SMARCC2 have not been directly associated with human disease previously. Using whole-exome sequencing and a web-based gene-matching program, we identified 15 individuals with variable degrees of neurodevelopmental delay and growth retardation harboring one of 13 heterozygous variants in SMARCC2, most of them novel and proven de novo. The clinical presentation overlaps with intellectual disability syndromes associated with other BAF subunits, such as Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes and includes prominent speech impairment, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features such as hypertrichosis, thick eyebrows, thin upper lip vermilion, and upturned nose. Nine out of the fifteen individuals harbor variants in the highly conserved SMARCC2 DNA-interacting domains (SANT and SWIRM) and present with a more severe phenotype. Two of these individuals present cardiac abnormalities. Transcriptomic analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals highlights a group of differentially expressed genes with possible roles in regulation of neuronal development and function, namely H19, SCRG1, RELN, and CACNB4. Our findings suggest a novel SMARCC2-related syndrome that overlaps with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with variants in BAF-complex subunits.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194818

RESUMO

De novo germline mutations in GNB1 have been associated with a neurodevelopmental phenotype. To date, 28 patients with variants classified as pathogenic have been reported. We add 18 patients with de novo mutations to this cohort, including a patient with mosaicism for a GNB1 mutation who presented with a milder phenotype. Consistent with previous reports, developmental delay in these patients was moderate to severe, and more than half of the patients were non-ambulatory and nonverbal. The most observed substitution affects the p.Ile80 residue encoded in exon 6, with 28% of patients carrying a variant at this residue. Dystonia and growth delay were observed more frequently in patients carrying variants in this residue, suggesting a potential genotype-phenotype correlation. In the new cohort of 18 patients, 50% of males had genitourinary anomalies and 61% of patients had gastrointestinal anomalies, suggesting a possible association of these findings with variants in GNB1. In addition, cutaneous mastocytosis, reported once before in a patient with a GNB1 variant, was observed in three additional patients, providing further evidence for an association to GNB1. We will review clinical and molecular data of these new cases and all previously reported cases to further define the phenotype and establish possible genotype-phenotype correlations.

8.
J Med Genet ; 55(11): 753-764, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of febrile illness-induced encephalopathy and rhabdomyolysis has thus far only been described in disorders that affect cellular energy status. In the absence of specific metabolic abnormalities, diagnosis can be challenging. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and characterise pathogenic variants in two individuals from unrelated families, both of whom presented clinically with a similar phenotype that included neurodevelopmental delay, febrile illness-induced encephalopathy and episodes of rhabdomyolysis, followed by developmental arrest, epilepsy and tetraplegia. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was used to identify pathogenic variants in the two individuals. Biochemical and cell biological analyses were performed on fibroblasts from these individuals and a yeast two-hybrid analysis was used to assess protein-protein interactions. RESULTS: Probands shared a homozygous TRAPPC2L variant (c.109G>T) resulting in a p.Asp37Tyr missense variant. TRAPPC2L is a component of transport protein particle (TRAPP), a group of multisubunit complexes that function in membrane traffic and autophagy. Studies in patient fibroblasts as well as in a yeast system showed that the p.Asp37Tyr protein was present but not functional and resulted in specific membrane trafficking delays. The human missense mutation and the analogous mutation in the yeast homologue Tca17 ablated the interaction between TRAPPC2L and TRAPPC10/Trs130, a component of the TRAPP II complex. Since TRAPP II activates the GTPase RAB11, we examined the activation state of this protein and found increased levels of the active RAB, correlating with changes in its cellular morphology. CONCLUSIONS: Our study implicates a RAB11 pathway in the aetiology of the TRAPPC2L disorder and has implications for other TRAPP-related disorders with similar phenotypes.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(11): 1566-1571, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959382

