Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 188
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 759-768, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968961

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of breast cancer (BC); however, the biological mechanisms underlying this association are not fully elucidated, particularly the extent to which this relationship is mediated by sex hormone levels. Circulating concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, their free fractions and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), were examined in 430 incident BC cases and 645 matched controls among alcohol-consuming postmenopausal women nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Mediation analysis was applied to assess whether individual hormone levels mediated the relationship between alcohol intake and BC risk. An alcohol-related hormonal signature, obtained by partial least square (PLS) regression, was evaluated as a potential mediator. Total (TE), natural direct and natural indirect effects (NIE) were estimated. Alcohol intake was positively associated with overall BC risk and specifically with estrogen receptor-positive tumors with respectively TE = 1.17(95%CI: 1.01,1.35) and 1.36(1.08,1.70) for a 1-standard deviation (1-SD) increase of intake. There was no evidence of mediation by sex steroids or SHBG separately except for a weak indirect effect through free estradiol where NIE = 1.03(1.00,1.06). However, an alcohol-related hormonal signature negatively associated with SHBG and positively with estradiol and testosterone was associated with BC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25 [1.07,1.47]) for a 1-SD higher PLS score, and had a statistically significant NIE accounting for a mediated proportion of 24%. There was limited evidence of mediation of the alcohol-BC association by individual sex hormones. However, a hormonal signature, reflecting lower levels of SHBG and higher levels of sex steroids, mediated a substantial proportion of the association.

2.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 221, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though in situ breast cancer (BCIS) accounts for a large proportion of the breast cancers diagnosed, few studies have investigated potential risk factors for BCIS. Their results suggest that some established risk factors for invasive breast cancer have a similar impact on BCIS risk, but large population-based studies on lifestyle factors and BCIS risk are lacking. Thus, we investigated the association between lifestyle and BCIS risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Lifestyle was operationalized by a score reflecting the adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations. The recommendations utilized in these analyses were the ones pertinent to healthy body weight, physical activity, consumption of plant-based foods, energy-dense foods, red and processed meat, and sugary drinks and alcohol, as well as the recommendation on breastfeeding. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the association between lifestyle score and BCIS risk. The results were presented as hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: After an overall median follow-up time of 14.9 years, 1277 BCIS cases were diagnosed. Greater adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was not associated with BCIS risk (HR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.93-1.03; per one unit of increase; multivariable model). An inverse association between the lifestyle score and BCIS risk was observed in study centers, where participants were recruited mainly via mammographic screening and attended additional screening throughout follow-up (HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.73-0.99), but not in the remaining ones (HR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: While we did not observe an overall association between lifestyle and BCIS risk, our results indicate that lifestyle is associated with BCIS risk among women recruited via screening programs and with regular screening participation. This suggests that a true inverse association between lifestyle habits and BCIS risk in the overall cohort may have been masked by a lack of information on screening attendance. The potential inverse association between lifestyle and BCIS risk in our analyses is consistent with the inverse associations between lifestyle scores and breast cancer risk reported from previous studies.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 381(22): 2091-2102, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extremely dense breast tissue is a risk factor for breast cancer and limits the detection of cancer with mammography. Data are needed on the use of supplemental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to improve early detection and reduce interval breast cancers in such patients. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, controlled trial in the Netherlands, we assigned 40,373 women between the ages of 50 and 75 years with extremely dense breast tissue and normal results on screening mammography to a group that was invited to undergo supplemental MRI or to a group that received mammography screening only. The groups were assigned in a 1:4 ratio, with 8061 in the MRI-invitation group and 32,312 in the mammography-only group. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in the incidence of interval cancers during a 2-year screening period. RESULTS: The interval-cancer rate was 2.5 per 1000 screenings in the MRI-invitation group and 5.0 per 1000 screenings in the mammography-only group, for a difference of 2.5 per 1000 screenings (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 3.7; P<0.001). Of the women who were invited to undergo MRI, 59% accepted the invitation. Of the 20 interval cancers that were diagnosed in the MRI-invitation group, 4 were diagnosed in the women who actually underwent MRI (0.8 per 1000 screenings) and 16 in those who did not accept the invitation (4.9 per 1000 screenings). The MRI cancer-detection rate among the women who actually underwent MRI screening was 16.5 per 1000 screenings (95% CI, 13.3 to 20.5). The positive predictive value was 17.4% (95% CI, 14.2 to 21.2) for recall for additional testing and 26.3% (95% CI, 21.7 to 31.6) for biopsy. The false positive rate was 79.8 per 1000 screenings. Among the women who underwent MRI, 0.1% had either an adverse event or a serious adverse event during or immediately after the screening. CONCLUSIONS: The use of supplemental MRI screening in women with extremely dense breast tissue and normal results on mammography resulted in the diagnosis of significantly fewer interval cancers than mammography alone during a 2-year screening period. (Funded by the University Medical Center Utrecht and others; DENSE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01315015.).

