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1.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; : e1401, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a promising tracer for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in early-stage cervical cancer. Although researchers suggest the SLN detection of ICG is equal to the more conventional combined approach of a radiotracer and blue dye, no consensus has been reached. AIMS: We aimed to assess the differences in overall and bilateral SLN detection rates with ICG versus the combined approach, the radiotracer technetium-99m (99m Tc) with blue dye. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from inception to January 1, 2020 and included studies reporting on a comparison of SLN detection with ICG versus 99m Tc with blue dye in early-stage cervical cancer. The overall and bilateral detection rates were pooled with random-effects meta-analyses. From 118 studies retrieved seven studies (one cross-sectional; six retrospective cohorts) were included, encompassing 589 patients. No significant differences were found in the pooled overall SLN detection rate of ICG versus 99m Tc with blue dye. Meta-analyses of all studies showed ICG to result in a higher bilateral SLN detection rate than 99m Tc with blue dye; 90.3% (95%CI, 79.8-100.0%) with ICG versus 73.5% (95%CI, 66.4-80.6%) with 99mTc with blue dye. This resulted in a significant and clinically relevant risk difference of 16.6% (95%CI, 5.3-28.0%). With sensitivity analysis, the risk difference of the bilateral detection rate maintained in favor of ICG but was no longer significant (13.2%, 95%CI -0.8-27.3%). CONCLUSION: ICG appears to provide higher bilateral SLN detection rates compared to 99m Tc with blue dye in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. However, in adherence with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines, the quality of evidence is too low to provide strong recommendations and directly omit the combined approach of 99m Tc with blue dye.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 149: 105-113, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848712

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identification of sentinel node (SN) metastases can set the adjuvant systemic therapy indication for patients with stage III melanoma. Studies re-evaluating the diagnosis of initially positive SN biopsies are scarce. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dutch patients with melanoma who underwent SN biopsy between 2003 and 2014 were selected from PALGA, the Dutch Pathology Registry. Histopathological slides of SN-positive patients were retrieved for review. A random sample was reassessed by an expert melanoma pathologist. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients who were misclassified (false-positive) was compared with those with a true positive SN status. For comparison, a group of SN-negative patients was included. Multivariable logistic analysis was performed to assess clinicopathological characteristics associated with misclassification of SN status. RESULTS: Diagnosis was downgraded from melanoma metastasis to nodal nevus in 38 of the 322 reviewed patients (11.8%). Considering the inclusion criteria of phase III adjuvant trials, at least 4.3% of patients would have falsely qualified for adjuvant therapy. In multivariable analysis, patients with a low SN tumour burden and subcapsular SN tumour location had a significantly higher chance of being misclassified. The five-year RFS of the 38 downgraded patients was 86.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 72.6-96.6), similar to the 85.9% (95% CI = 84.9-86.8, p = 0.18) for 6413 SN-negative patients and better than the 53.2% (95% CI = 47.2-59.9, p = 0.009) of 284 patients who were truly SN positive upon review. CONCLUSION: More than 10% of originally positive SN biopsies of patients with melanoma concern misclassified nodal nevi. We advocate that when adjuvant treatment is considered in patients with stage III melanoma, SN biopsies should be reassessed by an expert melanoma pathologist.

3.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-14, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874856

RESUMO

Experimental evidence has implicated genotoxic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from epidemiological studies is sparse. We therefore assessed the association of serological markers of E. coli and ETBF exposure with odds of developing CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) study.Serum samples of incident CRC cases and matched controls (n = 442 pairs) were analyzed for immunoglobulin (Ig) A and G antibody responses to seven E. coli proteins and two isoforms of the ETBF toxin via multiplex serology. Multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of sero-positivity to E. coli and ETBF with CRC.The IgA-positivity of any of the tested E. coli antigens was associated with higher odds of developing CRC (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.05-1.91). Dual-positivity for both IgA and IgG to E. coli and ETBF was associated with >1.7-fold higher odds of developing CRC, with a significant association only for IgG (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.94). This association was more pronounced when restricted to the proximal colon cancers (OR: 2.62; 95% CI: 1.09, 6.29) compared to those of the distal colon (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.51, 3.00) (pheterogeneity = 0.095). Sero-positivity to E. coli and ETBF was associated with CRC development, suggesting that co-infection of these bacterial species may contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis. These findings warrant further exploration in larger prospective studies and within different population groups.

