Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 68
Filtrar
1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670893

RESUMO

Germline BRCA mutations result in homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, as well as several types of sporadic tumors. The HRD phenotype makes these tumors sensitive to DNA double strand break-inducing agents, including poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Interestingly, a subgroup of cancers without a BRCA mutation also shows an HRD phenotype. Various methods for selecting patients with HRD tumors beyond BRCA-mutations have been explored. These methods are mainly based on DNA sequencing or functional characteristics of the tumor. We here discuss the various tests and the status of their clinical validation.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003546

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that the efficacy of PARP inhibitors in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is related to tumor-specific defects in homologous recombination (HR) and extends beyond BRCA1/2 deficient EOC. A robust method with which to identify HR-deficient (HRD) carcinomas is therefore of utmost clinical importance. In this study, we investigated the proficiency of a functional HR assay based on the detection of RAD51 foci, the REcombination CAPacity (RECAP) test, in identifying HRD tumors in a cohort of prospectively collected epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs). Of the 39 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC), the RECAP test detected 26% (10/39) to be HRD, whereas ovarian carcinomas of other histologic subtypes (n = 10) were all HR-proficient (HRP). Of the HRD tumors that could be sequenced, 8/9 showed pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants or BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation, indicating that the RECAP test reliably identifies HRD, including but not limited to tumors related to BRCA1/2 deficiency. Furthermore, we found a trend towards better overall survival (OS) of HGSOC patients with RECAP-identified HRD tumors compared to patients with HRP tumors. This study shows that the RECAP test is an attractive alternative to DNA-based HRD tests, and further development of a clinical grade RECAP test is clearly warranted.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Various radiolabeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting tracers are clinically applied for prostate cancer (PCa) imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy. The PSMA binding affinities, biodistribution, and DNA-damaging capacities of these radiotracers have not yet been compared in detail. A major concern of PSMA-targeting radiotracers is the toxicity in other PSMA-expressing organs, such as the salivary glands, thus demanding careful evaluation of the most optimal and safest radiotracer. In this extensive preclinical study, we evaluated the clinically applied PSMA-targeting small molecule inhibitors DOTA-PSMA-617 (PSMA-617) and DOTAGA-PSMA-I&T (PSMA-I&T) and the PSMA nanobody DOTA-JVZ-007 (JVZ-007) using PSMA-expressing cell lines, a unique set of PCa patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and healthy human tissues. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro displacement studies on PSMA-expressing cells and cryosections of a PSMA-positive PDX revealed high and specific binding affinity for all three tracers labeled with lutetium-177 with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Interestingly, [177Lu]Lu-JVZ-007 could not be displaced by PSMA-617 or PSMA-I&T, suggesting that this tracer targets an alternative binding site. Autoradiography assays on cryosections of human salivary and renal tissues revealed [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 to have the lowest binding to these healthy organs compared with [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-I&T. In vivo biodistribution assays confirmed the in vitro results with comparable tumor uptake of [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 and [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-I&T at all timepoints, resulting in induction of similar levels of DNA double-strand breaks in the tumors. However, [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-I&T demonstrated approximately 40× higher renal uptake at 4 and 8 h post injection resulting in an unfavorable tumor-to-kidney ratio. CONCLUSION: [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 has the most favorable biodistribution in mice as well as more favorable binding characteristics in vitro in PSMA-positive cells and human kidney and salivary gland specimens compared with [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-I&T and [177Lu]Lu-JVZ-007. Based on our preclinical evaluation, [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 is the best performing tracer to be taken further into clinical evaluation for PSMA-targeted radiotherapeutic development although with careful evaluation of the tracer binding to PSMA-expressing organs.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937838

RESUMO

The Ku70/80 heterodimer binds to DNA ends and attracts other proteins involved in the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway of DNA double-strand break repair. We developed a novel assay to measure DNA binding and release kinetics using differences in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) of the ECFP-Ku70/EYFP-Ku80 heterodimer in soluble and DNA end bound states. We confirmed that the relative binding efficiencies of various DNA substrates (blunt, 3 nucleotide 5' extension, and DNA hairpin) measured in the FRET assay reflected affinities obtained from direct measurements using surface plasmon resonance. The FRET assay was subsequently used to investigate Ku70/80 behavior in the context of a DNA-dependent kinase (DNA-PK) holocomplex. As expected, this complex was much more stable than Ku70/80 alone, and its stability was influenced by DNA-PK phosphorylation status. Interestingly, the Ku80 C-terminal extension contributed to DNA-PK complex stability but was not absolutely required for its formation. The Ku70 C-terminal SAP domain, on the other hand, was required for the stable association of Ku70/80 to DNA ends, but this effect was abrogated in DNA-PK holocomplexes. We conclude that FRET measurements can be used to determine Ku70/80 binding kinetics. The ability to do this in complex mixtures makes this assay particularly useful to study larger NHEJ protein complexes on DNA ends.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917044

