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2.
Epilepsia ; 62(2): 325-334, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asparagine-linked glycosylation 13 (ALG13) deficiencies have been repeatedly described in the literature with the clinical phenotype of a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Most cases were females carrying the recurrent ALG13 de novo variant, p.(Asn107Ser), with normal transferrin electrophoresis. METHODS: We delineate the phenotypic spectrum of 38 individuals, 37 girls and one boy, 16 of them novel and 22 published, with the most common pathogenic ALG13 variant p.(Asn107Ser) and additionally report the phenotype of three individuals carrying other likely pathogenic ALG13 variants. RESULTS: The phenotypic spectrum often comprised pharmacoresistant epilepsy with epileptic spasms, mostly with onset within the first 6 months of life and with spasm persistence in one-half of the cases. Tonic seizures were the most prevalent additional seizure type. Electroencephalography showed hypsarrhythmia and at a later stage of the disease in one-third of all cases paroxysms of fast activity with electrodecrement. ALG13-related DEE was usually associated with severe to profound developmental delay; ambulation was acquired by one-third of the cases, whereas purposeful hand use was sparse or completely absent. Hand stereotypies and dyskinetic movements including dystonia or choreoathetosis were relatively frequent. Verbal communication skills were absent or poor, and eye contact and pursuit were often impaired. SIGNIFICANCE: X-linked ALG13-related DEE usually manifests as West syndrome with severe to profound developmental delay. It is predominantly caused by the recurrent de novo missense variant p.(Asn107Ser). Comprehensive functional studies will be able to prove or disprove an association with congenital disorder of glycosylation.

3.
Genet Med ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimsed to provide a comprehensive description of the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of SNAP25 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (SNAP25-DEE) by reviewing newly identified and previously reported individuals. METHODS: Individuals harboring heterozygous missense or loss-of-function variants in SNAP25 were assembled through collaboration with international colleagues, matchmaking platforms, and literature review. For each individual, detailed phenotyping, classification, and structural modeling of the identified variant were performed. RESULTS: The cohort comprises 23 individuals with pathogenic or likely pathogenic de novo variants in SNAP25. Intellectual disability and early-onset epilepsy were identified as the core symptoms of SNAP25-DEE, with recurrent findings of movement disorders, cerebral visual impairment, and brain atrophy. Structural modeling for all variants predicted possible functional defects concerning SNAP25 or impaired interaction with other components of the SNARE complex. CONCLUSION: We provide a comprehensive description of SNAP25-DEE with intellectual disability and early-onset epilepsy mostly occurring before the age of two years. These core symptoms and additional recurrent phenotypes show an overlap to genes encoding other components or associated proteins of the SNARE complex such as STX1B, STXBP1, or VAMP2. Thus, these findings advance the concept of a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that may be termed "SNAREopathies."

4.
Genet Med ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Existing research suggests that while some laboratories report variants of uncertain significance, unsolicited findings (UF), and/or secondary findings (SF) when performing exome sequencing, others do not. METHODS: To investigate reporting differences, we created virtual patient-parent trio data by merging variants from patients into "normal" exomes. We invited laboratories worldwide to analyze the data along with patient phenotype information (developmental delay, dysmorphic features, and cardiac hypertrophy). Laboratories issued a diagnostic exome report and completed questionnaires to explain their rationale for reporting (or not reporting) each of the eight variants integrated. RESULTS: Of the 39 laboratories that completed the questionnaire, 30 reported the HDAC8 variant, which was a partial cause of the patient's primary phenotype, and 26 reported the BICD2 variant, which explained another phenotypic component. Lack of reporting was often due to using a filter or a targeted gene panel that excluded the variant, or because they did not consider the variant to be responsible for the phenotype. There was considerable variation in reporting variants associated with the cardiac phenotype (MYBPC3 and PLN) and reporting UF/SF also varied widely. CONCLUSION: This high degree of variability has significant impact on whether causative variants are identified, with important implications for patient care.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 499-513, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721402