4.
Radiology ; 299(2): 278-286, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724062

RESUMO

Background In the first (prevalent) supplemental MRI screening round of the Dense Tissue and Early Breast Neoplasm Screening (DENSE) trial, a considerable number of breast cancers were found at the cost of an increased false-positive rate (FPR). In incident screening rounds, a lower cancer detection rate (CDR) is expected due to a smaller pool of prevalent cancers, and a reduced FPR, due to the availability of prior MRI examinations. Purpose To investigate screening performance indicators of the second round (incidence round) of the DENSE trial. Materials and Methods The DENSE trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01315015) is embedded within the Dutch population-based biennial mammography screening program for women aged 50-75 years. MRI examinations were performed between December 2011 and January 2016. Women were eligible for the second round when they again had a negative screening mammogram 2 years after their first MRI. The recall rate, biopsy rate, CDR, FPR, positive predictive values, and distributions of tumor characteristics were calculated and compared with results of the first round using 95% CIs and χ2 tests. Results A total of 3436 women (median age, 56 years; interquartile range, 48-64 years) underwent a second MRI screening. The CDR was 5.8 per 1000 screening examinations (95% CI: 3.8, 9.0) compared with 16.5 per 1000 screening examinations (95% CI: 13.3, 20.5) in the first round. The FPR was 26.3 per 1000 screening examinations (95% CI: 21.5, 32.3) in the second round versus 79.8 per 1000 screening examinations (95% CI: 72.4, 87.9) in the first round. The positive predictive value for recall was 18% (20 of 110 participants recalled; 95% CI: 12.1, 26.4), and the positive predictive value for biopsy was 24% (20 of 84 participants who underwent biopsy; 95% CI: 16.0, 33.9), both comparable to that of the first round. All tumors in the second round were stage 0-I and node negative. Conclusion The incremental cancer detection rate in the second round was 5.8 per 1000 screening examinations-compared with 16.5 per 1000 screening examinations in the first round. This was accompanied by a strong reduction in the number of false-positive results. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Moy and Gao in this issue.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(11): 1243-1252, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600211

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although the prognosis of patients with thin primary cutaneous melanomas (T1, ≤ 1.0 mm) is generally excellent, some develop recurrence. We sought to develop and validate a model predicting recurrences in patients with thin melanomas. METHODS: A Dutch population-based cohort (n = 25,930, development set) and a cohort from an Australian melanoma treatment center (n = 2,968, validation set) were analyzed (median follow-up 6.7 and 12.0 years, respectively). Multivariable Cox models were generated for local, regional, and distant recurrence-free survival (RFS). Discrimination was assessed using Harrell's C-statistic for each outcome. Each nomogram performance was evaluated using calibration plots defining low-risk and high-risk groups as the lowest and top 5% of the nomogram risk score, respectively. The nomograms' C-statistics were compared with those of a model including the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging parameters (T-stage and sentinel node status). RESULTS: Local, regional, and distant recurrences were found in 209 (0.8%), 503 (1.9%), and 203 (0.8%) Dutch patients, respectively, and 23 (0.8%), 61 (2.1%), and 75 (2.5%) Australian patients, respectively. C-statistics of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.82) for local RFS, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.78) for regional RFS, and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.83) for distant RFS were obtained for the development model. External validation showed C-statistics of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.90), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.82), and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.80), respectively. Calibration plots showed a good match between predicted and observed rates. Using the nomogram, the C-statistic was increased by 9%-12% for the development cohort and by 11%-15% for the validation cohort, compared with a model including only T-stage and sentinel node status. CONCLUSION: Most patients with thin melanomas have an excellent prognosis, but some develop recurrence. The presented nomograms can accurately identify a subgroup at high risk. An online calculator is available at www.melanomarisk.org.au.