RESUMO

High-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation is more lethal than similar doses of low-LET radiation types, probably a result of the condensed energy deposition pattern of high-LET radiation. Here, we compare high-LET α-particle to low-LET X-ray irradiation and monitor double-strand break (DSB) processing. Live-cell microscopy was used to monitor DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), marked by p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1). In addition, the accumulation of the endogenous 53BP1 and replication protein A (RPA) DSB processing proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. In contrast to α-particle-induced 53BP1 foci, X-ray-induced foci were resolved quickly and more dynamically as they showed an increase in 53BP1 protein accumulation and size. In addition, the number of individual 53BP1 and RPA foci was higher after X-ray irradiation, while focus intensity was higher after α-particle irradiation. Interestingly, 53BP1 foci induced by α-particles contained multiple RPA foci, suggesting multiple individual resection events, which was not observed after X-ray irradiation. We conclude that high-LET α-particles cause closely interspaced DSBs leading to high local concentrations of repair proteins. Our results point toward a change in DNA damage processing toward DNA end-resection and homologous recombination, possibly due to the depletion of soluble protein in the nucleoplasm. The combination of closely interspaced DSBs and perturbed DNA damage processing could be an explanation for the increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-LET α-particles compared to X-ray irradiation.

6.
Nanotheranostics ; 4(1): 14-25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911891

RESUMO

Polymersomes have the potential to be applied in targeted alpha radionuclide therapy, while in addition preventing release of recoiling daughter isotopes. In this study, we investigated the cellular uptake, post uptake processing and intracellular localization of polymersomes. Methods: High-content microscopy was used to validate polymersome uptake kinetics. Confocal (live cell) microscopy was used to elucidate the uptake mechanism and DNA damage induction. Intracellular distribution of polymersomes in 3-D was determined using super-resolution microscopy. Results: We found that altering polymersome size and concentration affects the initial uptake and overall uptake capacity; uptake efficiency and eventual plateau levels varied between cell lines; and mitotic cells show increased uptake. Intracellular polymersomes were transported along microtubules in a fast and dynamic manner. Endocytic uptake of polymersomes was evidenced through co-localization with endocytic pathway components. Finally, we show the intracellular distribution of polymersomes in 3-D and DNA damage inducing capabilities of 213Bi labeled polymersomes. Conclusion: Polymersome size and concentration affect the uptake efficiency, which also varies for different cell types. In addition, we present advanced assays to investigate uptake characteristics in detail, a necessity for optimization of nano-carriers. Moreover, by elucidating the uptake mechanism, as well as uptake extent and geometrical distribution of radiolabeled polymersomes we provide insight on how to improve polymersome design.

7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(5): 2442-2456, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960047

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor BRCA2 is essential for homologous recombination (HR), replication fork stability and DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair in vertebrates. We show that ectopic production of HSF2BP, a BRCA2-interacting protein required for meiotic HR during mouse spermatogenesis, in non-germline human cells acutely sensitize them to ICL-inducing agents (mitomycin C and cisplatin) and PARP inhibitors, resulting in a phenotype characteristic of cells from Fanconi anemia (FA) patients. We biochemically recapitulate the suppression of ICL repair and establish that excess HSF2BP compromises HR by triggering the removal of BRCA2 from the ICL site and thereby preventing the loading of RAD51. This establishes ectopic expression of a wild-type meiotic protein in the absence of any other protein-coding mutations as a new mechanism that can lead to an FA-like cellular phenotype. Naturally occurring elevated production of HSF2BP in tumors may be a source of cancer-promoting genomic instability and also a targetable vulnerability.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Recombinação Homóloga , Animais , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Dano ao DNA , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Proteólise , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Xenopus
8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(1): e1008550, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945059

RESUMO

Extrachromosomal DNA can integrate into the genome with no sequence specificity producing an insertional mutation. This process, which is referred to as random integration (RI), requires a double stranded break (DSB) in the genome. Inducing DSBs by various means, including ionizing radiation, increases the frequency of integration. Here we report that non-lethal physiologically relevant doses of ionizing radiation (10-100 mGy), within the range produced by medical imaging equipment, stimulate RI of transfected and viral episomal DNA in human and mouse cells with an extremely high efficiency. Genetic analysis of the stimulated RI (S-RI) revealed that it is distinct from the background RI, requires histone H2AX S139 phosphorylation (γH2AX) and is not reduced by DNA polymerase θ (Polq) inactivation. S-RI efficiency was unaffected by the main DSB repair pathway (homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining) disruptions, but double deficiency in MDC1 and 53BP1 phenocopies γH2AX inactivation. The robust responsiveness of S-RI to physiological amounts of DSBs can be exploited for extremely sensitive, macroscopic and direct detection of DSB-induced mutations, and warrants further exploration in vivo to determine if the phenomenon has implications for radiation risk assessment.