RESUMO

Signal transduction through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first described mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates multiple cellular processes and participates in early and late developmental programs. Aberrant signaling through this cascade contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the RASopathies, a family of cancer-prone disorders. Here, we report that de novo missense variants in MAPK1, encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2, ERK2), cause a neurodevelopmental disease within the RASopathy phenotypic spectrum, reminiscent of Noonan syndrome in some subjects. Pathogenic variants promote increased phosphorylation of the kinase, which enhances translocation to the nucleus and boosts MAPK signaling in vitro and in vivo. Two variant classes are identified, one of which directly disrupts binding to MKP3, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase negatively regulating ERK function. Importantly, signal dysregulation driven by pathogenic MAPK1 variants is stimulus reliant and retains dependence on MEK activity. Our data support a model in which the identified pathogenic variants operate with counteracting effects on MAPK1 function by differentially impacting the ability of the kinase to interact with regulators and substrates, which likely explains the minor role of these variants as driver events contributing to oncogenesis. After nearly 20 years from the discovery of the first gene implicated in Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, the last tier of the MAPK cascade joins the group of genes mutated in RASopathies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas ras/genética
7.
J Med Genet ; 57(12): 808-819, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409512

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pigmentary mosaicism (PM) manifests by pigmentation anomalies along Blaschko's lines and represents a clue toward the molecular diagnosis of syndromic intellectual disability (ID). Together with new insights on the role for lysosomal signalling in embryonic stem cell differentiation, mutations in the X-linked transcription factor 3 (TFE3) have recently been reported in five patients. Functional analysis suggested these mutations to result in ectopic nuclear gain of functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subsequent data sharing allowed the clustering of de novo TFE3 variants identified by exome sequencing on DNA extracted from leucocytes in patients referred for syndromic ID with or without PM. RESULTS: We describe the detailed clinical and molecular data of 17 individuals harbouring a de novo TFE3 variant, including the patients that initially allowed reporting TFE3 as a new disease-causing gene. The 12 females and 5 males presented with pigmentation anomalies on Blaschko's lines, severe ID, epilepsy, storage disorder-like features, growth retardation and recognisable facial dysmorphism. The variant was at a mosaic state in at least two male patients. All variants were missense except one splice variant. Eleven of the 13 variants were localised in exon 4, 2 in exon 3, and 3 were recurrent variants. CONCLUSION: This series further delineates the specific storage disorder-like phenotype with PM ascribed to de novo TFE3 mutation in exons 3 and 4. It confirms the identification of a novel X-linked human condition associated with mosaicism and dysregulation within the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, as well as a link between lysosomal signalling and human development.

8.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1413-1417, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366965

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study characterizes the clinical and genetic features of nine unrelated patients with de novo variants in the NR4A2 gene. METHODS: Variants were identified and de novo origins were confirmed through trio exome sequencing in all but one patient. Targeted RNA sequencing was performed for one variant to confirm its splicing effect. Independent discoveries were shared through GeneMatcher. RESULTS: Missense and loss-of-function variants in NR4A2 were identified in patients from eight unrelated families. One patient carried a larger deletion including adjacent genes. The cases presented with developmental delay, hypotonia (six cases), and epilepsy (six cases). De novo status was confirmed for eight patients. One variant was demonstrated to affect splicing and result in expression of abnormal transcripts likely subject to nonsense-mediated decay. CONCLUSION: Our study underscores the importance of NR4A2 as a disease gene for neurodevelopmental disorders and epilepsy. The identified variants are likely causative of the seizures and additional developmental phenotypes in these patients.

9.
Metabolites ; 10(5)2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443577

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing and next-generation metabolic screening are, independently, increasingly applied in clinical diagnostics of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Integrated into a single bioinformatic method, these two -omics technologies can potentially further improve the diagnostic yield for IEM. Here, we present cross-omics: a method that uses untargeted metabolomics results of patient's dried blood spots (DBSs), indicated by Z-scores and mapped onto human metabolic pathways, to prioritize potentially affected genes. We demonstrate the optimization of three parameters: (1) maximum distance to the primary reaction of the affected protein, (2) an extension stringency threshold reflecting in how many reactions a metabolite can participate, to be able to extend the metabolite set associated with a certain gene, and (3) a biochemical stringency threshold reflecting paired Z-score thresholds for untargeted metabolomics results. Patients with known IEMs were included. We performed untargeted metabolomics on 168 DBSs of 97 patients with 46 different disease-causing genes, and we simulated their whole-exome sequencing results in silico. We showed that for accurate prioritization of disease-causing genes in IEM, it is essential to take into account not only the primary reaction of the affected protein but a larger network of potentially affected metabolites, multiple steps away from the primary reaction.