6.
Maturitas ; 143: 216-222, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine if age-specific anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels are associated with cancer risk; and to investigate if age-related AMH trajectories differ between women who develop cancer and women who do not. More specifically, we examined associations with breast cancer, cancers in other tissues expressing AMH receptor AMHR2, and cancers in non-AMHR2-expressing tissues. STUDY DESIGN: We included longitudinal data from 3025 women in the prospective Doetinchem Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of baseline age-specific AMH tertiles with cancer. We applied linear mixed models to compare age-related AMH trajectories between women who were diagnosed with cancer and women who were not. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer (n = 385; 139 breast cancers, 112 cancers in other AMHR2-expressing tissues, 134 cancers in non-AMHR2-expressing tissues). RESULTS: Overall, baseline age-specific AMH levels were not associated with cancer risk, although in women ≤ 40 years an increased risk was suggested for breast cancer (HRT2:T1 = 2.06, 95%CI = 0.95-4.48; HRT3:T1 = 2.03, 95%CI = 0.91-4.50). Analysis of age-related AMH trajectories suggested that AMH levels were higher at younger ages and declined faster in women who were diagnosed with cancer compared with women who were not, but our results did not provide evidence for actual differences in trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Our results did not provide evidence for an association between age-specific AMH levels and age-related trajectories and risk of cancer. However, effect estimates for breast cancer were in line with risk-increasing effects found in previous studies.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo
7.
JAMA Dermatol ; 157(2): 166-173, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355600

RESUMO

Importance: Although regression is commonly observed in cutaneous melanoma, it is uncertain whether it is associated with patient prognosis. Objective: To determine whether histologically confirmed regression was associated with better or worse survival in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed data from 2 large cohorts of adults (one in the Netherlands and the other in Australia) with histologically proven, stage 1 and 2 primary, invasive cutaneous melanoma with known regression status treated between 2000 and 2014, with median follow-up times of 4.5 and 11.1 years for the Dutch and Australian cohorts, respectively. For the Dutch patients, population-based data from PALGA, the Dutch Pathology Registry, were used, and follow-up data were retrieved from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. For the Australian patients, data from the database of a large, specialized melanoma treatment center were used. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed per cohort to assess recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), and subgroup analyses according to Breslow thickness category and melanoma subtype were performed. Results: A total of 17 271 Dutch patients and 4980 Australian patients were included. In both cohorts, survival outcomes were better for patients with disease regression. For Dutch patients, the hazard ratio (HR) for those with disease regression was 0.55 (95% CI, 0.48-0.63; P < .001) for RFS and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.79-0.96; P = .004) for OS; for the Australian patients, the HR was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.52-0.72; P < .001) for RFS and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.64-0.84; P < .001) for OS. Subgroup analyses showed that the presence of regression improved RFS within thin and intermediate Breslow thickness melanomas in both cohorts. For patients with superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) subtype, regression improved RFS and OS in both cohorts. For Dutch patients with SSM, the HR for those with disease regression was 0.54 (95% CI, 0.46-0.63; P < .001) for RFS and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.76-0.96; P = .009) for OS; for the Australian patients with SSM, the HR was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.52-0.85; P = .001) for RFS and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59-0.88; P = .001) for OS. Conclusions and Relevance: In 2 large patient cohorts from 2 different continents, regression was a favorable prognostic factor for patients with stage 1 and 2 melanomas, especially in those with thin and intermediate thickness tumors and those with SSM subtype.