RESUMO

Clinical application of whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing (WES and WGS) has led to an increasing interest in how it could drive healthcare decisions. As with any healthcare innovation, implementation of next-generation sequencing in the clinic raises questions on affordability and costing impact for society as a whole. We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 370 patients with ID who had undergone WES at various stages of their diagnostic trajectory. We collected all medical interventions performed on these patients at the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU), Utrecht, the Netherlands. We categorized the patients according to their WES-based preliminary diagnosis ("yes", "no", and "uncertain"), and assessed the per-patient healthcare activities and corresponding costs before (pre) and after (post) genetic diagnosis. The WES-specific diagnostic yield among the 370 patients was 35% (128 patients). Pre-WES costs were €7.225 on average. Highest average costs were observed for laboratory-based tests, including genetics, followed by consults. Compared to pre-WES costs, the post-WES costs were on average 80% lower per patient, irrespective of the WES-based diagnostic outcome. Application of WES results in a considerable reduction of healthcare costs, not just in current settings, but even more so when applied earlier in the diagnostic trajectory (genetics-first). In such context, WES may replace less cost-effective traditional technologies without compromising the diagnostic yield. Moreover, WES appears to harbor an intrinsic "end-of-trajectory" effect; regardless of the diagnosis, downstream medical interventions decrease substantially in both number and costs.

10.
Brain ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985992

RESUMO

The transcription factor BCL11B is essential for development of the nervous and the immune system, and Bcl11b deficiency results in structural brain defects, reduced learning capacity, and impaired immune cell development in mice. However, the precise role of BCL11B in humans is largely unexplored, except for a single patient with a BCL11B missense mutation, affected by multisystem anomalies and profound immune deficiency. Using massively parallel sequencing we identified 13 patients bearing heterozygous germline alterations in BCL11B. Notably, all of them are affected by global developmental delay with speech impairment and intellectual disability; however, none displayed overt clinical signs of immune deficiency. Six frameshift mutations, two nonsense mutations, one missense mutation, and two chromosomal rearrangements resulting in diminished BCL11B expression, arose de novo. A further frameshift mutation was transmitted from a similarly affected mother. Interestingly, the most severely affected patient harbours a missense mutation within a zinc-finger domain of BCL11B, probably affecting the DNA-binding structural interface, similar to the recently published patient. Furthermore, the most C-terminally located premature termination codon mutation fails to rescue the progenitor cell proliferation defect in hippocampal slice cultures from Bcl11b-deficient mice. Concerning the role of BCL11B in the immune system, extensive immune phenotyping of our patients revealed alterations in the T cell compartment and lack of peripheral type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), consistent with the findings described in Bcl11b-deficient mice. Unsupervised analysis of 102 T lymphocyte subpopulations showed that the patients clearly cluster apart from healthy children, further supporting the common aetiology of the disorder. Taken together, we show here that mutations leading either to BCL11B haploinsufficiency or to a truncated BCL11B protein clinically cause a non-syndromic neurodevelopmental delay. In addition, we suggest that missense mutations affecting specific sites within zinc-finger domains might result in distinct and more severe clinical outcomes.

11.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875423

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variations in genes encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are increasingly associated with human disease. Clinical features of autosomal recessive ARS deficiencies appear very diverse and without apparent logic. We searched for common clinical patterns to improve disease recognition, insight into pathophysiology, and clinical care. METHODS: Symptoms were analyzed in all patients with recessive ARS deficiencies reported in literature, supplemented with unreported patients evaluated in our hospital. RESULTS: In literature, we identified 107 patients with AARS, DARS, GARS, HARS, IARS, KARS, LARS, MARS, RARS, SARS, VARS, YARS, and QARS deficiencies. Common symptoms (defined as present in ≥4/13 ARS deficiencies) included abnormalities of the central nervous system and/or senses (13/13), failure to thrive, gastrointestinal symptoms, dysmaturity, liver disease, and facial dysmorphisms. Deep phenotyping of 5 additional patients with unreported compound heterozygous pathogenic variations in IARS, LARS, KARS, and QARS extended the common phenotype with lung disease, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, and renal tubulopathy. CONCLUSION: We propose a common clinical phenotype for recessive ARS deficiencies, resulting from insufficient aminoacylation activity to meet translational demand in specific organs or periods of life. Assuming residual ARS activity, adequate protein/amino acid supply seems essential instead of the traditional replacement of protein by glucose in patients with metabolic diseases.