10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346159

RESUMO

Defects in histone methyltransferases (HMTs) are major contributing factors in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Heterozygous variants of SETD1A involved in histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation were previously identified in individuals with schizophrenia. Here, we define the clinical features of the Mendelian syndrome associated with haploinsufficiency of SETD1A by investigating 15 predominantly pediatric individuals who all have de novo SETD1A variants. These individuals present with a core set of symptoms comprising global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, subtle facial dysmorphisms, behavioral and psychiatric problems. We examined cellular phenotypes in three patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines with three variants: p.Gly535Alafs*12, c.4582-2_4582delAG, and p.Tyr1499Asp. These patient cell lines displayed DNA damage repair defects that were comparable to previously observed RNAi-mediated depletion of SETD1A. This suggested that these variants, including the p.Tyr1499Asp in the catalytic SET domain, behave as loss-of-function (LoF) alleles. Previous studies demonstrated a role for SETD1A in cell cycle control and differentiation. However, individuals with SETD1A variants do not show major structural brain defects or severe microcephaly, suggesting that defective proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors is unlikely the single underlying cause of the disorder. We show here that the Drosophila melanogaster SETD1A orthologue is required in postmitotic neurons of the fly brain for normal memory, suggesting a role in post development neuronal function. Together, this study defines a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by dominant de novo LoF variants in SETD1A and further supports a role for H3K4 methyltransferases in the regulation of neuronal processes underlying normal cognitive functioning.

11.
J Hum Genet ; 65(9): 727-734, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341456

RESUMO

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the principal system for protein degradation mediated by ubiquitination and is involved in various cellular processes. Cullin-RING ligases (CRL) are one class of E3 ubiquitin ligases that mediate polyubiquitination of specific target proteins, leading to decomposition of the substrate. Cullin 3 (CUL3) is a member of the Cullin family proteins, which act as scaffolds of CRL. Here we describe three cases of global developmental delays, with or without epilepsy, who had de novo CUL3 variants. One missense variant c.854T>C, p.(Val285Ala) and two frameshift variants c.137delG, p.(Arg46Leufs*32) and c.1239del, p.(Asp413Glufs*42) were identified by whole-exome sequencing. The Val285 residue located in the Cullin N-terminal domain and p.Val285Ala CUL3 mutant showed significantly weaker interactions to the BTB domain proteins than wild-type CUL3. Our findings suggest that de novo CUL3 variants may cause structural instability of the CRL complex and impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, leading to diverse neuropsychiatric disorders.

12.
JIMD Rep ; 52(1): 23-27, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154056

RESUMO

Background: CLN3 disease is a disorder of lysosomal homeostasis predominantly affecting the retina and the brain. The severity of the underlying mutations in CLN3 particularly determines onset and course of neurological deterioration. Given the highly conserved start codon code among eukaryotic species, we expected a variant in the start codon of CLN3 to give rise to the classical, that is, severe, phenotype. Case series: We present three patients with an identical CLN3 genotype (compound heterozygosity for the common 1 kb deletion in combination with a c.1A > C start codon variant) who all displayed a more attenuated phenotype than expected. While their retinal phenotype was similar to as expected in classical CLN3 disease, their neurological phenotype was delayed. Two patients had an early onset of cognitive impairment, but a particularly slow deterioration afterwards without any obvious motor impairment. The third patient also had a late onset of cognitive impairment. Conclusions: Contrasting our initial expectations, patients with a start codon variant in CLN3 may display a protracted phenotype. Future work will have to reveal the exact mechanism behind the assumed residual protein synthesis, and determine whether this may be eligible to start codon targeted therapy.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(5): 962-973, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031333

RESUMO

CDC42BPB encodes MRCKß (myotonic dystrophy-related Cdc42-binding kinase beta), a serine/threonine protein kinase, and a downstream effector of CDC42, which has recently been associated with Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome, an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder. We identified 12 heterozygous predicted deleterious variants in CDC42BPB (9 missense, 2 frameshift, and 1 nonsense) in 14 unrelated individuals (confirmed de novo in 11/14) with neurodevelopmental disorders including developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism, hypotonia, and structural brain abnormalities including cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. The frameshift and nonsense variants in CDC42BPB are expected to be gene-disrupting and lead to haploinsufficiency via nonsense-mediated decay. All missense variants are located in highly conserved and functionally important protein domains/regions: 3 are found in the protein kinase domain, 2 are in the citron homology domain, and 4 in a 20-amino acid sequence between 2 coiled-coil regions, 2 of which are recurrent. Future studies will help to delineate the natural history and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms of the missense variants leading to the neurodevelopmental and behavioral phenotypes.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(3): 405-411, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109420