8.
Environ Res ; 193: 110568, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung cancer has been established in previous studies. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of chemical components from various sources and little is known about whether certain components contribute specifically to the associated lung cancer risk. The present study builds on recent findings from the "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration and addresses the potential association between specific elemental components of PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We pooled seven cohorts from across Europe and assigned exposure estimates for eight components of PM2.5 representing non-tail pipe emissions (copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn)), long-range transport (sulfur (S)), oil burning/industry emissions (nickel (Ni), vanadium (V)), crustal material (silicon (Si)), and biomass burning (potassium (K)) to cohort participants' baseline residential address based on 100 m by 100 m grids from newly developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). RESULTS: The pooled study population comprised 306,550 individuals with 3916 incident lung cancer events during 5,541,672 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive association between exposure to all eight components and lung cancer incidence, with adjusted HRs of 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.16) per 50 ng/m3 PM2.5 K, 1.09 (95% CI 1.02, 1.15) per 1 ng/m3 PM2.5 Ni, 1.22 (95% CI 1.11, 1.35) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 S, and 1.07 (95% CI 1.02, 1.12) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 V. Effect estimates were largely unaffected by adjustment for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After adjustment for PM2.5 mass, effect estimates of K, Ni, S, and V were slightly attenuated, whereas effect estimates of Cu, Si, Fe, and Zn became null or negative. CONCLUSIONS: Our results point towards an increased risk of lung cancer in connection with sources of combustion particles from oil and biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosols rather than non-exhaust traffic emissions. Specific limit values or guidelines targeting these specific PM2.5 components may prove helpful in future lung cancer prevention strategies.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) target 60% of human messenger RNAs and can be detected in tissues and biofluids without loss of stability during sample processing, making them highly appraised upcoming biomarkers for evaluation of disease. However, reporting of the abundantly expressed miRNAs in healthy samples is often surpassed. Here, we characterized for the first time the physiological miRNA landscape in a biofluid of the healthy breast: nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), and compared NAF miRNA expression patterns with publically available miRNA expression profiles of healthy breast tissue, breast milk, plasma and serum. METHODS: MiRNA RT-qPCR profiling of NAF (n = 41) and serum (n = 23) samples from two healthy female cohorts was performed using the TaqMan OpenArray Human Advanced MicroRNA 754-Panel. MiRNA quantification data based on non-targeted or multi-targeted profiling techniques for breast tissue, breast milk, plasma and serum were retrieved from the literature by means of a systematic search. MiRNAs from each individual study were orderly ranked between 1 and 50, combined into an overall ranking per sample type and compared. RESULTS: NAF expressed 11 unique miRNAs and shared 21/50 miRNAs with breast tissue. Seven miRNAs were shared between the five sample types. Overlap between sample types varied between 42% and 62%. Highly ranked NAF miRNAs have established roles in breast carcinogenesis. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to characterize and compare the unique physiological NAF-derived miRNA landscape with the physiological expression pattern in breast tissue, breast milk, plasma and serum. Breast-specific sources did not mutually overlap more than with systemic sources. Given their established role in carcinogenesis, NAF miRNA assessment could be a valuable tool in breast tumor diagnostics.

10.
Environ Int ; 146: 106249, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ambient air pollution has been associated with lung cancer, but the shape of the exposure-response function - especially at low exposure levels - is not well described. The aim of this study was to address the relationship between long-term low-level air pollution exposure and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: The "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: a Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration pools seven cohorts from across Europe. We developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) to assign exposure to cohort participants' residential addresses in 100 m by 100 m grids. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). We fitted linear models, linear models in subsets, Shape-Constrained Health Impact Functions (SCHIF), and natural cubic spline models to assess the shape of the association between air pollution and lung cancer at concentrations below existing standards and guidelines. RESULTS: The analyses included 307,550 cohort participants. During a mean follow-up of 18.1 years, 3956 incident lung cancer cases occurred. Median (Q1, Q3) annual (2010) exposure levels of NO2, PM2.5, BC and O3 (warm season) were 24.2 µg/m3 (19.5, 29.7), 15.4 µg/m3 (12.8, 17.3), 1.6 10-5m-1 (1.3, 1.8), and 86.6 µg/m3 (78.5, 92.9), respectively. We observed a higher risk for lung cancer with higher exposure to PM2.5 (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.23 per 5 µg/m3). This association was robust to adjustment for other pollutants. The SCHIF, spline and subset analyses suggested a linear or supra-linear association with no evidence of a threshold. In subset analyses, risk estimates were clearly elevated for the subset of subjects with exposure below the EU limit value of 25 µg/m3. We did not observe associations between NO2, BC or O3 and lung cancer incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term ambient PM2.5 exposure is associated with lung cancer incidence even at concentrations below current EU limit values and possibly WHO Air Quality Guidelines.

11.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173903

RESUMO

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is expressed by antral stage ovarian follicles in women. Consequently, circulating AMH levels are detectable until menopause. Variation in age-specific AMH levels has been associated with breast cancer and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), amongst other diseases. Identification of genetic variants underlying variation in AMH levels could provide clues about the physiological mechanisms that explain these AMH-disease associations. To date, only one variant in MCM8 has been identified to be associated with circulating AMH levels in women. We aimed to identify additional variants for AMH through a GWAS meta-analysis including data from 7049 premenopausal women of European ancestry, which more than doubles the sample size of the largest previous GWAS. We identified four loci associated with AMH levels at p < 5×10 -8 : the previously reported MCM8 locus and three novel signals in or near AMH, TEX41 , and CDCA7 . The strongest signal was a missense variant in the AMH gene (rs10417628). Most prioritized genes at the other three identified loci were involved in cell cycle regulation. Genetic correlation analyses indicated a strong positive correlation among SNPs for AMH levels and for age at menopause (r g = 0.82, FDR=0.003). Exploratory Mendelian randomization analyses did not support a causal effect of AMH on breast cancer or PCOS risk, but should be interpreted with caution as they may be underpowered and the validity of genetic instruments could not be extensively explored. In conclusion, we identified a variant in the AMH gene and three other loci that may affect circulating AMH levels in women.

