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1.
Europace ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215649

RESUMO

AIMS : Data on patient characteristics, prevalence, and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients without traditional risk factors, often labelled 'lone AF', are sparse. METHODS AND RESULTS: The RE-LY AF registry included 15 400 individuals who presented to emergency departments with AF in 47 countries. This analysis focused on patients without traditional risk factors, including age ≥60 years, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, congenital heart disease, pulmonary disease, valve heart disease, hyperthyroidism, and prior cardiac surgery. Patients without traditional risk factors were compared with age- and region-matched controls with traditional risk factors (1:3 fashion). In 796 (5%) patients, no traditional risk factors were present. However, 98% (779/796) had less-established or borderline risk factors, including borderline hypertension (130-140/80-90 mmHg; 47%), chronic kidney disease (eGFR < 60 mL/min; 57%), obesity (body mass index > 30; 19%), diabetes (5%), excessive alcohol intake (>14 units/week; 4%), and smoking (25%). Compared with patients with traditional risk factors (n = 2388), patients without traditional risk factors were more often men (74% vs. 59%, P < 0.001) had paroxysmal AF (55% vs. 37%, P < 0.001) and less AF persistence after 1 year (21% vs. 49%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, 1-year stroke occurrence rate (0.6% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.013) and heart failure hospitalizations (0.9% vs. 12.5%, P < 0.001) were lower. However, risk of AF-related re-hospitalization was similar (18% vs. 21%, P = 0.09). CONCLUSION: Almost all patients without traditionally defined AF risk factors have less-established or borderline risk factors. These patients have a favourable 1-year prognosis, but risk of AF-related re-hospitalization remains high. Greater emphasis should be placed on recognition and management of less-established or borderline risk factors.

2.
Europace ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115623

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronary artery disease is an established risk factor for incident atrial fibrillation (AF), but it is unclear whether subclinical atherosclerosis also increases the risk of incident AF. Therefore, the aim was to assess the association between subclinical atherosclerosis, defined by increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) or coronary artery calcium score (CACS), and incident AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic review of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane was done to find all cohort studies investigating the association between subclinical atherosclerosis, defined by increased cIMT or CACS, and incident AF. Eligible articles had to be available in an English full-text version; include adults over the age of 18 years; include ≥100 participants; and have a follow-up period ≥12 months. Data on cIMT were pooled using a fixed-effects model, while data on CACS (I2 >25) were pooled using a random-effects model. Five studies on cIMT including 36 333 patients and two studies on CACS including 34 603 patients were identified. All studies investigating the association between increased cIMT and incident AF showed a significant association, with an overall hazard ratio (HR) of 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-1.59]. The two studies investigating the association between increased CACS and AF also showed a significant association with an overall HR of 1.07 (95% CI 1.02-1.12). CONCLUSION: Data from seven observational studies suggest that subclinical atherosclerosis defined by increased cIMT or CACS is associated with an increased risk of incident AF. These findings emphasize the need for further research investigating whether treatment of subclinical atherosclerosis should be a part of the initiatives to prevent AF.

3.
Europace ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142113

RESUMO

AIMS: Study sex-differences in efficacy and safety of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed first AF ablation outcomes on continuous anticoagulation in 633 patients [209 (33%) women and 424 (67%) men] in a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the AXAFA-AFNET 5 trial. We compared the primary outcome (death, stroke or transient ischaemic attack, or major bleeding) and secondary outcomes [change in quality of life (QoL) and cognitive function] 3 months after ablation. Women were older (66 vs. 63 years, P < 0.001), more often symptomatic, had lower QoL and a longer history of AF. No sex differences in ablation procedure were found. Women stayed in hospital longer than men (2.1 ± 2.3 vs. 1.6 ± 1.3 days, P = 0.004). The primary outcome occurred in 19 (9.1%) women and 26 (6.1%) men, P = 0.19. Women experienced more bleeding events requiring medical attention (5.7% vs. 2.1%, P = 0.03), while rates of tamponade (1.0% vs. 1.2%) or intracranial haemorrhage (0.5% vs. 0%) did not differ. Improvement in QoL after ablation was similar between the sexes [12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical 5.1% and 5.9%, P = 0.26; and SF-12 mental 3.7% and 1.6%, P = 0.17]. At baseline, mild cognitive impairment according to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was present in 65 (32%) women and 123 (30%) men and declined to 23% for both sexes at end of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Women and men experience similar improvement in QoL and MoCA score after AF ablation on continuous anticoagulation. Longer hospital stay, a trend towards more nuisance bleeds, and a lower overall QoL in women were the main differences observed.