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752362

RESUMO

The authors of the recently published review, "Why the Gold Standard Approach by Mammography Demands Extension by Multiomics [...].

5.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 178, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool to identify novel etiologic pathways leading to cancer. Using a targeted approach, we prospectively investigated the associations between metabolite concentrations in plasma and breast cancer risk. METHODS: A nested case-control study was established within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort, which included 1624 first primary incident invasive breast cancer cases (with known estrogen and progesterone receptor and HER2 status) and 1624 matched controls. Metabolites (n = 127, acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, sphingolipids) were measured by mass spectrometry in pre-diagnostic plasma samples and tested for associations with breast cancer incidence using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among women not using hormones at baseline (n = 2248), and after control for multiple tests, concentrations of arginine (odds ratio [OR] per SD = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-0.90), asparagine (OR = 0.83 (0.74-0.92)), and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) ae C36:3 (OR = 0.83 (0.76-0.90)), aa C36:3 (OR = 0.84 (0.77-0.93)), ae C34:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.94)), ae C36:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.88)), and ae C38:2 (OR = 0.84 (0.76-0.93)) were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, while the acylcarnitine C2 (OR = 1.23 (1.11-1.35)) was positively associated with disease risk. In the overall population, C2 (OR = 1.15 (1.06-1.24)) and PC ae C36:3 (OR = 0.88 (0.82-0.95)) were associated with risk of breast cancer, and these relationships did not differ by breast cancer subtype, age at diagnosis, fasting status, menopausal status, or adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to potentially novel pathways and biomarkers of breast cancer development. Results warrant replication in other epidemiological studies.

6.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564045

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly fatal cancer with currently limited opportunities for early detection and effective treatment. Modifiable factors may offer pathways for primary prevention. In this study, the association between the Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) and PC risk was examined. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1113 incident PC (57% women) were diagnosed from 400,577 participants followed-up for 15 years (median). HLI scores combined smoking, alcohol intake, dietary exposure, physical activity and, in turn, overall and central adiposity using BMI (HLIBMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, HLIWHR), respectively. High values of HLI indicate adherence to healthy behaviors. Cox proportional hazard models with age as primary time variable were used to estimate PC hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity analyses were performed by excluding, in turn, each factor from the HLI score. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated assuming participants' shift to healthier lifestyles. The HRs for a one-standard deviation increment of HLIBMI and HLIWHR were 0.84 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.89; ptrend = 4.3e-09) and 0.77 (0.72, 0.82; ptrend = 1.7e-15), respectively. Exclusions of smoking from HLIWHR resulted in HRs of 0.88 (0.82, 0.94; ptrend = 4.9e-04). The overall PAF estimate was 19% (95% CI: 11%, 26%), and 14% (6%, 21%) when smoking was removed from the score. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle was inversely associated with PC risk, beyond the beneficial role of smoking avoidance. Public health measures targeting compliance with healthy lifestyles may have an impact on PC incidence.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(9): 1552-1555, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of prospective data on the potential association of Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) and colorectal cancer risk. In this study, we assessed whether antibody responses to F. nucleatum are associated with colorectal cancer risk in prediagnostic serum samples in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: We applied a multiplex serology assay to simultaneously measure antibody responses to 11 F. nucleatum antigens in prediagnostic serum samples from 485 colorectal cancer cases and 485 matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We observed neither a statistically significant colorectal cancer risk association for antibodies to individual F. nucleatum proteins nor for combined positivity to any of the 11 proteins (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.62-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses to F. nucleatum proteins in prediagnostic serum samples from a subset of colorectal cancer cases and matched controls within the EPIC study were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: Our findings in prospectively ascertained serum samples contradict the existing literature on the association of F. nucleatum with colorectal cancer risk. Future prospective studies, specifically detecting F. nucleatum in stool or tissue biopsies, are needed to complement our findings.