12.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 130: 135-142, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Trials within Cohorts design aims to reduce recruitment difficulties and disappointment bias in pragmatic trials. On cohort enrollment, broad informed consent for randomization is asked, after which cohort participants can be randomized to interventions or serve as controls without further notification. We evaluated patients' recollection, understanding, and acceptance of broad consent in a clinical oncology setting. METHODS: We surveyed 610 patients with cancer participating in ongoing TwiCs; 482 patients (79%) responded, of which 312 patients shortly after cohort enrollment, 108 patients after randomization to an intervention (12-18 months after cohort enrollment), and a random sample of 62 cohort participants who had not been selected for interventions (1-6 months after cohort enrollment). RESULTS: Shortly after providing cohort consent, 76% of patients (238/312) adequately remembered whether they had given broad consent for randomization. Of patients randomly offered interventions, 76% (82/108) remembered giving broad consent for randomization; 41% (44/108) understood they were randomly selected, 44% (48/108) were not interested in selection procedures, and 10% (11/108) did not understand selection was random. Among patients not selected for interventions, 42% (26/62) understood selection was random; 89% felt neutral regarding the scenario of "not being selected for an intervention while your data were being used in comparison with patients receiving interventions," 10% felt reassured (6/62) and 2% scared/insecure (2/62). CONCLUSION: Patients adequately remember giving broad consent for randomization shortly after cohort enrollment and after being offered an intervention, but recollection is lower in those never selected for interventions. Patients are acceptant of serving as control without further notifications.

13.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048171

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Given its role in ovarian follicle development, circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is considered to be a marker of reproductive ageing. Although accelerated reproductive ageing has been associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, research on the relationship between AMH and type 2 diabetes risk is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether age-specific AMH levels and age-related AMH trajectories are associated with type 2 diabetes risk in women. METHODS: We measured AMH in repeated plasma samples from 3293 female participants (12,460 samples in total), aged 20-59 years at recruitment, from the Doetinchem Cohort Study, a longitudinal study with follow-up visits every 5 years. We calculated age-specific AMH tertiles at baseline to account for the strong AMH-age correlation. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used to assess the association between baseline age-specific AMH tertiles and incident type 2 diabetes. We applied linear mixed models to compare age-related AMH trajectories for women who developed type 2 diabetes with trajectories for women who did not develop diabetes. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 20 years, 163 women developed type 2 diabetes. Lower baseline age-specific AMH levels were associated with a higher type 2 diabetes risk (HRT2vsT3 1.24 [95% CI 0.81, 1.92]; HRT1vsT3 1.62 [95% CI 1.06, 2.48]; ptrend = 0.02). These findings seem to be supported by predicted AMH trajectories, which suggested that plasma AMH levels were lower at younger ages in women who developed type 2 diabetes compared with women who did not. The trajectories also suggested that AMH levels declined at a slower rate in women who developed type 2 diabetes, although differences in trajectories were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We observed that lower age-specific AMH levels were associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Longitudinal analyses did not show clear evidence of differing AMH trajectories between women who developed type 2 diabetes compared with women who did not, possibly because these analyses were underpowered. Further research is needed to investigate whether AMH is part of the biological mechanism explaining the association between reproductive ageing and type 2 diabetes. Graphical abstract.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082203

