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1.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(21): 3867-3888, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588494

RESUMO

A method for structure refinement of molecules based on residual dipolar coupling (RDC) data is proposed. It calculates RDC values using rotational and molecule-internal configurational sampling instead of the common refinement procedure that is based on the approximation of the nonuniform rotational distribution of the molecule by a single alignment tensor representing the average nonuniformity of this distribution. Using rotational sampling, as is occurring in the experiment leading to observable RDCs, the method stays close to the experiment. It avoids the use of an alignment tensor and thus the assumption that the overall rotation of the molecule is decoupled from its internal motions and that the molecule be rigid. Two simple molecules, two-united-atomic ethane and a cyclooctane molecule with eight side chains, containing 24 united atoms, serve as the so-called "toy model" test systems. The method demonstrates the influence of molecular flexibility and force-field deficiencies on the outcome of structure refinement based on RDCs. For a molecule of a given size (number of atoms Nat), there must be a sufficiently large number NRDC of measured RDC values available to allow the restraining forces to bias the overall orientation distribution of the molecule. If the ratio NRDC/Nat gets too small, the RDC-restraining forces will either not be strong enough to change the overall rotational direction of the molecule such that the target RDC values are approximated well or will be so strong that they induce a local deformation of the molecule. In the latter case, the size or inertia of the molecule hinders a restraining-induced overall rotation and the internal structure of the molecule is not strong enough to avoid local deformation due to the restraining forces.


Assuntos
Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular/métodos
2.
Eur Biophys J ; 51(3): 265-282, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303138

RESUMO

In protein simulation or structure refinement based on values of observable quantities measured in (aqueous) solution, solvent (water) molecules may be explicitly treated, omitted, or represented by a potential of mean-solvation-force term, depending on protein coordinates only, in the force field used. These three approaches are compared for hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). This 129-residue non-spherical protein contains a variety of secondary-structure elements, and ample experimental data are available: 1630 atom-atom Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE) upper distance bounds, 213 3 J-couplings and 200 S2 order parameters. These data are used to compare the performance of the three approaches. It is found that a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in explicit water approximates the experimental data much better than stochastic dynamics (SD) simulation in vacuo without or with a solvent-accessible-surface-area (SASA) implicit-solvation term added to the force field. This is due to the missing energetic and entropic contributions and hydrogen-bonding capacities of the water molecules and the missing dielectric screening effect of this high-permittivity solvent. Omission of explicit water molecules leads to compaction of the protein, an increased internal strain, distortion of exposed loop and turn regions and excessive intra-protein hydrogen bonding. As a consequence, the conformation and dynamics of groups on the surface of the protein, which may play a key role in protein-protein interactions or ligand or substrate binding, may be incorrectly modelled. It is thus recommended to include water molecules explicitly in structure refinement of proteins in aqueous solution based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or other experimentally measured data.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Muramidase , Simulação por Computador , Muramidase/química , Proteínas/química , Solventes/química , Água
3.
Proteins ; 90(2): 543-559, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569110

RESUMO

Computer simulation of proteins in aqueous solution at the atomic level of resolution is still limited in time span and system size due to limited computing power available and thus employs a variety of time-saving techniques that trade some accuracy against computational effort. An example of such a time-saving technique is the application of constraints to particular degrees of freedom when integrating Newton's or Langevin's equations of motion in molecular dynamics (MD) or stochastic dynamics (SD) simulations, respectively. The application of bond-length constraints is standard practice in protein simulations and allows for a lengthening of the time step by a factor of three. Applying recently proposed algorithms to constrain bond angles or dihedral angles, it is investigated, using the protein trypsin inhibitor as test molecule, whether bond angles and dihedral angles involving hydrogen atoms or even stiff proper (torsional) dihedral angles as well as improper ones (maintaining particular tetrahedral or planar geometries) may be constrained without generating too many artificial side effects. Constraining the relative positions of the hydrogen atoms in the protein allows for a lengthening of the time step by a factor of two. Additionally constraining the improper dihedral angles and the stiff proper (torsional) dihedral angles in the protein does not allow for an increase of the MD or SD time step.