12.
JIMD Rep ; 42: 99-103, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29380259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic mutations in DNAJC12 were recently identified as a BH4-responsive cause of hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA). Outcome was only favorable when treatment was initiated early in life. We report on a 15-year-old boy with HPA due to a homozygous deletion in DNAJC12 in whom - despite his advanced age - treatment was initiated. CASE: A boy with developmental delay, an extrapyramidal movement disorder, and persistently elevated plasma phenylalanine levels was diagnosed with DNAJC12 deficiency at the age of 15 years. Diagnosis was made upon exome reanalysis revealing a homozygous 6.9 kb deletion in DNAJC12 which had not been detected by the standard exome analysis pipeline. Treatment with the BH4 analog sapropterin dihydrochloride (10 mg/kg/day) was initiated and evoked a 50% reduction of the plasma phenylalanine levels. More strikingly, a marked improvement in daily functioning and improved exercise tolerance was noted. Additionally, gait analysis before and after treatment initiation revealed a partial normalization of his movement disorder. CONCLUSION: Patients with hyperphenylalaninemia due to DNAJC12 deficiency may benefit from treatment with a BH4 analog - even when introduced at a later age.

13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(2): 210-219, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29348693

RESUMO

Blepharocheilodontic syndrome (BCDS) consists of lagophthalmia, ectropion of the lower eyelids, distichiasis, euryblepharon, cleft lip/palate and dental anomalies and has autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expression. We identified heterozygous variants in two genes of the cadherin-catenin complex, CDH1, encoding E-cadherin, and CTNND1, encoding p120 catenin delta1 in 15 of 17 BCDS index patients, as was recently described in a different publication. CDH1 plays an essential role in epithelial cell adherence; CTNND1 binds to CDH1 and controls the stability of the complex. Functional experiments in zebrafish and human cells showed that the CDH1 variants impair the cell adhesion function of the cadherin-catenin complex in a dominant-negative manner. Variants in CDH1 have been linked to familial hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and invasive lobular breast cancer; however, no cases of gastric or breast cancer have been reported in our BCDS cases. Functional experiments reported here indicated the BCDS variants comprise a distinct class of CDH1 variants. Altogether, we identified the genetic cause of BCDS enabling DNA diagnostics and counseling, in addition we describe a novel class of dominant negative CDH1 variants.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 768-788, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100089

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) is one of the first proteins shown to be essential for normal learning and synaptic plasticity in mice, but its requirement for human brain development has not yet been established. Through a multi-center collaborative study based on a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified 19 exceedingly rare de novo CAMK2A or CAMK2B variants in 24 unrelated individuals with intellectual disability. Variants were assessed for their effect on CAMK2 function and on neuronal migration. For both CAMK2A and CAMK2B, we identified mutations that decreased or increased CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation at Thr286/Thr287. We further found that all mutations affecting auto-phosphorylation also affected neuronal migration, highlighting the importance of tightly regulated CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation in neuronal function and neurodevelopment. Our data establish the importance of CAMK2A and CAMK2B and their auto-phosphorylation in human brain function and expand the phenotypic spectrum of the disorders caused by variants in key players of the glutamatergic signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/patologia , Fosforilação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
15.
Brain ; 140(11): 2879-2894, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053855