RESUMO

Women identified with an increased risk of breast cancer due to mutations in cancer susceptibility genes or a familial history of breast cancer undergo tailored screening with the goal of detecting tumors earlier, when potential curative interventions are still possible. Ideally, screening would identify signs of carcinogenesis even before a tumor is detectable by imaging. This could be achieved by timely signaling of altered biomarker levels for precancerous processes in liquid biopsies. Currently, the Nipple Aspirate Fluid (NAF) and the Trial Early Serum Test BREAST cancer (TESTBREAST), both ongoing, prospective, multicenter studies, are investigating biomarkers in liquid biopsies to improve breast cancer screening in high-risk women. The NAF study focuses on changes over time in miRNA expression levels both in blood and NAF samples, whereas the TESTBREAST study analyzes changes in protein levels in blood samples at sequential interval timepoints. These within-subject changes are studied in relation to later occurrence of breast cancer using a nested case-control design. These longitudinal studies face their own challenges in execution, such as hindrances in logistics and in sample processing that were difficult to anticipate. This article offers insight into those challenges and concurrently aims to provide useful strategies for the set-up of similar studies.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overexpression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) has been associated with chronic inflammation, which in turn has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) competes with RAGE to bind its ligands, thus potentially preventing RAGE-induced inflammation. METHODS: To investigate whether sRAGE and related genetic variants are associated with colorectal cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Plasma sRAGE concentrations were measured by ELISA in 1,361 colorectal cancer matched case-control sets. Twenty-four SNPs encoded in the genes associated with sRAGE concentrations were available for 1,985 colorectal cancer cases and 2,220 controls. Multivariable adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional and unconditional logistic regression for colorectal cancer risk and circulating sRAGE and SNPs, respectively. RESULTS: Higher sRAGE concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer (ORQ5vs.Q1, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.00). Sex-specific analyses revealed that the observed inverse risk association was restricted to men (ORQ5vs.Q1, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.94), whereas no association was observed in women (ORQ5vs.Q1, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.68-1.48; P heterogeneity for sex = 0.006). Participants carrying minor allele of rs653765 (promoter region of ADAM10) had lower colorectal cancer risk (C vs. T, OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic sRAGE concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men, but not in women. An SNP located within ADAM10 gene, pertaining to RAGE shedding, was associated with colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: Further studies are needed to confirm our observed sex difference in the association and better explore the potential involvement of genetic variants of sRAGE in colorectal cancer development.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1654-1664, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant (95%) bladder cancer subtype in industrialized nations. Animal and epidemiologic human studies suggest that hormonal factors may influence urothelial carcinoma risk. METHODS: We used an analytic cohort of 333,919 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort. Associations between hormonal factors and incident urothelial carcinoma (overall and by tumor grade, tumor aggressiveness, and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma) risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a mean of 15 years of follow-up, 529 women developed urothelial carcinoma. In a model including number of full-term pregnancies (FTP), menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), number of FTP was inversely associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR≥5vs1 = 0.48; 0.25-0.90; P trend in parous women = 0.010) and MHT use (compared with nonuse) was positively associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR = 1.27; 1.03-1.57), but no dose response by years of MHT use was observed. No modification of HRs by smoking status was observed. Finally, sensitivity analyses in never smokers showed similar HR patterns for the number of FTP, while no association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. Association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk remained significant only in current smokers. No heterogeneity of the risk estimations in the final model was observed by tumor aggressiveness or by tumor grade. A positive association between MTH use and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that increasing the number of FTP may reduce urothelial carcinoma risk. IMPACT: More detailed studies on parity are needed to understand the possible effects of perinatal hormone changes in urothelial cells.