Assuntos
Histonas/metabolismo , Mutagênese Insercional/efeitos da radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação
9.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(1): 24-37, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical and preclinical studies have revealed that alterations in DNA damage response (DDR) pathways may play an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) etiology and progression. These alterations can influence PCa responses to radiotherapy and anti-androgen treatment. The identification of DNA repair gene aberrations in PCa has driven the interest for further evaluation whether these genetic changes may serve as biomarkers for patient stratification. METHODS: In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on DDR alterations in PCa, their potential impact on clinical interventions and prospects for improved management of PCa. We particularly focus on the influence of DDR gene mutations on PCa initiation and progression and describe the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of these mechanisms, will contribute to better disease management as treatment strategies can be chosen based on the specific disease properties, since a growing number of treatments are targeting DDR pathway alterations (such as Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors). Furthermore, the recently discovered crosstalk between the DDR and androgen receptor signaling opens a new array of possible strategies to optimize treatment combinations. We discuss how these recent and ongoing studies will help to improve diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches for PCa management.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Terapia Combinada , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(1): 194, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316184

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(10)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635359

RESUMO

Androgen-deprivation therapy was shown to improve treatment outcome of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). DNA damage response (DDR) was suggested to play a role in the underlying mechanism, but conflicting results were reported. This study aims to reveal the role of the androgen receptor (AR) in EBRT-induced DDR and to investigate whether next-generation AR inhibitor apalutamide can radiosensitize PCa. PCa cell lines and tissue slices were treated with anti-androgen alone or combined with EBRT. The effect of treatments on cell growth, tissue viability, DDR, and cell cycle were investigated. RAD51 and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) levels were determined by Western blotting. Homologous recombination (HR) capacity was measured with the directed repeats-green fluorescent protein (DR-GFP) assay. We report the radiosensitizing effect of anti-androgens, which showed synergism in combination with EBRT in AR-expressing tumor slices and cell lines. Moreover, a compromised DDR was observed in AR-expressing cells upon AR suppression. We found that AR inhibition downregulated DNA-PKcs expression, resulting in reduced non-homologous end-joining repair. DDR through HR was a secondary effect due to cell-cycle change. These data provide a mechanistic explanation for the combination regimen and support the clinical use of apalutamide together with EBRT for localized PCa patients.

12.
Cell Rep ; 27(13): 3790-3798.e7, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242413

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor BRCA2 is essential for homologous recombination (HR), replication fork stability, and DNA interstrand crosslink repair in vertebrates. We identify HSF2BP, a protein previously described as testis specific and not characterized functionally, as an interactor of BRCA2 in mouse embryonic stem cells, where the 2 proteins form a constitutive complex. HSF2BP is transcribed in all cultured human cancer cell lines tested and elevated in some tumor samples. Inactivation of the mouse Hsf2bp gene results in male infertility due to a severe HR defect during spermatogenesis. The BRCA2-HSF2BP interaction is highly evolutionarily conserved and maps to armadillo repeats in HSF2BP and a 68-amino acid region between the BRC repeats and the DNA binding domain of human BRCA2 (Gly2270-Thr2337) encoded by exons 12 and 13. This region of BRCA2 does not harbor known cancer-associated missense mutations and may be involved in the reproductive rather than the tumor-suppressing function of BRCA2.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Espermatogênese , Animais , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Domínios Proteicos
14.
Prostate ; 79(4): 390-402, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In vitro models of prostate cancer (PCa) are not always reliable to evaluate anticancer treatment efficacy. This limitation may be overcome by using viable tumor slice material. Here we report on the establishment of an optimized ex vivo method to culture tissue slices from patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of prostate cancer (PCa), to assess responses to PCa treatments. METHODS: Three PDX models were used that are characterized by different androgen receptor (AR) expression and different homology directed DNA repair capacities, due to a breast cancer associated two (BRCA2) wild-type or mutated status. Tumors were removed from mice, sliced using a vibratome and cultured for a maximum of 6 days. To test the sensitivity to androgen antagonist, tumor slices from the AR-expressing and AR-negative PDX tumors were treated with the anti-androgen enzalutamide. For sensitivity to DNA repair intervention, tumors slices from BRCA2 wild-type and mutated PDXs were treated with the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibitor olaparib. Treatment response in these tumor slices was determined by measuring slice morphology, cell proliferation, apoptosis, AR expression level, and secretion of prostate specific antigen (PSA). RESULTS: We compared various culture conditions (support materials, growth media, and use of a 3D smooth rocking platform) to define the optimal condition to maintain tissue viability and proliferative capacity up to least 6 days. Under optimized conditions, enzalutamide treatment significantly decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced AR-expression and PSA secretion of AR-expressing tumor slices compared to AR-negative slices, that did not respond to the intervention. Olaparib treatment significantly increased cell death in BRCA2 mutated tumors slices as compared to slices from BRCA2 wild type tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Ex vivo treatment of PCa PDX tumor slices with enzalutamide and olaparib recapitulates responses previously observed in vivo. The faithful retention of tissue structure and function in this ex vivo model offers an ideal opportunity for treatment efficacy screening, thereby reducing costs and numbers of experimental animals.