8.
Cancer Res ; 79(20): 5442-5451, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462430

RESUMO

Growing epidemiologic evidence supports chronic inflammation as a mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis. An association between a circulating marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ovarian cancer risk has been consistently observed, yet, potential heterogeneity of this association by tumor and patient characteristics has not been adequately explored. In this study, we pooled data from case-control studies nested within six cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3) to examine the association between CRP and epithelial ovarian cancer risk overall, by histologic subtype and by participant characteristics. CRP concentrations were measured from prediagnosis serum or plasma in 1,091 cases and 1,951 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). When CRP was evaluated using tertiles, no associations with ovarian cancer risk were observed. A 67% increased ovarian cancer risk was found for women with CRP concentrations >10 mg/L compared with <1 mg/L (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.12-2.48). A CRP concentration >10 mg/L was positively associated with risk of mucinous (OR = 9.67; 95% CI = 1.10-84.80) and endometrioid carcinoma (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.07-10.92), and suggestively positive, although not statistically significant, for serous (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 0.82-2.49) and clear cell carcinoma (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 0.36-11.57; P heterogeneity = 0.20). Heterogeneity was observed with oral contraceptive use (P interaction = 0.03), where the increased risk was present only among ever users (OR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.62-6.47). This study adds to the existing evidence that CRP plays a role in ovarian carcinogenesis and suggests that inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma. SIGNIFICANCE: C-reactive protein is involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, and chronic inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of mucinous and endometrioid carcinomas.

9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bile acids have been proposed to promote colon carcinogenesis. However, there are limited prospective data on circulating bile acid levels and colon cancer risk in humans. METHODS: Associations between pre-diagnostic plasma levels of 17 primary, secondary and tertiary bile acid metabolites (conjugated and unconjugated) and colon cancer risk were evaluated in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Bile acid levels were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry in samples from 569 incident colon cancer cases and 569 matched controls. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for colon cancer risk across quartiles of bile acid concentrations. RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between colon cancer risk and plasma levels of 7 conjugated bile acid metabolites, i.e. primary bile acids glycocholic acid (ORQuartile 4 vs. Quartile 1=2.22,95 % confidence interval[CI]=1.52, 3.26), taurocholic acid (OR = 1.78, 95%CI=1.23, 2.58), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95%CI=1.13, 2.48), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.62, 95%CI=1.11-2.36), and glycohyocholic acid (OR = 1.65, 95%CI=1.13, 2.40) as well as the secondary bile acids glycodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95%CI=1.12, 2.54) and taurodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.54, 95%CI=1.02, 2.31). By contrast, unconjugated bile acids and tertiary bile acids were not associated with risk. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study showed that pre-diagnostic levels of certain conjugated primary and secondary bile acids were positively associated with risk of colon cancer. Our findings support experimental data to suggest that a high bile acid load is colon cancer promotive.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319002

RESUMO

Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not all results were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women also reproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average follow-up of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed the expected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR = 1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 10 mm Hg higher SBP and HR = 1.23 (1.14-1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associations for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR = 1.16 (1.07-1.26) (SBP), HR = 1.31 (1.13-1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR = 1.08 (1.04-1.12) (SBP), HR = 1.09 (1.01-1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer and uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC or uterine endometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC: HR = 0.91 (0.82-1.00) and lymphomas: HR = 0.97 (0.93-1.00). There were no consistent associations with cancers in other locations. Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations of blood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.