4.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(3): e007676, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ablation is a widely used therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF); however, arrhythmia recurrence and repeat procedures are common. Studies examining surrogate markers of genetic susceptibility to AF, such as family history and individual AF susceptibility alleles, suggest these may be associated with recurrence outcomes. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to test the association between AF genetic susceptibility and recurrence after ablation using a comprehensive polygenic risk score for AF. METHODS: Ten centers from the AF Genetics Consortium identified patients who had undergone de novo AF ablation. AF genetic susceptibility was measured using a previously described polygenic risk score (N=929 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and tested for an association with clinical characteristics and time-to-recurrence with a 3 month blanking period. Recurrence was defined as >30 seconds of AF, atrial flutter, or atrial tachycardia. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index, persistent AF, hypertension, coronary disease, left atrial size, left ventricular ejection fraction, and year of ablation. RESULTS: Four thousand two hundred seventy-six patients were eligible for analysis of baseline characteristics and 3259 for recurrence outcomes. The overall arrhythmia recurrence rate between 3 and 12 months was 44% (1443/3259). Patients with higher AF genetic susceptibility were younger (P<0.001) and had fewer clinical risk factors for AF (P=0.001). Persistent AF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39 [95% CI, 1.22-1.58]; P<0.001), left atrial size (per cm: HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.19-1.46]; P<0.001), and left ventricular ejection fraction (per 10%: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.80-0.97]; P=0.008) were associated with increased risk of recurrence. In univariate analysis, higher AF genetic susceptibility trended towards a higher risk of recurrence (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.99-1.18]; P=0.07), which became less significant in multivariable analysis (HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.98-1.15]; P=0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Higher AF genetic susceptibility was associated with younger age and fewer clinical risk factors but not recurrence. Arrhythmia recurrence after AF ablation may represent a genetically different phenotype compared to AF susceptibility.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 41(10): 1132-1140, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995195

RESUMO

AIMS: As health systems around the world increasingly look to measure and improve the value of care that they provide to patients, being able to measure the outcomes that matter most to patients is vital. To support the shift towards value-based health care in atrial fibrillation (AF), the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) assembled an international Working Group (WG) of 30 volunteers, including health professionals and patient representatives to develop a standardized minimum set of outcomes for benchmarking care delivery in clinical settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using an online-modified Delphi process, outcomes important to patients and health professionals were selected and categorized into (i) long-term consequences of disease outcomes, (ii) complications of treatment outcomes, and (iii) patient-reported outcomes. The WG identified demographic and clinical variables for use as case-mix risk adjusters. These included baseline demographics, comorbidities, cognitive function, date of diagnosis, disease duration, medications prescribed and AF procedures, as well as smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake, and physical activity. Where appropriate, and for ease of implementation, standardization of outcomes and case-mix variables was achieved using ICD codes. The standard set underwent an open review process in which over 80% of patients surveyed agreed with the outcomes captured by the standard set. CONCLUSION: Implementation of these consensus recommendations could help institutions to monitor, compare and improve the quality and delivery of chronic AF care. Their consistent definition and collection, using ICD codes where applicable, could also broaden the implementation of more patient-centric clinical outcomes research in AF.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991067

RESUMO

AIMS: Echocardiographic response after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is often lesser in ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) than non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) patients. We assessed the association of heart failure aetiology on the amount of reverse remodelling and outcome of CRT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine hundred twenty-eight CRT patients were retrospectively included. Reverse remodelling and endpoint occurrence (all-cause mortality, heart transplantation, or left ventricular assist device implantation) was assessed. Two response definitions [≥15% reduction left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV) and ≥5% improvement left ventricular ejection fraction] and the most accurate cut-off for the amount of reverse remodelling that predicted endpoint freedom were assessed. Mean follow-up was 3.8 ± 2.4 years. ICM was present in 47%. ICM patients who were older (69 ± 7 vs. 63 ± 11), more often men (83% vs. 58%), exhibited less LVESV reduction (13 ± 31% vs. 23 ± 32%) and less left ventricular ejection fraction improvement (5 ± 11% vs. 10 ± 12%) than NIDCM patients (all P < 0.001). Nevertheless, every 1% LVESV reduction was associated with a relative reduction in endpoint occurrence: NIDCM 1.3%, ICM 0.9%, and absolute risk reduction was similar (0.4%). The most accurate cut-off of LVESV reduction that predicted endpoint freedom was 17.1% in NIDCM and 13.2% in ICM. CONCLUSIONS: ICM patients achieve less reverse remodelling than NIDCM, but the prognostic gain in terms of survival time is the same for every single percentage of reverse remodelling that does occur. The assessment and expected magnitude of reverse remodelling should take this effect of heart failure aetiology into account.