Assuntos
Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Mutação , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/análise , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209101, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bladder cancer (urothelial carcinoma) is a common malignancy characterized by high recurrence rates and intense clinical follow-up, indicating the necessity for more effective therapies. Current treatment regimens include intra-vesical administration of mitomycin C (MMC) for non-muscle invasive disease and systemic cisplatin for muscle-invasive or metastatic disease. Hyperthermia, heating a tumor to 40-44°C, enhances the efficacy of these chemotherapeutics by various modes of action, one of which is inhibition of DNA repair via homologous recombination. Here, we explore whether ex vivo assays on freshly obtained bladder tumors can be applied to predict the response towards hyperthermia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cytochrome C release assay (apoptosis) and the RAD51 focus formation assay (DNA repair) were first established in the bladder cancer cell lines RT112 and T24 as measurements for hyperthermia efficiency, and subsequently tested in freshly obtained bladder tumors (n = 59). RESULTS: Hyperthermia significantly increased the fraction of apoptotic cells after cisplatin or MMC treatment in both RT112 and T24 cells and in most of the bladder tumors (8/10). The RAD51 focus formation assay detected both morphological and numerical changes of RAD51 foci upon hyperthermia in the RT112 and T24 cell lines. In 64% of 37 analyzed primary bladder tumor samples, hyperthermia induced similar morphological changes in RAD51 foci. CONCLUSION: The cytochrome C assay and the RAD51 focus formation assay are both feasible on freshly obtained bladder tumors, and could serve to predict the efficacy of hyperthermia together with cytotoxic agents, such as MMC or cisplatin.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitomicina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
16.
BMJ Open ; 8(10): e020731, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327398

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: For patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), surgery is the only treatment modality that can result in cure. Unfortunately, in the majority of these patients, the tumours are found to be unresectable at presentation due to either local invasive tumour growth or the presence of distant metastases. For patients with unresectable CCA, palliative chemotherapy is the standard treatment yielding an estimated median overall survival (OS) of 12-15.2 months. There is no evidence from randomised trials to support the use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for CCA. However, small and most often retrospective studies combining chemotherapy with SBRT have shown promising results with OS reaching up to 33-35 months. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study has been designed as a single-centre phase I feasibility trial and will investigate the addition of SBRT after standard chemotherapy in patients with unresectable perihilar CCA (T1-4 N0-1 M0). A total of six patients will be included. SBRT will be delivered in 15 fractions of 3-4.5 Gy (risk adapted). The primary objective of this study is to determine feasibility and toxicity. Secondary outcomes include local tumour control, progression-free survival (PFS), OS and quality of life. Length of follow-up will be 2 years. As an ancillary study, the personalised effects of radiotherapy will be measured in vitro, in patient-derived tumour and bile duct organoid cultures. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval for the STRONG trial has been granted by the Medical Ethics Committee of Erasmus MC Rotterdam, the Netherlands. It is estimated that all patients will be included between October 2017 and October 2018. The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and presented at national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03307538; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/terapia , Tumor de Klatskin/terapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Países Baixos , Qualidade de Vida , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(24): 6277-6287, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139880