11.
Med Phys ; 46(10): 4405-4416, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Segmentation of the chest wall, is an important component of methods for automated analysis of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods reported to date show promising results but have difficulties delineating the muscle border correctly in breasts with a large proportion of fibroglandular tissue (i.e., dense breasts). Knowledge-based methods (KBMs) as well as methods based on deep learning have been proposed, but a systematic comparison of these approaches within one cohort of images is currently lacking. Therefore, we developed a KBM and a deep learning method for segmentation of the chest wall in MRI of dense breasts and compared their performances. METHODS: Two automated methods were developed, an optimized KBM incorporating heuristics aimed at shape, location, and gradient features, and a deep learning-based method (DLM) using a dilated convolution neural network. A data set of 115 T1-weighted MR images was randomly selected from MR images of women with extremely dense breasts (ACR BI-RADS category 4) participating in a screening trial of women (mean age 56.6 yr, range 49.5-75.2 yr) with dense breasts. Manual segmentations of the chest wall, acquired under supervision of an experienced breast radiologist, were available for all data sets. Both methods were optimized using the same randomly selected 36 MRI data sets from a total of 115 data sets. Each MR data set consisted of 179 transversal images with voxel size 0.64 mm3  × 0.64 mm3  × 1.00 mm3 . In the remaining 79 data sets, the results of both segmentation methods were qualitatively evaluated. A radiologist reviewed the segmentation results of both methods in all transversal images (n = 14 141) and determined whether the result would impact the ability to accurately determine the volume of fibroglandular and fatty tissue and whether segmentations masked breast regions that might harbor lesions. When no relevant deviation was detected, the result was considered successful. In addition, all segmentations were quantitatively assessed using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Hausdorff distance (HD), 95th percentile of the Hausdorff distance (HD95), false positive fraction (FPF), and false negative fraction (FNF) metrics. RESULTS: According to the radiologist's evaluation, the DLM had a significantly higher success rate than the KBM (81.6% vs 78.4%, P < 0.01). The success rate was further improved to 92.1% by combining both methods. Similarly, the DLM had significantly lower values for FNF (0.003 ± 0.003 vs 0.009 ± 0.011, P < 0.01) and HD95 (2.58 ± 1.78 mm vs 3.37 ± 2.11, P < 0.01). However, the KBM resulted in a significantly lower FPF than the DLM (0.018 ± 0.009 vs 0.030 ± 0.009, P < 0.01).There was no significant difference between the KBM and DLM in terms of DSC (0.982 ± 0.006 vs 0.984 ± 0.008, P = 0.08) or HD (24.14 ± 20.69 mm vs 12.81 ± 27.28 mm, P = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Both optimized knowledge-based and DLM showed good results to segment the pectoral muscle in women with dense breasts. Qualitatively assessed, the DLM was the most robust method. A quantitative comparison, however, did not indicate a preference for one method over the other.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(10): 1746-1754, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Except for a documented increase in osteoprotegerin (OPG) concentrations with older age, data on determinants of soluble Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB (sRANKL) and OPG concentrations in women are limited. We evaluated reproductive and lifestyle factors as potential sources of variation in circulating sRANKL and OPG concentrations in pre- and postmenopausal women. METHODS: This study includes 2,016 controls [n = 1,552 (76%) postmenopausal, n = 757 (38%) using postmenopausal hormone therapy (PMH)] from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Serum sRANKL was measured using an ELISA and serum OPG using an electrochemiluminescent assay. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate associations between these analytes and reproductive and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Older age at blood collection was associated with lower sRANKL concentrations in postmenopausal women (P trend ≤ 0.03) and higher OPG concentrations in all women (P trend ≤ 0.01). Longer duration of oral contraceptive use among premenopausal women and postmenopausal PMH users was associated with higher OPG (P trend ≤ 0.04). In postmenopausal non-PMH users, sRANKL concentrations were lower with longer duration of oral contraceptive use and current (vs. never) smoking (P ≤ 0.01). sRANKL concentrations were higher among women with higher BMI (P trend ≤ 0.01). The evaluated factors accounted for 12% of the variation in sRANKL concentrations and 21% of the variation in OPG concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating sRANKL and OPG concentrations are minimally impacted by hormone-related factors in pre- and postmenopausal women. IMPACT: This study suggests circulating concentrations of sRANKL and OPG are unlikely to be strongly modified by hormone-related reproductive and lifestyle factors.