8.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872619894255, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976747

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation and acute heart failure frequently co-exist and can exacerbate each other. Their combination leads to increased morbidity and mortality. However, the prevalence and significance, as well as the treatment, of atrial fibrillation in acute heart failure are not well studied. Management of atrial fibrillation in acute heart failure requires a multidisciplinary team approach. Treatment of underlying disease(s), identification and treatment of potentially correctable causes and precipitating factors and anticoagulation are crucial. In this article, current evidence on atrial fibrillation in the setting of acute heart failure is summarised. The recommendations on management of atrial fibrillation in the prehospital stage, the treatment of reversible causes, when and how to use rate or rhythm control, maintenance of sinus rhythm, catheter ablation and pacing, anticoagulation, as well as measures on prevention of atrial fibrillation are provided.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(3): 519-527, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919934

RESUMO

AIMS: To study the association between an atrial fibrillation (AF) genetic risk score with prevalent AF and all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: An AF genetic risk score was calculated in 3759 European ancestry individuals (1783 with sinus rhythm, 1976 with AF) from the BIOlogy Study to TAilored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure (BIOSTAT-CHF) by summing 97 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles (ranging from 0-2) weighted by the natural logarithm of the relative SNP risk from the latest AF genome-wide association study. Further, we assessed AF risk variance explained by additive SNP variation, and performance of clinical or genetic risk factors, and the combination in classifying AF prevalence. AF was classified as AF or atrial flutter (AFL) at baseline electrocardiogram and/or a history of AF or AFL. The genetic risk score was associated with AF after multivariable adjustment. Odds ratio for AF prevalence per 1-unit increase genetic risk score was 2.12 (95% confidence interval 1.84-2.45, P = 2.15 × 10-24 ) in the total cohort, 2.08 (1.72-2.50, P = 1.30 × 10-14 ) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and 2.02 (1.37-2.99, P = 4.37 × 10-4 ) in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). AF-associated loci explained 22.9% of overall AF SNP heritability. Addition of the genetic risk score to clinical risk factors increased the C-index by 2.2% to 0.721. CONCLUSIONS: The AF genetic risk score was associated with increased AF prevalence in HFrEF and HFpEF. Genetic variation accounted for 22.9% of overall AF SNP heritability. Addition of genetic risk to clinical risk improved model performance in classifying AF prevalence.

10.
Europace ; 22(1): 66-73, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504431

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare sex differences of atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation (CA) and to analyse the opportunities for improved outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: All data were collected from the Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Long-Term registry, a prospective, multinational study conducted by the ESC-EORP European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) under the EURObservational Research Programme (ESC-EORP). A total of 104 centres in 27 European countries participated. Of 3593 included patients, 1146 (31.9%) were female. Female patients were older (61.0 vs. 56.4 years; P < 0.001), had more comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, and obesity), more episodes of arrhythmias per month (6.9 vs. 6.2; P < 0.001), and a higher average EHRA score (2.6 vs. 2.4; P < 0.001). The duration of the procedure was shorter in females (160.1 min vs. 167.9 min; P < 0.001), irrespective of additional ablation lesions added to pulmonary vein isolation. Overall cardiovascular complications were more frequent in women than in men (5.7% vs. 3.4%; P < 0.001). Furthermore, cardiac perforations (3.8% vs. 1.3%; P = 0.011) and neurological complications (2.2% vs. 0.3%; P = 0.004) were found in females in less experienced centres than in experienced ones. On a final note, at 12 months, AF recurrence rate was similar in females and males (34.4% vs. 34.2%; P = 0.897), but more females were still on antiarrhythmic drugs (50.6% vs. 44.1%; P < 0.001) when compared with men. CONCLUSION: Females underwent CA procedures for AF less frequently than males throughout Europe, despite more recurrent symptoms. With the same success rate, severe acute complications remained considerable in females, especially in less experienced centres.