17.
Maturitas ; 135: 53-67, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252965

RESUMO

Experimental research suggests that anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) inhibits tumor growth. Conversely, epidemiological studies suggest that higher AMH concentrations increase breast cancer risk, while associations with other cancers are inconsistent. Therefore, our aim was to provide a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence on AMH levels in relation to different cancer types. We performed a systematic search of PubMed and Embase for publications on circulating AMH in relation to cancer. Methodological quality of articles was assessed using the Study Quality Assessment Tools of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. We included 12 articles on breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer, lymphomas, non-gynaecological cancers, childhood cancer and prostate cancer. Five studies measured AMH prior to cancer diagnosis; the other studies measured AMH after diagnosis but prior to treatment. Higher prediagnosis AMH levels were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Associations with other types of cancer remained inconclusive, although analyses stratified by age hinted at an increased risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer in younger women. Pretreatment AMH levels were lower in women diagnosed with different types of cancer compared with AMH levels in healthy women. However, because we considered most of the studies that established pretreatment AMH levels to be of poor methodological quality, mainly because of inadequate correction for age at measurement and other important confounders, we refrain from definite conclusions based on these results. Future studies with young participants are needed to assess whether and how AMH affects the risk of different cancer types over time.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
18.
Invest Radiol ; 55(7): 438-444, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To reduce the number of false-positive diagnoses in the screening of women with extremely dense breasts using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we aimed to predict which BI-RADS 3 and BI-RADS 4 lesions are benign. For this purpose, we use computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) based on multiparametric assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive data were used from the first screening round of the DENSE (Dense Tissue and Early Breast Neoplasm Screening) trial. In this trial, asymptomatic women with a negative screening mammography and extremely dense breasts were screened using multiparametric MRI. In total, 4783 women, aged 50 to 75 years, enrolled and were screened in 8 participating hospitals between December 2011 and January 2016. In total, 525 lesions in 454 women were given a BI-RADS 3 (n = 202), 4 (n = 304), or 5 score (n = 19). Of these lesions, 444 were benign and 81 were malignant on histologic examination.The MRI protocol consisted of 5 different MRI sequences: T1-weighted imaging without fat suppression, diffusion-weighted imaging, T1-weighted contrast-enhanced images at high spatial resolution, T1-weighted contrast-enhanced images at high temporal resolution, and T2-weighted imaging. A machine-learning method was developed to predict, without deterioration of sensitivity, which of the BI-RADS 3- and BI-RADS 4-scored lesions are actually benign and could be prevented from being recalled. BI-RADS 5 lesions were only used for training, because the gain in preventing false-positive diagnoses is expected to be low in this group. The CAD consists of 2 stages: feature extraction and lesion classification. Two groups of features were extracted: the first based on all multiparametric sequences, the second based only on sequences that are typically used in abbreviated MRI protocols. In the first group, 49 features were used as candidate predictors: 46 were automatically calculated from the MRI scans, supplemented with 3 clinical features (age, body mass index, and BI-RADS score). In the second group, 36 image features and the same 3 clinical features were used. Each group was considered separately in a machine-learning model to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. We developed a Ridge regression model using 10-fold cross validation. Performance of the models was analyzed using an accuracy measure curve and receiver-operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: Of the total number of BI-RADS 3 and BI-RADS 4 lesions referred to additional MRI or biopsy, 425/487 (87.3%) were false-positive. The full multiparametric model classified 176 (41.5%) and the abbreviated-protocol model classified 111 (26.2%) of the 425 false-positive BI-RADS 3- and BI-RADS 4-scored lesions as benign without missing a malignant lesion.If the full multiparametric CAD had been used to aid in referral, recall for biopsy or repeat MRI could have been reduced from 425/487 (87.3%) to 311/487 (63.9%) lesions. For the abbreviated protocol, it could have been 376/487 (77.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Dedicated multiparametric CAD of breast MRI for BI-RADS 3 and 4 lesions in screening of women with extremely dense breasts has the potential to reduce false-positive diagnoses and consequently to reduce the number of biopsies without missing cancers.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1325-1333, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011733

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) incidence rates vary ~10-fold worldwide, in part due to variation in EC risk factor profiles. Using an EC risk model previously developed in the European EPIC cohort, we evaluated the prevention potential of modified EC risk factor patterns and whether differences in EC incidence between a European population and low-risk countries can be explained by differences in these patterns. Predicted EC incidence rates were estimated over 10 years of follow-up for the cohort before and after modifying risk factor profiles. Risk factors considered were: body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 ), use of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and oral contraceptives (OC) (potentially modifiable); and, parity, ages at first birth, menarche and menopause (environmentally conditioned, but not readily modifiable). Modeled alterations in BMI (to all ≤23 kg/m2 ) and HT use (to all non-HT users) profiles resulted in a 30% reduction in predicted EC incidence rates; individually, longer duration of OC use (to all ≥10 years) resulted in a 42.5% reduction. Modeled changes in not readily modifiable exposures (i.e., those not contributing to prevention potential) resulted in ≤24.6% reduction in predicted EC incidence. Women in the lowest decile of a risk score based on the evaluated exposures had risk similar to a low risk countries; however, this was driven by relatively long use of OCs (median = 23 years). Our findings support avoidance of overweight BMI and of HT use as prevention strategies for EC in a European population; OC use must be considered in the context of benefits and risks.

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