13.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(2): pkz011, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360894

RESUMO

Background: The association between lymphedema of the arm and impaired health-related QoL (HR-QoL) has led to changes in clinical practice. However, data on lymphedema of the breast (ie, breast edema) are lacking. We prospectively evaluated patient-reported prevalence and determinants of breast edema and its effect on patient-reported HR-QoL and breast pain. Methods: We prospectively included 836 patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy between October 2013 and October 2016 (UMBRELLA cohort). Patient-reported breast edema, HR-QoL, and breast pain were assessed by means of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-C30/BR23 before starting radiotherapy and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months thereafter. We assessed which patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were associated with breast edema. With mixed-effects models, we assessed the impact of breast edema on patient-reported HR-QoL domains and breast pain over time, adjusting for confounders. Results: Within a median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range [IQR] = 15), 207 (24.8%) patients reported breast edema at some point in time. Prevalence of breast edema was highest at 6 months (12.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.0 to 14.7). Larger tumor size, oncoplastic surgery, axillary lymph node dissection, locoregional radiotherapy, radiotherapy boost on the tumor bed, and adjuvant chemotherapy were associated with breast edema. Breast edema was independently associated with more breast pain and with poorer QoL, physical functioning, and body image. Conclusions: Breast edema occurs frequently within the first year after breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy and is independently associated with impaired HR-QoL and more breast pain. This information is important for use in clinical practice and should be discussed with patients during shared decision making.

14.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 113: 137-146, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Trials within Cohorts (TwiCs) design is an alternative for pragmatic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and might overcome disadvantages such as difficult recruitment, dropout after randomization to control, and contamination. We investigated the applicability of the TwiCs design in an exercise oncology study regarding the recruitment process, representativeness of the study sample, contamination, participation, and dropout. METHODS: The Utrecht cohort for Multiple BREast cancer intervention studies and Long-term evaLuAtion (UMBRELLA) Fit TwiCs evaluates an exercise intervention in inactive breast cancer patients. Eligible patients participating in the prospective UMBRELLA were identified and randomized. Patients randomized to the intervention (n = 130) were offered the intervention, whereas controls (n = 130) were not informed. RESULTS: Fifty-two percent (n = 68) accepted the intervention. Because this rate was lower than expected, a larger sample size was required than initially estimated (n = 166). However, recruitment of 260 patients was still completed by one researcher within 30 months. Unselective eligibility screening and randomization before invitation improved representativeness. Disadvantage of the design might be inclusion of ineligible patients when cohort information is limited. Furthermore, the design faced higher noncompliance in the intervention group, but prevention of contamination. CONCLUSION: The TwiCs design improved logistics in recruitment and prevented contamination, but noncompliance due to refusal of the intervention was higher compared with conventional pragmatic exercise oncology RCTs, which may dilute the estimated intervention effect.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 145(11): 2954-2962, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762225

RESUMO

High mammographic density is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer. This study aimed to search for a possible birth cohort effect on mammographic density, which might contribute to explain the increasing breast cancer incidence. We separately analyzed left and right breast density of Dutch women from a 13-year period (2003-2016) in the breast cancer screening programme. First, we analyzed age-specific changes in average percent dense volume (PDV) across birth cohorts. A linear regression analysis (PDV vs. year of birth) indicated a small but statistically significant increase in women of: 1) age 50 and born from 1952 to 1966 (left, slope = 0.04, p = 0.003; right, slope = 0.09, p < 0.0001); 2) age 55 and born from 1948 to 1961 (right, slope = 0.04, p = 0.01); and 3) age 70 and born from 1933 to 1946 (right, slope = 0.05, p = 0.002). A decrease of total breast volume seemed to explain the increase in PDV. Second, we compared proportion of women with dense breast in women born in 1946-1953 and 1959-1966, and observed a statistical significant increase of proportion of highly dense breast in later born women, in the 51 to 55 age-groups for the left breast (around a 20% increase in each age-group), and in the 50 to 56 age-groups for the right breast (increase ranging from 27% to 48%). The study indicated a slight increase in mammography density across birth cohorts, most pronounced for women in their early 50s, and more marked for the right than for the left breast.