11.
Eur Heart J ; 41(5): 634-641, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nurse-led integrated care is expected to improve outcome of patients with atrial fibrillation compared with usual-care provided by a medical specialist. METHODS AND RESULTS: We randomized 1375 patients with atrial fibrillation (64 ± 10 years, 44% women, 57% had CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 2) to receive nurse-led care or usual-care. Nurse-led care was provided by specialized nurses using a decision-support tool, in consultation with the cardiologist. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death and cardiovascular hospital admissions. Of 671 nurse-led care patients, 543 (81%) received anticoagulation in full accordance with the guidelines against 559 of 683 (82%) usual-care patients. The cumulative adherence to guidelines-based recommendations was 61% under nurse-led care and 26% under usual-care. Over 37 months of follow-up, the primary endpoint occurred in 164 of 671 patients (9.7% per year) under nurse-led care and in 192 of 683 patients (11.6% per year) under usual-care [hazard ratio (HR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69 to 1.04, P = 0.12]. There were 124 vs. 161 hospitalizations for arrhythmia events (7.0% and 9.4% per year), and 14 vs. 22 for heart failure (0.7% and 1.1% per year), respectively. Results were not consistent in a pre-specified subgroup analysis by centre experience, with a HR of 0.52 (95% CI 0.37-to 0.71) in four experienced centres and of 1.24 (95% CI 0.94-1.63) in four less experienced centres (P for interaction <0.001). CONCLUSION: Our trial failed to show that nurse-led care was superior to usual-care. The data suggest that nurse-led care by an experienced team could be clinically beneficial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01740037). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01740037).

12.
Europace ; 22(3): 352-360, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865391

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a progressive disease, but identifying patients at risk for AF progression is challenging. We aimed to identify factors associated with AF progression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Atrial fibrillation progression was assessed in 392 patients with recent-onset paroxysmal or persistent AF included in the prospective, observational, multicentre identification of a risk profile to guide atrial fibrillation (AF-RISK) study. Progression of AF was assessed by Holter monitoring and 2-week event recorder at baseline and 1-year follow-up. AF progression was defined as: (i) doubling in AF burden at 1 year compared to baseline with a minimum AF burden of 10% in paroxysmal AF; or (ii) transition from paroxysmal to persistent or permanent AF; or (iii) persistent to permanent AF. Age was 60 ± 11 years, 62% were men, and 83% had paroxysmal AF. At 1 year, 52 (13%) had AF progression (11% in paroxysmal; 26% in persistent AF). Multivariable logistic regression showed that left atrial volume [odds ratio (OR) per 10 mL 1.251, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.078-1.450; P < 0.001], N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; OR per standard deviation increase 1.583, 95% CI 1.099-2.281; P = 0.014), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; OR per standard deviation increase 0.660, 95% CI 0.472-0.921; P = 0.015) were associated with AF progression. In an additional follow-up of 1.9 (0.9-3.3) years patients with AF progression developed more cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality (12.4%/year vs. 2.3%/year, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Atrial fibrillation progression occurred in 13% of patients with recent-onset AF during 1-year follow-up. Left atrial volume, NT-proBNP, and PAI-1 were associated with AF progression. Patients with AF progression had a higher event rate. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01510210.

14.
Circulation ; 140(22): 1834-1850, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765261

RESUMO

Cardiac thromboembolism attributed to atrial fibrillation (AF) is responsible for up to one-third of ischemic strokes. Stroke may be the first manifestation of previously undetected AF. Given the efficacy of oral anticoagulants in preventing AF-related ischemic strokes, strategies of searching for AF after a stroke using ECG monitoring followed by oral anticoagulation (OAC) treatment have been proposed to prevent recurrent cardioembolic strokes. This white paper by experts from the AF-SCREEN International Collaboration summarizes existing evidence and knowledge gaps on searching for AF after a stroke by using ECG monitoring. New AF can be detected by routine plus intensive ECG monitoring in approximately one-quarter of patients with ischemic stroke. It may be causal, a bystander, or neurogenically induced by the stroke. AF after a stroke is a risk factor for thromboembolism and a strong marker for atrial myopathy. After acute ischemic stroke, patients should undergo 72 hours of electrocardiographic monitoring to detect AF. The diagnosis requires an ECG of sufficient quality for confirmation by a health professional with ECG rhythm expertise. AF detection rate is a function of monitoring duration and quality of analysis, AF episode definition, interval from stroke to monitoring commencement, and patient characteristics including old age, certain ECG alterations, and stroke type. Markers of atrial myopathy (eg, imaging, atrial ectopy, natriuretic peptides) may increase AF yield from monitoring and could be used to guide patient selection for more intensive/prolonged poststroke ECG monitoring. Atrial myopathy without detected AF is not currently sufficient to initiate OAC. The concept of embolic stroke of unknown source is not proven to identify patients who have had a stroke benefitting from empiric OAC treatment. However, some embolic stroke of unknown source subgroups (eg, advanced age, atrial enlargement) might benefit more from non-vitamin K-dependent OAC therapy than aspirin. Fulfilling embolic stroke of unknown source criteria is an indication neither for empiric non-vitamin K-dependent OAC treatment nor for withholding prolonged ECG monitoring for AF. Clinically diagnosed AF after a stroke or a transient ischemic attack is associated with significantly increased risk of recurrent stroke or systemic embolism, in particular, with additional stroke risk factors, and requires OAC rather than antiplatelet therapy. The minimum subclinical AF duration required on ECG monitoring poststroke/transient ischemic attack to recommend OAC therapy is debated.