Assuntos
Proteínas/química , Algoritmos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica
4.
J Comput Chem ; 42(18): 1263-1282, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951201

RESUMO

Computer simulation of proteins in aqueous solution at the atomic level of resolution is still limited in time span and system size due to limited computing power available and thus employs a variety of time-saving techniques that trade some accuracy against computational effort. Examples of such time-saving techniques are the application of constraints to particular degrees of freedom or the use of a multiple-time-step (MTS) algorithm distinguishing between particular forces when integrating Newton's equations of motion. The application of two types of MTS algorithms to bond-stretching forces versus the remaining forces in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a protein in aqueous solution or of liquid water is investigated and the results in terms of total energy conservation and the influence on various other properties are compared to those of MD simulations of the same systems using bond-length, and for water bond-angle, constraints. At comparable computational effort, the use of bond-length constraints in proteins leads to better energy conservation and less distorted properties than the two MTS algorithms investigated.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas/química , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Biomol NMR ; 75(1): 39-70, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492494

RESUMO

Values of 3J-couplings as obtained from NMR experiments on proteins cannot easily be used to determine protein structure due to the difficulty of accounting for the high sensitivity of intermediate 3J-coupling values (4-8 Hz) to the averaging period that must cover the conformational variability of the torsional angle related to the 3J-coupling, and due to the difficulty of handling the multiple-valued character of the inverse Karplus relation between torsional angle and 3J-coupling. Both problems can be solved by using 3J-coupling time-averaging local-elevation restraining MD simulation. Application to the protein hen egg white lysozyme using 213 backbone and side-chain 3J-coupling restraints shows that a conformational ensemble compatible with the experimental data can be obtained using this technique, and that accounting for averaging and the ability of the algorithm to escape from local minima for the torsional angle induced by the Karplus relation, are essential for a comprehensive use of 3J-coupling data in protein structure determination.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas/química , Algoritmos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Estrutura Molecular , Muramidase , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular/métodos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Chemphyschem ; 22(3): 264-282, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377305

RESUMO

Computer simulations of molecular systems enable structure-energy-function relationships of molecular processes to be described at the sub-atomic, atomic, supra-atomic or supra-molecular level and plays an increasingly important role in chemistry, biology and physics. To interpret the results of such simulations appropriately, the degree of uncertainty and potential errors affecting the calculated properties must be considered. Uncertainty and errors arise from (1) assumptions underlying the molecular model, force field and simulation algorithms, (2) approximations implicit in the interatomic interaction function (force field), or when integrating the equations of motion, (3) the chosen values of the parameters that determine the accuracy of the approximations used, and (4) the nature of the system and the property of interest. In this overview, advantages and shortcomings of assumptions and approximations commonly used when simulating bio-molecular systems are considered. What the developers of bio-molecular force fields and simulation software can do to facilitate and broaden research involving bio-molecular simulations is also discussed.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Algoritmos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Incerteza
7.
J Comput Chem ; 42(6): 418-434, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351979

RESUMO

An algorithm to apply bond-angle constraints in molecular dynamics simulations of macromolecules or molecular liquids is presented. It uses Cartesian coordinates and determines the Lagrange multipliers required for maintaining the constraints iteratively. It constitutes an alternative to the use of only distance constraints (DCs) between particles to maintain a particular geometry. DCs are unsuitable to maintain particular, for example, linear or flat, geometries of molecules. The proposed algorithm can easily handle bond-length, bond-angle, and dihedral-angle constraints simultaneously, as when calculating a potential of mean force along a dihedral-angle degree of freedom.

8.
Chembiochem ; 22(6): 1049-1064, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146424

RESUMO

Values of S 2 CH and S 2 NH order parameters derived from NMR relaxation measurements on proteins cannot be used straightforwardly to determine protein structure because they cannot be related to a single protein structure, but are defined in terms of an average over a conformational ensemble. Molecular dynamics simulation can generate a conformational ensemble and thus can be used to restrain S 2 CH and S 2 NH order parameters towards experimentally derived target values S 2 CH (exp) and S 2 NH (exp). Application of S 2 CH and S 2 NH order-parameter restraining MD simulation to bond vectors in 63 side chains of the protein hen egg white lysozyme using 51 S 2 CH (exp) target values and 28 S 2 NH (exp) target values shows that a conformational ensemble compatible with the experimentally derived data can be obtained by using this technique. It is observed that S 2 CH order-parameter restraining of C-H bonds in methyl groups is less reliable than S 2 NH order-parameter restraining because of the possibly less valid assumptions and approximations used to derive experimental S 2 CH (exp) values from NMR relaxation measurements and the necessity to adopt the assumption of uniform rotational motion of methyl C-H bonds around their symmetry axis and of the independence of these motions from each other. The restrained simulations demonstrate that side chains on the protein surface are highly dynamic. Any hydrogen bonds they form and that appear in any of four different crystal structures, are fluctuating with short lifetimes in solution.


Assuntos
Muramidase/química , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Animais , Galinhas , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Muramidase/metabolismo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
9.
J Chem Phys ; 152(2): 024109, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941329

RESUMO

Various algorithms to apply dihedral-angle constraints in molecular dynamics or stochastic dynamics simulations of molecular systems are presented, investigated, and tested. They use Cartesian coordinates and determine the Lagrangian multipliers necessary for maintaining the constraints iteratively. The most suitable algorithm to maintain a dihedral-angle constraint is numerically compared to the alternative to use distance constraints to this end. It can easily be used to obtain a potential of mean force along a dihedral-angle coordinate.