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumors of germline BRCA1/2 mutated carriers show homologous recombination (HR) deficiency (HRD), resulting in impaired DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and high sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. Although this therapy is expected to be effective beyond germline BRCA1/2 mutated carriers, a robust validated test to detect HRD tumors is lacking. In this study, we therefore evaluated a functional HR assay exploiting the formation of RAD51 foci in proliferating cells after ex vivo irradiation of fresh breast cancer tissue: the recombination REpair CAPacity (RECAP) test. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fresh samples of 170 primary breast cancer were analyzed using the RECAP test. The molecular explanation for the HRD phenotype was investigated by exploring BRCA deficiencies, mutational signatures, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and microsatellite instability (MSI). RESULTS: RECAP was completed successfully in 148 of 170 samples (87%). Twenty-four tumors showed HRD (16%), whereas six tumors were HR intermediate (HRi; 4%). HRD was explained by BRCA deficiencies (mutations, promoter hypermethylation, deletions) in 16 cases, whereas seven HRD tumors were non-BRCA related. HRD tumors showed an increased incidence of high TIL counts (P = 0.023) compared with HR proficient (HRP) tumors and MSI was more frequently observed in the HRD group (2/20, 10%) than expected in breast cancer (1%; P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: RECAP is a robust functional HR assay detecting both BRCA1/2-deficient and BRCA1/2-proficient HRD tumors. Functional assessment of HR in a pseudo-diagnostic setting is achievable and produces robust and interpretable results.

18.
Cell Rep ; 23(7): 2107-2118, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768208

RESUMO

Selective elimination of BRCA1-deficient cells by inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a prime example of the concept of synthetic lethality in cancer therapy. This interaction is counteracted by the restoration of BRCA1-independent homologous recombination through loss of factors such as 53BP1, RIF1, and REV7/MAD2L2, which inhibit end resection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). To identify additional factors involved in this process, we performed CRISPR/SpCas9-based loss-of-function screens and selected for factors that confer PARP inhibitor (PARPi) resistance in BRCA1-deficient cells. Loss of members of the CTC1-STN1-TEN1 (CST) complex were found to cause PARPi resistance in BRCA1-deficient cells in vitro and in vivo. We show that CTC1 depletion results in the restoration of end resection and that the CST complex may act downstream of 53BP1/RIF1. These data suggest that, in addition to its role in protecting telomeres, the CST complex also contributes to protecting DSBs from end resection.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/deficiência , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Animais , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Telômero/metabolismo
19.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 34(4): 407-414, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28705099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hyperthermia (40-44 °C) effectively sensitises tumours to radiotherapy by locally altering tumour biology. One of the effects of heat at the cellular level is inhibition of DNA repair by homologous recombination via degradation of the BRCA2-protein. This suggests that hyperthermia can expand the group of patients that benefit from PARP-inhibitors, a drug exploiting homologous recombination deficiency. Here, we explore whether the molecular mechanisms that cause heat-mediated degradation of BRCA2 are conserved in cell lines from various origins and, most importantly, whether, BRCA2 protein levels can be attenuated by heat in freshly biopted human tumours. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cells from four established cell lines and from freshly biopsied material of cervical (15), head- and neck (9) or bladder tumours (27) were heated to 42 °C for 60 min ex vivo. In vivo hyperthermia was studied by taking two biopsies of the same breast or cervical tumour: one before and one after treatment. BRCA2 protein levels were measured by immunoblotting. RESULTS: We found decreased BRCA2-levels after hyperthermia in all established cell lines and in 91% of all tumours treated ex vivo. For tumours treated with hyperthermia in vivo, technical issues and intra-tumour heterogeneity prevented obtaining interpretable results. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that heat-mediated degradation of BRCA2 occurs in tumour material directly derived from patients. Although BRCA2-degradation may not be a practical biomarker for heat deposition in situ, it does suggest that application of hyperthermia could be an effective method to expand the patient group that could benefit from PARP-inhibitors.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Hipertermia Induzida , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Proteólise
20.
Future Sci OA ; 3(2): FSO190, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670477

RESUMO

Optimal patient stratification is of utmost importance in the era of personalized medicine. Prediction of individual treatment responses by functional ex vivo assays requires model systems derived from viable tumor samples, which should closely resemble in vivo tumor characteristics and microenvironment. This review discusses a broad spectrum of model systems, ranging from classic 2D monolayer culture techniques to more experimental 'cancer-on-chip' procedures. We mainly focus on organotypic tumor slices that take tumor heterogeneity and tumor-stromal interactions into account. These 3D model systems can be exploited for patient selection as well as for fundamental research. Selection of the right model system for each specific research endeavor is crucial and requires careful balancing of the pros and cons of each technology.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...