15.
Eur Heart J ; 40(46): 3793-3799c, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755940

RESUMO

Recent innovations have the potential to improve rhythm control therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Controlled trials provide new evidence on the effectiveness and safety of rhythm control therapy, particularly in patients with AF and heart failure. This review summarizes evidence supporting the use of rhythm control therapy in patients with AF for different outcomes, discusses implications for indications, and highlights remaining clinical gaps in evidence. Rhythm control therapy improves symptoms and quality of life in patients with symptomatic AF and can be safely delivered in elderly patients with comorbidities (mean age 70 years, 3-7% complications at 1 year). Atrial fibrillation ablation maintains sinus rhythm more effectively than antiarrhythmic drug therapy, but recurrent AF remains common, highlighting the need for better patient selection (precision medicine). Antiarrhythmic drugs remain effective after AF ablation, underpinning the synergistic mechanisms of action of AF ablation and antiarrhythmic drugs. Atrial fibrillation ablation appears to improve left ventricular function in a subset of patients with AF and heart failure. Data on the prognostic effect of rhythm control therapy are heterogeneous without a clear signal for either benefit or harm. Rhythm control therapy has acceptable safety and improves quality of life in patients with symptomatic AF, including in elderly populations with stroke risk factors. There is a clinical need to better stratify patients for rhythm control therapy. Further studies are needed to determine whether rhythm control therapy, and particularly AF ablation, improves left ventricular function and reduces AF-related complications.

16.
Europace ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747018

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) risk factors translate into disease progression. Whether this affects women and men differently is unclear. We aimed to investigate sex differences in risk factors, outcome, and quality of life (QoL) in permanent AF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation (RACE II) randomized 614 patients, 211 women and 403 men, to lenient or strict rate control. In this post hoc analysis risk factors, cardiovascular events during 3-year follow-up (cardiovascular death, heart failure hospitalization, stroke, systemic embolism, bleeding, and life-threatening arrhythmic events), outcome parameters, and QoL were compared between the sexes. Women were older (71 ± 7 vs. 66 ± 8 years, P < 0.001), had more hypertension (70 vs. 57%, P = 0.002), and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (36 vs. 17%, P < 0.001), but less coronary artery disease (13 vs. 21%, P = 0.02). Women had more risk factors (3.7 ± 1.2 vs. 2.9 ± 1.4, P < 0.001) Cardiovascular events occurred in 46 (22%) women and 59 (15%) men (P = 0.03). Women had a 1.52 times [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.24] higher yearly cardiovascular event-rate [8.2% (6.0-10.9) vs. 5.4% (4.1-6.9), P = 0.03], but this was no longer significant after adjusting for the number of underlying risk factors. Women had reduced QoL, irrespective of age and heart rate but negatively influenced by their risk factors. CONCLUSION: In this permanent AF population, women had more accumulation of AF risk factors than men. The observed higher cardiovascular event rate in women was no longer significant after adjusting for the number of risk factors. Further, QoL was negatively influenced by the higher number of risk factors in women. This suggests that sex differences may be driven by the greater risk factor burden in women.

19.
Europace ; 21(7): 993-994, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882143

RESUMO

Clinicians accept that there are many unknowns when we make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Acceptance of uncertainty is essential for the pursuit of the profession: bedside decisions must often be made on the basis of incomplete evidence. Over the years, physicians sometimes even do not realize anymore which the fundamental gaps in our knowledge are. As clinical scientists, however, we have to halt and consider what we do not know yet, and how we can move forward addressing those unknowns. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) believes that scanning the field of arrhythmia / cardiac electrophysiology to identify knowledge gaps which are not yet the subject of organized research, should be undertaken on a regular basis. Such a review (White Paper) should concentrate on research which is feasible, realistic, and clinically relevant, and should not deal with futuristic aspirations. It fits with the EHRA mission that these White Papers should be shared on a global basis in order to foster collaborative and needed research which will ultimately lead to better care for our patients. The present EHRA White Paper summarizes knowledge gaps in the management of atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia/sudden death and heart failure.

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