RESUMO

Recurrent somatic variants in SPOP are cancer specific; endometrial and prostate cancers result from gain-of-function and dominant-negative effects toward BET proteins, respectively. By using clinical exome sequencing, we identified six de novo pathogenic missense variants in SPOP in seven individuals with developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms, and congenital anomalies. Two individuals shared craniofacial dysmorphisms, including congenital microcephaly, that were strikingly different from those of the other five individuals, who had (relative) macrocephaly and hypertelorism. We measured the effect of SPOP variants on BET protein amounts in human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells and patient-derived cell lines because we hypothesized that variants would lead to functional divergent effects on BET proteins. The de novo variants c.362G>A (p.Arg121Gln) and c. 430G>A (p.Asp144Asn), identified in the first two individuals, resulted in a gain of function, and conversely, the c.73A>G (p.Thr25Ala), c.248A>G (p.Tyr83Cys), c.395G>T (p.Gly132Val), and c.412C>T (p.Arg138Cys) variants resulted in a dominant-negative effect. Our findings suggest that these opposite functional effects caused by the variants in SPOP result in two distinct and clinically recognizable syndromic forms of intellectual disability with contrasting craniofacial dysmorphisms.


Assuntos
Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Crânio/anormalidades , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(1): 31-39, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089205

RESUMO

RNA polymerase III (Pol III) is an essential 17-subunit complex responsible for the transcription of small housekeeping RNAs such as transfer RNAs and 5S ribosomal RNA. Biallelic variants in four genes (POLR3A, POLR3B, and POLR1C and POLR3K) encoding Pol III subunits have previously been found in individuals with (neuro-) developmental disorders. In this report, we describe three individuals with biallelic variants in POLR3GL, a gene encoding a Pol III subunit that has not been associated with disease before. Using whole exome sequencing in a monozygotic twin and an unrelated individual, we detected homozygous and compound heterozygous POLR3GL splice acceptor site variants. RNA sequencing confirmed the loss of full-length POLR3GL RNA transcripts in blood samples of the individuals. The phenotypes of the described individuals are mainly characterized by axial endosteal hyperostosis, oligodontia, short stature, and mild facial dysmorphisms. These features largely fit within the spectrum of phenotypes caused by previously described biallelic variants in POLR3A, POLR3B, POLR1C, and POLR3K. These findings further expand the spectrum of POLR3-related disorders and implicate that POLR3GL should be included in genetic testing if such disorders are suspected.

16.
Ann Neurol ; 86(6): 899-912, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic variants in KCNB1, encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel KV 2.1, are associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Previous functional studies on a limited number of KCNB1 variants indicated a range of molecular mechanisms by which variants affect channel function, including loss of voltage sensitivity, loss of ion selectivity, and reduced cell-surface expression. METHODS: We evaluated a series of 17 KCNB1 variants associated with DEE or other neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) to rapidly ascertain channel dysfunction using high-throughput functional assays. Specifically, we investigated the biophysical properties and cell-surface expression of variant KV 2.1 channels expressed in heterologous cells using high-throughput automated electrophysiology and immunocytochemistry-flow cytometry. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants exhibited diverse functional defects, including altered current density and shifts in the voltage dependence of activation and/or inactivation, as homotetramers or when coexpressed with wild-type KV 2.1. Quantification of protein expression also identified variants with reduced total KV 2.1 expression or deficient cell-surface expression. INTERPRETATION: Our study establishes a platform for rapid screening of KV 2.1 functional defects caused by KCNB1 variants associated with DEE and other NDDs. This will aid in establishing KCNB1 variant pathogenicity and the mechanism of dysfunction, which will enable targeted strategies for therapeutic intervention based on molecular phenotype. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:899-912.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Canais de Potássio Shab/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Canais de Potássio Shab/química
17.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax2166, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579823

RESUMO

RNA binding proteins are key players in posttranscriptional regulation and have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report a significant burden of heterozygous, likely gene-disrupting variants in CSDE1 (encoding a highly constrained RNA binding protein) among patients with autism and related neurodevelopmental disabilities. Analysis of 17 patients identifies common phenotypes including autism, intellectual disability, language and motor delay, seizures, macrocephaly, and variable ocular abnormalities. HITS-CLIP revealed that Csde1-binding targets are enriched in autism-associated gene sets, especially FMRP targets, and in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity-related pathways. Csde1 knockdown in primary mouse cortical neurons leads to an overgrowth of the neurites and abnormal dendritic spine morphology/synapse formation and impaired synaptic transmission, whereas mutant and knockdown experiments in Drosophila result in defects in synapse growth and synaptic transmission. Our study defines a new autism-related syndrome and highlights the functional role of CSDE1 in synapse development and synaptic transmission.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Neurogênese/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Sinapses/genética , Sinapses/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
JIMD Rep ; 49(1): 70-79, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497484