10.
J Chem Inf Model ; 59(5): 2218-2230, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855963

RESUMO

Epothilones are among the most potent chemotherapeutic drugs used for the treatment of cancer. Epothilone A (EpoA), a natural product, is a macrocyclic molecule containing 34 non-hydrogen atoms and a thiazole side chain. NMR studies of EpoA in aqueous solution, unbound as well as bound to αß-tubulin, and unbound in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution have delivered sets of nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) atom-atom distance bounds, but no structures based on NMR data are present in structural data banks. X-ray diffraction of crystals has provided structures of EpoA unbound and bound to αß-tubulin. Since both crystal structures derived from X-ray diffraction intensities do not completely satisfy the three available sets of NOE distance bounds for EpoA, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been employed to obtain conformational ensembles in aqueous and in DMSO solution that are compatible with the respective NOE data. It was found that EpoA displays a larger conformational variability in DMSO than in water and the two conformational ensembles show little overlap. Yet, they both provide conformational scaffolds that are energetically accessible at physiological temperature and pressure.


Assuntos
Epotilonas/química , Epotilonas/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Moduladores de Tubulina/química , Moduladores de Tubulina/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Ligantes , Conformação Molecular , Água/química
11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(4): 884-902, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28682472

RESUMO

Computer simulation of molecular systems enables structure-energy-function relationships of molecular processes to be described at the sub-atomic, atomic, supra-atomic, or supra-molecular level. To interpret results of such simulations appropriately, the quality of the calculated properties must be evaluated. This depends on the way the simulations are performed and on the way they are validated by comparison to values Qexp of experimentally observable quantities Q. One must consider 1) the accuracy of Qexp , 2) the accuracy of the function Q(rN ) used to calculate a Q-value based on a molecular configuration rN of N particles, 3) the sensitivity of the function Q(rN ) to the configuration rN , 4) the relative time scales of the simulation and experiment, 5) the degree to which the calculated and experimental properties are equivalent, and 6) the degree to which the system simulated matches the experimental conditions. Experimental data is limited in scope and generally corresponds to averages over both time and space. A critical analysis of the various factors influencing the apparent degree of (dis)agreement between simulations and experiment is presented and illustrated using examples from the literature. What can be done to enhance the validation of molecular simulation is also discussed.

12.
J Phys Chem B ; 121(29): 7055-7063, 2017 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640620

RESUMO

The derivation of protein structure from values of observable quantities measured in NMR experiments is a rather nontrivial task due to (i) the limited number of data compared to degrees of freedom of a protein, (ii) the uncertainty inherent to the function connecting an observable quantity to molecular structure, (iii) the finite quality of biomolecular models and force fields used in structure refinement, and (iv) the conformational freedom of a protein in aqueous solution, which requires extensive conformational sampling and appropriate conformational averaging when calculating or restraining to sets of NMR data. The protein interleukin-4 (IL-4) has been taken as a test case using NOE distances, S2 order parameters, and 3J-couplings as test data and the former two types of data as restraints. It is shown that, by combining sets of different, complementary NMR data as restraints in MD simulations, inconsistencies in the data or flaws in the model and procedures used to derive protein structure from NMR data can be detected. This leads to an improved structural interpretation of such data particularly in more mobile loop regions.


Assuntos
Interleucina-4/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular
13.
Chemistry ; 23(40): 9585-9591, 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503764

RESUMO

At low pH, human growth hormone (hGH) adopts a partially folded state, in which the native helices are maintained, but the long loop regions and side-chain packing become disordered. Some of the S2 order parameters for backbone N-H vectors derived from NMR relaxation measurements on hGH at low pH initially seem contradictory. Three isolated residues (15, 20, and 171) in helices A and D exhibit low order parameter values (<0.5) indicating flexibility, whereas residue 143 in the centre of a long flexible loop region has a high order parameter (0.82). Using S2 order parameter restraining MD simulations, this paradox has been resolved. Low S2 values in helices are due to the presence of a mixture of 310 -helical and α-helical hydrogen bonds. High S2 values in relatively disordered parts of a protein may be due to fluctuating networks of hydrogen bonds between the backbone and the side chains, which restrict the motion of N-H bond vectors.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(52): 15990-16010, 2016 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27862777