RESUMO

Genetic epilepsies are caused by mutations in a range of different genes, many of them encoding ion channels, receptors or transporters. While the number of detected variants and genes increased dramatically in the recent years, pleiotropic effects have also been recognized, revealing that clinical syndromes with various degrees of severity arise from a single gene, a single mutation, or from different mutations showing similar functional defects. Accordingly, several genes coding for GABAA receptor subunits have been linked to a spectrum of benign to severe epileptic disorders and it was shown that a loss of function presents the major correlated pathomechanism. Here, we identified six variants in GABRA3 encoding the α3-subunit of the GABAA receptor. This gene is located on chromosome Xq28 and has not been previously associated with human disease. Five missense variants and one microduplication were detected in four families and two sporadic cases presenting with a range of epileptic seizure types, a varying degree of intellectual disability and developmental delay, sometimes with dysmorphic features or nystagmus. The variants co-segregated mostly but not completely with the phenotype in the families, indicating in some cases incomplete penetrance, involvement of other genes, or presence of phenocopies. Overall, males were more severely affected and there were three asymptomatic female mutation carriers compared to only one male without a clinical phenotype. X-chromosome inactivation studies could not explain the phenotypic variability in females. Three detected missense variants are localized in the extracellular GABA-binding NH2-terminus, one in the M2-M3 linker and one in the M4 transmembrane segment of the α3-subunit. Functional studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed a variable but significant reduction of GABA-evoked anion currents for all mutants compared to wild-type receptors. The degree of current reduction correlated partially with the phenotype. The microduplication disrupted GABRA3 expression in fibroblasts of the affected patient. In summary, our results reveal that rare loss-of-function variants in GABRA3 increase the risk for a varying combination of epilepsy, intellectual disability/developmental delay and dysmorphic features, presenting in some pedigrees with an X-linked inheritance pattern.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Facies , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Nistagmo Patológico/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Oócitos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Linhagem , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Síndrome , Xenopus laevis , Adulto Jovem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
16.
Nat Genet ; 49(11): 1642-1646, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28920961

RESUMO

Covalent modifications of histones have an established role as chromatin effectors, as they control processes such as DNA replication and transcription, and repair or regulate nucleosomal structure. Loss of modifications on histone N tails, whether due to mutations in genes belonging to histone-modifying complexes or mutations directly affecting the histone tails, causes developmental disorders or has a role in tumorigenesis. More recently, modifications affecting the globular histone core have been uncovered as being crucial for DNA repair, pluripotency and oncogenesis. Here we report monoallelic missense mutations affecting lysine 91 in the histone H4 core (H4K91) in three individuals with a syndrome of growth delay, microcephaly and intellectual disability. Expression of the histone H4 mutants in zebrafish embryos recapitulates the developmental anomalies seen in the patients. We show that the histone H4 alterations cause genomic instability, resulting in increased apoptosis and cell cycle progression anomalies during early development. Mechanistically, our findings indicate an important role for the ubiquitination of H4K91 in genomic stability during embryonic development.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Histonas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Animais , Apoptose , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Criança , Dano ao DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Instabilidade Genômica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/metabolismo , Microcefalia/patologia , Nucleossomos/química , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Síndrome , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(2): 300-310, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777935

RESUMO

Massively parallel sequencing has revealed many de novo mutations in the etiology of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (EEs), highlighting their genetic heterogeneity. Additional candidate genes have been prioritized in silico by their co-expression in the brain. Here, we evaluate rare coding variability in 20 candidates nominated with the use of a reference gene set of 51 established EE-associated genes. Variants within the 20 candidate genes were extracted from exome-sequencing data of 42 subjects with EE and no previous genetic diagnosis. We identified 7 rare non-synonymous variants in 7 of 20 genes and performed Sanger sequence validation in affected probands and parental samples. De novo variants were found only in SLC1A2 (aka EAAT2 or GLT1) (c.244G>A [p.Gly82Arg]) and YWHAG (aka 14-3-3γ) (c.394C>T [p.Arg132Cys]), highlighting the potential cause of EE in 5% (2/42) of subjects. Seven additional subjects with de novo variants in SLC1A2 (n = 1) and YWHAG (n = 6) were subsequently identified through online tools. We identified a highly significant enrichment of de novo variants in YWHAG, establishing their role in early-onset epilepsy, and we provide additional support for the prior assignment of SLC1A2. Hence, in silico modeling of brain co-expression is an efficient method for nominating EE-associated genes to further elucidate the disorder's etiology and genotype-phenotype correlations.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Transporte de Glutamato da Membrana Plasmática/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(1): 139-148, 2017 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686853