RESUMO

Intracellular cobalamin metabolism (ICM) defects can be present as autosomal recessive or X-linked disorders. Parenteral hydroxocobalamin (P-OHCbl) is the mainstay of therapy, but the optimal dose has not been determined. Despite early treatment, long-term complications may develop. We have analyzed the biochemical and clinical responses in five patients with early onset of different types of ICM defects (cblC: patients 1-3; cblA: patient 4; cblX: patient 5) following daily P-OHCbl dose intensification (DI). In patient 4, P-OHCbl was started at age 10 years and in patient 5 at age 5 years. OHCbl was formulated at either, 5, 25, or 50 mg/mL. P-OHCbl was intravenously or subcutaneously (SQ) delivered, subsequently by placement of a SQ injection port except in patient 4. In all patients, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels, demonstrated an excellent response to various P-OHCbl doses. After age 36 months, patients 1-3 had a close to normal neurological examination with lower range developmental quotient. In patient 3, moderate visual impairment was present. Patient 4, at age 10 years, had normal renal, visual and cognitive function. In cblX patient 5, epilepsy was better controlled. In conclusion, P-OHCbl-DI caused an excellent control of metabolites in all patients. In the three cblC patients, comparison with patients, usually harboring identical genotype and similar metabolic profile, was suggestive of a positive effect, in favor of clinical efficacy. With P-OHCbl-DI, CblA patient has been placed into a lower risk to develop renal and optic impairment. In cblX patient, lower P-OHCbl doses were administrated to improve tolerability.

19.
JIMD Rep ; 48(1): 11-14, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392107

RESUMO

The sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter that facilitates the uptake of the water-soluble vitamins biotin, pantothenic acid, and the vitamin-like substance lipoate is coded by the SLC5A6 gene. Variants in this gene cause a relatively novel treatable metabolic disorder. Here we describe the second case. A 17-month-old girl presented with hypoglycemia (2.0 mmol/L) and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.87), leading to resuscitation. Her history revealed feeding problems from birth and poor weight gain. Metabolic investigation showed elevated plasma C3-carnitine and C5-OH-carnitine. Urine analysis showed persistently elevated excretion of 3-OH-isovaleric acid. Biochemically, the combination of elevated C5-OH-carnitine and increased excretion of 3-OH-isovaleric acid seemed compatible with biotinidase deficiency. Supplementation with biotin was started. Biotinidase activity in plasma showed only marginally decreased activity, which was considered insufficient explanation for her clinical symptoms. Subsequent trio-based whole exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygosity for variants in the SLC5A6 gene. Upon increasing the dosage of biotin supplementation and introduction of pantothenic acid supplementation, a striking clinical improvement was seen.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 493-508, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447100

RESUMO

Histones mediate dynamic packaging of nuclear DNA in chromatin, a process that is precisely controlled to guarantee efficient compaction of the genome and proper chromosomal segregation during cell division and to accomplish DNA replication, transcription, and repair. Due to the important structural and regulatory roles played by histones, it is not surprising that histone functional dysregulation or aberrant levels of histones can have severe consequences for multiple cellular processes and ultimately might affect development or contribute to cell transformation. Recently, germline frameshift mutations involving the C-terminal tail of HIST1H1E, which is a widely expressed member of the linker histone family and facilitates higher-order chromatin folding, have been causally linked to an as-yet poorly defined syndrome that includes intellectual disability. We report that these mutations result in stable proteins that reside in the nucleus, bind to chromatin, disrupt proper compaction of DNA, and are associated with a specific methylation pattern. Cells expressing these mutant proteins have a dramatically reduced proliferation rate and competence, hardly enter into the S phase, and undergo accelerated senescence. Remarkably, clinical assessment of a relatively large cohort of subjects sharing these mutations revealed a premature aging phenotype as a previously unrecognized feature of the disorder. Our findings identify a direct link between aberrant chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, and accelerated aging.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Histonas/fisiologia , Aneuploidia , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Cromatina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Histonas/química , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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