16.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1010, 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)-signaling is involved in tumor growth and spread in experimental models. Binding of RANK ligand (RANKL) to RANK activates signaling, which is inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG). We have previously shown that circulating soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and OPG are associated with breast cancer risk. Here we extend these findings to provide the first data on pre-diagnosis concentrations of sRANKL and OPG and risk of breast cancer-specific and overall mortality after a breast cancer diagnosis. METHODS: Two thousand six pre- and postmenopausal women with incident invasive breast cancer (1620 (81%) with ER+ disease) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were followed-up for mortality. Pre-diagnosis concentrations of sRANKL and OPG were quantified in baseline serum samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electrochemiluminescent assay, respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer-specific and overall mortality were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: Especially in women with ER+ disease, higher circulating OPG concentrations were associated with higher risk of breast cancer-specific (quintile 5 vs 1 HR 1.77 [CI 1.03, 3.04]; ptrend 0.10) and overall mortality (q5 vs 1 HR 1.39 [CI 0.94, 2.05]; ptrend 0.02). sRANKL and the sRANKL/OPG ratio were not associated with mortality following a breast cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: High pre-diagnosis endogenous concentrations of OPG, the decoy receptor for RANKL, were associated with increased risk of death after a breast cancer diagnosis, especially in those with ER+ disease. These results need to be confirmed in well-characterized patient cohorts.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoprotegerina/sangue , Prognóstico , Risco
17.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 42(9): 1262-1272, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979200

RESUMO

Heredity, mostly due to BRCA germline mutations, is involved in 5% to 10% of all breast cancer cases. Potential BRCA germline mutation carriers may be missed following the current eligibility criteria for BRCA genetic testing. The purpose of this study was to, therefore, develop an immunohistochemistry-based model to predict likelihood of underlying BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in unselected female breast cancer patients. The study group consisted of 100 BRCA1-related, 46 BRCA2-related, and 94 sporadic breast carcinomas. Tumor expression of 44 proteins involved in (BRCA-related) breast carcinogenesis was assessed by immunohistochemistry. A prediction model for BRCA-related versus non-BRCA-related breast cancer was developed using Lasso logistic regression analysis with cross-validation. The model was assessed for its discriminative value and clinical usefulness. The optimal prediction model included 14 predictors (age, cyclinD1, ERα, ERß, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, GLUT1, IGFR, Ki67, mitotic activity index, MLH1, p120, and TOP2A), showed excellent discriminative performance (area under the receiving operating characteristic curve=0.943; 95% confidence interval=0.909-0.978), and reasonable calibration. To enhance possible implementation, we developed an alternative model only considering more widely available immunostains. This model included 15 predictors (age, BCL2, CK5/6, CK8/18, cyclinD1, E-cadherin, ERα, HER2, Ki67, mitotic activity index , MLH1, p16, PMS2, PR, and vimentin), and still showed very good discriminative performance (area under the receiving operating characteristic curve=0.853; 95% confidence interval=0.795-0.911). We present a well-applicable and accurate tool to predict which breast cancer patients may have an underlying BRCA germline mutation, largely consisting of immunohistochemical markers independent of clinical characteristics. This may improve identification of potential BRCA germline mutation carriers and optimize referral for germline mutation testing.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Imuno-Histoquímica , Proteômica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 36, 2018 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Texture patterns have been shown to improve breast cancer risk segregation in addition to area-based mammographic density. The additional value of texture pattern scores on top of volumetric mammographic density measures in a large screening cohort has never been studied. METHODS: Volumetric mammographic density and texture pattern scores were assessed automatically for the first available digital mammography (DM) screening examination of 51,400 women (50-75 years of age) participating in the Dutch biennial breast cancer screening program between 2003 and 2011. The texture assessment method was developed in a previous study and validated in the current study. Breast cancer information was obtained from the screening registration system and through linkage with the Netherlands Cancer Registry. All screen-detected breast cancers diagnosed at the first available digital screening examination were excluded. During a median follow-up period of 4.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-6.2) years, 301 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. The associations between texture pattern scores, volumetric breast density measures and breast cancer risk were determined using Cox proportional hazard analyses. Discriminatory performance was assessed using c-indices. RESULTS: The median age of the women at the time of the first available digital mammography examination was 56 years (IQR 51-63). Texture pattern scores were positively associated with breast cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) 3.16 (95% CI 2.16-4.62) (p value for trend <0.001), for quartile (Q) 4 compared to Q1). The c-index of texture was 0.61 (95% CI 0.57-0.64). Dense volume and percentage dense volume showed positive associations with breast cancer risk (HR 1.85 (95% CI 1.32-2.59) (p value for trend <0.001) and HR 2.17 (95% CI 1.51-3.12) (p value for trend <0.001), respectively, for Q4 compared to Q1). When adding texture measures to models with dense volume or percentage dense volume, c-indices increased from 0.56 (95% CI 0.53-0.59) to 0.62 (95% CI 0.58-0.65) (p < 0.001) and from 0.58 (95% CI 0.54-0.61) to 0.60 (95% CI 0.57-0.63) (p = 0.054), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Deep-learning-based texture pattern scores, measured automatically on digital mammograms, are associated with breast cancer risk, independently of volumetric mammographic density, and augment the capacity to discriminate between future breast cancer and non-breast cancer cases.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int J Cancer ; 143(7): 1688-1695, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707771