RESUMO

We report 15 individuals with de novo pathogenic variants in WDR26. Eleven of the individuals carry loss-of-function mutations, and four harbor missense substitutions. These 15 individuals comprise ten females and five males, and all have intellectual disability with delayed speech, a history of febrile and/or non-febrile seizures, and a wide-based, spastic, and/or stiff-legged gait. These subjects share a set of common facial features that include a prominent maxilla and upper lip that readily reveal the upper gingiva, widely spaced teeth, and a broad nasal tip. Together, these features comprise a recognizable facial phenotype. We compared these features with those of chromosome 1q41q42 microdeletion syndrome, which typically contains WDR26, and noted that clinical features are consistent between the two subsets, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of WDR26 contributes to the pathology of 1q41q42 microdeletion syndrome. Consistent with this, WDR26 loss-of-function single-nucleotide mutations identified in these subjects lead to nonsense-mediated decay with subsequent reduction of RNA expression and protein levels. We derived a structural model of WDR26 and note that missense variants identified in these individuals localize to highly conserved residues of this WD-40-repeat-containing protein. Given that WDR26 mutations have been identified in ∼1 in 2,000 of subjects in our clinical cohorts and that WDR26 might be poorly annotated in exome variant-interpretation pipelines, we would anticipate that this disorder could be more common than currently appreciated.


Assuntos
Facies , Marcha/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas/genética , Convulsões/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Feminino , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Proteínas/química , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Convulsões/complicações , Síndrome
19.
Brain ; 140(8): 2093-2103, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28633435

RESUMO

Defects in mRNA export from the nucleus have been linked to various neurodegenerative disorders. We report mutations in the gene MCM3AP, encoding the germinal center associated nuclear protein (GANP), in nine affected individuals from five unrelated families. The variants were associated with severe childhood onset primarily axonal (four families) or demyelinating (one family) Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. Mild to moderate intellectual disability was present in seven of nine affected individuals. The affected individuals were either compound heterozygous or homozygous for different MCM3AP variants, which were predicted to cause depletion of GANP or affect conserved amino acids with likely importance for its function. Accordingly, fibroblasts of affected individuals from one family demonstrated severe depletion of GANP. GANP has been described to function as an mRNA export factor, and to suppress TDP-43-mediated motor neuron degeneration in flies. Thus our results suggest defective mRNA export from nucleus as a potential pathogenic mechanism of axonal degeneration in these patients. The identification of MCM3AP variants in affected individuals from multiple centres establishes it as a disease gene for childhood-onset recessively inherited Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy with intellectual disability.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases/genética , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Biol Chem ; 292(30): 12621-12631, 2017 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28584052

RESUMO

N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) regulates protein O-GlcNAcylation, an essential and dynamic post-translational modification. The O-GlcNAc modification is present on numerous nuclear and cytosolic proteins and has been implicated in essential cellular functions such as signaling and gene expression. Accordingly, altered levels of protein O-GlcNAcylation have been associated with developmental defects and neurodegeneration. However, mutations in the OGT gene have not yet been functionally confirmed in humans. Here, we report on two hemizygous mutations in OGT in individuals with X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) and dysmorphic features: one missense mutation (p.Arg284Pro) and one mutation leading to a splicing defect (c.463-6T>G). Both mutations reside in the tetratricopeptide repeats of OGT that are essential for substrate recognition. We observed slightly reduced levels of OGT protein and reduced levels of its opposing enzyme O-GlcNAcase in both patient-derived fibroblasts, but global O-GlcNAc levels appeared to be unaffected. Our data suggest that mutant cells attempt to maintain global O-GlcNAcylation by down-regulating O-GlcNAcase expression. We also found that the c.463-6T>G mutation leads to aberrant mRNA splicing, but no stable truncated protein was detected in the corresponding patient-derived fibroblasts. Recombinant OGT bearing the p.Arg284Pro mutation was prone to unfolding and exhibited reduced glycosylation activity against a complex array of glycosylation substrates and proteolytic processing of the transcription factor host cell factor 1, which is also encoded by an XLID-associated gene. We conclude that defects in O-GlcNAc homeostasis and host cell factor 1 proteolysis may play roles in mediation of XLID in individuals with OGT mutations.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clonagem Molecular , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Masculino , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
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