RESUMO

During the past half century, the number and accuracy of experimental techniques that can deliver values of observables for biomolecular systems have been steadily increasing. The conversion of a measured value Qexp of an observable quantity Q into structural information is, however, a task beset with theoretical and practical problems: 1) insufficient or inaccurate values of Qexp , 2) inaccuracies in the function Q(r→) used to relate the quantity Q to structure r→ , 3) how to account for the averaging inherent in the measurement of Qexp , 4) how to handle the possible multiple-valuedness of the inverse r→(Q) of the function Q(r→) , to mention a few. These apply to a variety of observable quantities Q and measurement techniques such as X-ray and neutron diffraction, small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering, free-electron laser imaging, cryo-electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, circular dichroism, Förster resonance energy transfer, atomic force microscopy and ion-mobility mass spectrometry. The process of deriving structural information from measured data is reviewed with an eye to non-experts and newcomers in the field using examples from the literature of the effect of the various choices and approximations involved in the process. A list of choices to be avoided is provided.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Oligopeptídeos/química , Proteínas/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular
16.
J Phys Chem B ; 120(43): 11335-11336, 2016 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27797188
17.
J Biomol NMR ; 66(1): 69-83, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27627888

RESUMO

Deriving molecular structure from [Formula: see text]-couplings obtained from NMR experiments is a challenge due to (1) the uncertainty in the Karplus relation [Formula: see text] connecting a [Formula: see text]-coupling value to a torsional angle [Formula: see text], (2) the need to account for the averaging inherent to the measurement of [Formula: see text]-couplings, and (3) the sampling road blocks that may emerge due to the multiple-valuedness of the inverse function [Formula: see text] of the function [Formula: see text]. Ways to properly handle these issues in structure refinement of biomolecules are discussed and illustrated using the protein hen egg white lysozyme as example.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular/métodos
18.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 24(20): 4936-4948, 2016 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543388

RESUMO

The cyclic octa-peptide octreotide and its derivatives are used as diagnostics and therapeutics in relation to particular types of cancers. This led to investigations of their conformational properties using spectroscopic, NMR and CD, methods. A CF3-substituted derivative, that was designed to stabilize the dominant octreotide conformer responsible for receptor binding, turned out to have a lower affinity. The obtained spectroscopic data were interpreted as to show an increased flexibility of the CF3 derivative compared to the unsubstituted octreotide, which could then explain the lower affinity. In this article, we use MD simulation without and with time-averaged NOE distance and time-averaged local-elevation 3J-coupling restraining representing experimental NMR data to determine the conformational properties of the different peptides in the different solvents for which experimental data are available, that are compatible with the NOE atom-atom distance bounds and the 3JHNHα-couplings as derived from the NMR measurements. The conformational ensembles show that the CF3 substitution in combination with the change of solvent from water to methanol leads to a decrease in flexibility and a shift in the populations of the dominant conformers that are compatible with the experimental data.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Octreotida/química , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Conformação Proteica , Solventes/química , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(8): 5860-6, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26804445

RESUMO

The structural variability of a 16-residue loop (residues 246-261) which is in part disordered and connects two layers of the ß-solenoid formed by the prion-form of HET-s and its prion domain HET-s(218-289) is investigated using molecular dynamics computer simulation. A system of three HET-s(218-289) molecules in a ß-sheet structure as in the fibril is simulated in aqueous solution. The trajectory structures appear to be consistent with the Cα chemical shift data obtained. In order to delineate the influence of the ß-sheet core of the fibril upon the structural variability of the loop, the latter is also simulated without the ß-sheet core, but with its N- and C-terminal residues restrained at their positions in the fibril. The analysis of the trajectories shows that the structural variability of the loop is restricted by the ß-sheet core, least at its N-terminal end and most in the middle of the trimer.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Modelos Moleculares , Príons/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
20.
Protein Sci ; 25(1): 184-91, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25975696

RESUMO

The multistep umbrella sampling method, which belongs to pathway-dependent methods to calculate conformational free enthalpy differences, is used to calculate the free enthalpy difference between a right-handed 2.710/12 -helix and a left-handed 314 -helix of a hexa-ß-peptide in methanol solution. The same conformational free enthalpy difference was previously investigated using pathway-independent methods such as direct counting and enveloping distribution sampling. Our results show that the pathway-dependent simulations are sensitive to the choice of the pathway and its parameter values. A pathway based on restraining distances of hydrogen-bonding atom pairs shows poor sampling for two different values of the restraining force constant. Another pathway based on restraining backbone dihedral angles did smoothly sample the transition between the two helical conformations, but only with a proper choice of the restraining force constant. The results illustrate that if, and only if, a proper pathway and proper parameters are chosen, the multistep umbrella sampling can be almost 50 times more efficient than the pathway-independent methods in this case. The analysis illustrates the advantages and pitfalls of the much used multistep umbrella sampling methodology.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Termodinâmica , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Conformação Proteica
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