RESUMO

Experimental studies have shown a protective effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on breast cancer development. However, results from epidemiological cohort studies are less consistent. Our objective was to assess the association between NSAID use and breast cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a prospective cohort study initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Self-reported information on NSAID use at baseline has been collected in five EPIC countries. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for the association of NSAID use with breast cancer incidence with adjustment for potential confounders. We also assessed effect modification by breast cancer risk factors and examined the associations within specific breast cancer subtypes. Among the 140,981 women included in the analysis, 7% were regularly using NSAIDs at baseline. During a median follow-up time period of 13 years, 7,379 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed (816 in situ and 6,563 invasive). There were no statistically significant associations between NSAID use and breast cancer risk, overall and by subtypes. However, a statistically significant interaction was observed for invasive cases between NSAID use and ever use of menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT) among postmenopausal women [MHT users: HRNSAID use = 0.84 (0.73-0.96); non MHT users: HRNSAID use = 1.08 (0.93-1.25); pinteraction = 0.05]. Our results indicate potential effect modification of MHT use on the association between use of NSAIDs and breast cancer risk which deserves in-depth investigation in studies with accurate data on both NSAID and MHT use.

20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(6): 568-580, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315431

RESUMO

Background: In metastatic breast cancer, hormone and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy decision-making is still largely based on tissue characteristics of the primary tumor. However, a change of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 status in distant metastases has frequently been reported. The actual incidence of this phenomenon has been debated. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis including 39 studies assessing receptor conversion from primary breast tumors to paired distant breast cancer metastases. We noted the direction of change (positive to negative or vice versa) and performed subgroup analyses for different thresholds for positivity, the type of test used to assess HER2 receptor status, and metastasis location-specific differences (two-sided tests). Results: Overall, the incidence of receptor conversion varied largely between studies. For ERα, PR, and HER2, we found that random effects pooled positive to negative conversion percentages of 22.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 16.4% to 30.0%), 49.4% (95% CI = 40.5% to 58.2%), and 21.3% (95% CI = 14.3% to 30.5%), respectively. Negative to positive conversion percentages were 21.5% (95% CI = 18.1% to 25.5%), 15.9% (95% CI = 11.3% to 22.0%), and 9.5% (95% CI = 7.4% to 12.1%). Furthermore, ERα discordance was statistically significantly higher in the central nervous system and bone compared with liver metastases (20.8%, 95% CI = 15.0% to 28.0%, and 29.3%, 95% CI = 13.0% to 53.5%, vs 14.3%, 95% CI = 11.3% to 18.1, P = .008 and P < .001, respectively), and PR discordance was higher in bone (42.7%, 95% CI = 35.1% to 50.6%, P < .001) and liver metastases (47.0%, 95% CI = 41.0% to 53.0%, P < .001) compared with central nervous system metastases (23.3%, 95% CI = 16.0% to 32.6%). Conclusions: Receptor conversion for ERα, PR, and HER2 occurs frequently in the course of disease progression in breast cancer. Large prospective studies assessing the impact of receptor conversion on treatment efficacy and survival are needed. Meanwhile, reassessing receptor status in metastases is strongly encouraged.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Conversão Gênica , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA