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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5771, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599190

RESUMO

Germline specification in mammals occurs through an inductive process whereby competent cells in the post-implantation epiblast differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGC). The intrinsic factors that endow epiblast cells with the competence to respond to germline inductive signals remain unknown. Single-cell RNA sequencing across multiple stages of an in vitro PGC-like cells (PGCLC) differentiation system shows that PGCLC genes initially expressed in the naïve pluripotent stage become homogeneously dismantled in germline competent epiblast like-cells (EpiLC). In contrast, the decommissioning of enhancers associated with these germline genes is incomplete. Namely, a subset of these enhancers partly retain H3K4me1, accumulate less heterochromatic marks and remain accessible and responsive to transcriptional activators. Subsequently, as in vitro germline competence is lost, these enhancers get further decommissioned and lose their responsiveness to transcriptional activators. Importantly, using H3K4me1-deficient cells, we show that the loss of this histone modification reduces the germline competence of EpiLC and decreases PGCLC differentiation efficiency. Our work suggests that, although H3K4me1 might not be essential for enhancer function, it can facilitate the (re)activation of enhancers and the establishment of gene expression programs during specific developmental transitions.

2.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 55: 102595, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543845

RESUMO

Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) with high mutation rates are recognized as valuable genetic markers for differentiating paternally related men, who typically cannot be separated with standard Y-STRs, and were shown to provide paternal lineage differentiation on a higher resolution level than standard Y-STRs. Both features make Y-STRs with high mutation rates relevant in criminal casework, particularly in sexual assault cases involving highly unbalanced male-female DNA mixtures that often fail autosomal forensic STR profiling for the male donor. Previously, the number of known Y-STRs with mutation rates higher than 10-2 per locus per generation termed rapidly mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs) was limited to 13, which has recently been overcome by the discovery and characterization of 12 additional RM Y-STRs. Here, we present the development and validation of RMplex, an efficient genotyping system for analyzing 30 Y-STRs with high mutation rates, including all currently known RM Y-STRs, using multiplex PCR with capillary electrophoresis (CE) or massively parallel sequencing (MPS), overall targeting a total of 44 male-specific loci. If previously unavailable, repeat number assignations were provided based on newly generated MPS data. Validation tests based on the CE method demonstrated that the results were both repeatable and reproducible, full profiles were achieved with minimal input DNA of 250 pg for RMplex 1 and 100 pg for RMplex 2, and in the presence of inhibitors, or with a surplus of female DNA, the assays performed reasonably well. Application of RMplex to differentiate between paternally related men was exemplified in 32 males belonging to five different paternal pedigrees. Given further successful forensic validation testing, we envision the future application of RMplex in criminal cases where it is suspected, or cannot be excluded, that the crime scene trace originated from a male relatives of the suspect who is highlighted with standard Y-STR matching. Other applications of RMplex are in criminal cases without known suspects to differentiate between male relatives highlighted in familial searching based on standard Y-STR matching.

3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 165-179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382189

RESUMO

Targeted chromatin capture (T2C) is a 3C-based method and is used to study the 3D chromatin organization, interactomes and structural changes associated with gene regulation, progression through the cell cycle, and cell survival and development. Low input targeted chromatin capture (low-T2C) is an optimized version of the T2C protocol for low numbers of cells. Here, we describe the protocol for low-T2C, including all experimental steps and bioinformatics tools in detail.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Cromatina/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Biblioteca Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(8): 881-893, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326481

RESUMO

The 11 zinc finger (ZF) protein CTCF regulates topologically associating domain formation and transcription through selective binding to thousands of genomic sites. Here, we replaced endogenous CTCF in mouse embryonic stem cells with green-fluorescent-protein-tagged wild-type or mutant proteins lacking individual ZFs to identify additional determinants of CTCF positioning and function. While ZF1 and ZF8-ZF11 are not essential for cell survival, ZF8 deletion strikingly increases the DNA binding off-rate of mutant CTCF, resulting in reduced CTCF chromatin residence time. Loss of ZF8 results in widespread weakening of topologically associating domains, aberrant gene expression and increased genome-wide DNA methylation. Thus, important chromatin-templated processes rely on accurate CTCF chromatin residence time, which we propose depends on local sequence and chromatin context as well as global CTCF protein concentration.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/fisiologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia , Animais , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitose , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas , Mutação , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Elongação da Transcrição Genética
5.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 148, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alveolar capillary dysplasia with or without misalignment of the pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a lethal congenital lung disorder associated with a variety of heterozygous genomic alterations in the FOXF1 gene or its 60 kb enhancer. Cases without a genomic alteration in the FOXF1 locus have been described as well. The mechanisms responsible for FOXF1 haploinsufficiency and the cause of ACD/MPV in patients without a genomic FOXF1 variant are poorly understood, complicating the search for potential therapeutic targets for ACD/MPV. To investigate the contribution of aberrant DNA methylation, genome wide methylation patterns of ACD/MPV lung tissues were compared with methylation patterns of control lung tissues using the recently developed technique Methylated DNA sequencing (MeD-seq). RESULTS: Eight ACD/MPV lung tissue samples and three control samples were sequenced and their mutual comparison resulted in identification of 319 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) genome wide, involving 115 protein coding genes. The potentially upregulated genes were significantly enriched in developmental signalling pathways, whereas potentially downregulated genes were mainly enriched in O-linked glycosylation. In patients with a large maternal deletion encompassing the 60 kb FOXF1 enhancer, DNA methylation patterns in this FOXF1 enhancer were not significantly different compared to controls. However, two hypermethylated regions were detected in the 60 kb FOXF1 enhancer of patients harbouring a FOXF1 point mutation. Lastly, a large hypermethylated region overlapping the first FOXF1 exon was found in one of the ACD/MPV patients without a known pathogenic FOXF1 variation. CONCLUSION: This is the first study providing genome wide methylation data on lung tissue of ACD/MPV patients. DNA methylation analyses in the FOXF1 locus excludes maternal imprinting of the 60 kb FOXF1 enhancer. Hypermethylation at the 60 kb FOXF1 enhancer might contribute to FOXF1 haploinsufficiency caused by heterozygous mutations in the FOXF1 coding region. Interestingly, DNA methylation analyses of patients without a genomic FOXF1 variant suggest that abnormal hypermethylation of exon 1 might play a role in some ACD/MPV in patients.

6.
Nat Genet ; 53(7): 1036-1049, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183853

RESUMO

CpG islands (CGIs) represent a widespread feature of vertebrate genomes, being associated with ~70% of all gene promoters. CGIs control transcription initiation by conferring nearby promoters with unique chromatin properties. In addition, there are thousands of distal or orphan CGIs (oCGIs) whose functional relevance is barely known. Here we show that oCGIs are an essential component of poised enhancers that augment their long-range regulatory activity and control the responsiveness of their target genes. Using a knock-in strategy in mouse embryonic stem cells, we introduced poised enhancers with or without oCGIs within topologically associating domains harboring genes with different types of promoters. Analysis of the resulting cell lines revealed that oCGIs act as tethering elements that promote the physical and functional communication between poised enhancers and distally located genes, particularly those with large CGI clusters in their promoters. Therefore, by acting as genetic determinants of gene-enhancer compatibility, CGIs can contribute to gene expression control under both physiological and potentially pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
7.
Blood Adv ; 5(9): 2339-2349, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938942

RESUMO

The BCL11A gene encodes a transcriptional repressor with essential functions in multiple tissues during human development. Haploinsufficiency for BCL11A causes Dias-Logan syndrome (OMIM 617101), an intellectual developmental disorder with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH). Due to the severe phenotype, disease-causing variants in BCL11A occur de novo. We describe a patient with a de novo heterozygous variant, c.1453G>T, in the BCL11A gene, resulting in truncation of the BCL11A-XL protein (p.Glu485X). The truncated protein lacks the 3 C-terminal DNA-binding zinc fingers and the nuclear localization signal, rendering it inactive. The patient displayed high fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels (12.1-18.7% of total hemoglobin), in contrast to the parents who had HbF levels of 0.3%. We used cultures of patient-derived erythroid progenitors to determine changes in gene expression and chromatin accessibility. In addition, we investigated DNA methylation of the promoters of the γ-globin genes HBG1 and HBG2. HUDEP1 and HUDEP2 cells were used as models for fetal and adult human erythropoiesis, respectively. Similar to HUDEP1 cells, the patient's cells displayed Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin (ATAC) peaks at the HBG1/2 promoters and significant expression of HBG1/2 genes. In contrast, HBG1/2 promoter methylation and genome-wide gene expression profiling were consistent with normal adult erythropoiesis. We conclude that HPFH is the major erythroid phenotype of constitutive BCL11A haploinsufficiency. Given the essential functions of BCL11A in other hematopoietic lineages and the neuronal system, erythroid-specific targeting of the BCL11A gene has been proposed for reactivation of γ-globin expression in ß-hemoglobinopathy patients. Our data strongly support this approach.


Assuntos
Haploinsuficiência , Proteínas Nucleares , Adulto , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
8.
Thyroid ; 31(9): 1366-1375, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906393

RESUMO

Background: The molecular basis of familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is still poorly understood, representing a limitation for molecular diagnosis and clinical management. In this study, we aimed to identify new susceptibility genes for FNMTC through whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis of leukocyte DNA of patients from a highly informative FNMTC family. Methods: We selected six affected family members to conduct WES analysis. Bioinformatic analyses were undertaken to filter and select the genetic variants shared by the affected members, which were subsequently validated by Sanger sequencing. To select the most likely pathogenic variants, several studies were performed, including family segregation analysis, in silico impact characterization, and gene expression (messenger RNA and protein) depiction in databases. For the most promising variant identified, we performed in vitro studies to validate its pathogenicity. Results: Several potentially pathogenic variants were identified in different candidate genes. After filtering with appropriate criteria, the variant c.701C>T, p.Thr234Met in the SPRY4 gene was prioritized for in vitro functional characterization. This SPRY4 variant led to an increase in cell viability and colony formation, indicating that it confers a proliferative advantage and potentiates clonogenic capacity. Phosphokinase array and Western blot analyses suggested that the effects of the SPRY4 variant were mediated through the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, which was further supported by a higher responsiveness of thyroid cancer cells with the SPRY4 variant to a MEK inhibitor. Conclusions: WES analysis in one family identified SPRY4 as a likely novel candidate susceptibility gene for FNMTC, allowing a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying thyroid cancer development.

9.
Neuro Oncol ; 23(9): 1547-1559, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival in patients with IDH1/2-mutant (mt) anaplastic astrocytomas is highly variable. We have used the prospective phase 3 CATNON trial to identify molecular factors related to outcome in IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytoma patients. METHODS: The CATNON trial randomized 751 adult patients with newly diagnosed 1p/19q non-codeleted anaplastic glioma to 59.4 Gy radiotherapy +/- concurrent and/or adjuvant temozolomide. The presence of necrosis and/or microvascular proliferation was scored at central pathology review. Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip arrays were used for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and the determination of copy number variations (CNV). Two DNA methylation-based tumor classifiers were used for risk stratification. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed using 1 of the 2 glioma-tailored NGS panels. The primary endpoint was overall survival measured from the date of randomization. RESULTS: Full analysis (genome-wide DNA methylation and NGS) was successfully performed on 654 tumors. Of these, 432 tumors were IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytomas. Both epigenetic classifiers identified poor prognosis patients that partially overlapped. A predictive prognostic Cox proportional hazard model identified that independent prognostic factors for IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytoma patients included; age, mini-mental state examination score, treatment with concurrent and/or adjuvant temozolomide, the epigenetic classifiers, PDGFRA amplification, CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion, PI3K mutations, and total CNV load. Independent recursive partitioning analysis highlights the importance of these factors for patient prognostication. CONCLUSION: Both clinical and molecular factors identify IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytoma patients with worse outcome. These results will further refine the current WHO criteria for glioma classification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Glioma/genética , Glioma/terapia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Deleção de Sequência
10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909875

RESUMO

AIMS: Hepatic capillaries are lined with specialised liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) which support macromolecule passage to hepatocytes and prevent fibrosis by keeping hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) quiescent. LSEC specialisation is co-determined by transcription factors. The Zinc-Finger E-Box-binding Homeobox (Zeb)2 transcription factor is enriched in LSECs. Here, we aimed to elucidate the endothelium-specific role of Zeb2 during maintenance of the liver and in liver fibrosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: To study the role of Zeb2 in liver endothelium we generated EC-specific Zeb2 knock-out (ECKO) mice. Sequencing of liver EC RNA revealed that deficiency of Zeb2 results in prominent expression changes in angiogenesis-related genes. Accordingly, the vascular area was expanded and the presence of pillars inside ECKO liver vessels indicated that this was likely due to increased intussusceptive angiogenesis. LSEC marker expression was not profoundly affected and fenestrations were preserved upon Zeb2 deficiency. However, an increase in continuous EC markers suggested that Zeb2-deficient LSECs are more prone to dedifferentiation, a process called 'capillarisation'. Changes in the endothelial expression of ligands that may be involved in HSC quiescence together with significant changes in the expression profile of HSCs showed that Zeb2 regulates LSEC-HSC communication and HSC activation. Accordingly, upon exposure to the hepatotoxin carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), livers of ECKO mice showed increased capillarisation, HSC activation and fibrosis compared to livers from wild-type littermates. The vascular maintenance and anti-fibrotic role of endothelial Zeb2 was confirmed in mice with EC-specific overexpression of Zeb2, as the latter resulted in reduced vascularity and attenuated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Endothelial Zeb2 preserves liver angioarchitecture and protects against liver fibrosis. Zeb2 and Zeb2-dependent genes in liver ECs may be exploited to design novel therapeutic strategies to attenuate hepatic fibrosis.

11.
Sci Immunol ; 6(55)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514640

RESUMO

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) orchestrate protective type 2 immunity and have been implicated in various immune disorders. In the mouse, circulatory inflammatory ILC2s (iILC2s) were identified as a major source of type 2 cytokines. The human equivalent of the iILC2 subset remains unknown. Here, we identify a human inflammatory ILC2 population that resides in inflamed mucosal tissue and is specifically marked by surface CD45RO expression. CD45RO+ ILC2s are derived from resting CD45RA+ ILC2s upon activation by epithelial alarmins such as IL-33 and TSLP, which is tightly linked to STAT5 activation and up-regulation of the IRF4/BATF transcription factors. Transcriptome analysis reveals marked similarities between human CD45RO+ ILC2s and mouse iILC2s. Frequencies of CD45RO+ inflammatory ILC2 are increased in inflamed mucosal tissue and in the circulation of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis or asthma, correlating with disease severity and resistance to corticosteroid therapy. CD45RA-to-CD45RO ILC2 conversion is suppressed by corticosteroids via induction of differentiation toward an immunomodulatory ILC2 phenotype characterized by low type 2 cytokine and high amphiregulin expression. Once converted, however, CD45RO+ ILC2s are resistant to corticosteroids, which is associated with metabolic reprogramming resulting in the activation of detoxification pathways. Our combined data identify CD45RO+ inflammatory ILC2s as a human analog of mouse iILC2s linked to severe type 2 inflammatory disease and therapy resistance.

12.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289106

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) are key immune modulators and are able to mount immune responses or tolerance. DC differentiation and activation imply a plethora of molecular and cellular responses, including transcriptional changes. PU.1 is a highly expressed transcription factor in DCs and coordinates relevant aspects of DC biology. Due to their role as immune regulators, DCs pose as a promising immunotherapy tool. However, some of their functional features, such as survival, activation, or migration, are compromised due to the limitations to simulate in vitro the physiologic DC differentiation process. A better knowledge of transcriptional programs would allow the identification of potential targets for manipulation with the aim of obtaining "qualified" DCs for immunotherapy purposes. Most of the current knowledge regarding DC biology derives from studies using mouse models, which not always find a parallel in human. In the present study, we dissect the PU.1 transcriptional regulome and interactome in mouse and human DCs, in the steady state or LPS activated. The PU.1 transcriptional regulome was identified by performing PU.1 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing and pairing these data with RNAsequencing data. The PU.1 interactome was identified by performing PU.1 immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Our results portray PU.1 as a pivotal factor that plays an important role in the regulation of genes required for proper DC activation and function, and assures the repression of nonlineage genes. The interspecies differences between human and mouse DCs are surprisingly substantial, highlighting the need to study the biology of human DCs.

13.
Front Oncol ; 10: 565031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194643

RESUMO

Introduction: The majority of desmoid-type fibromatosis (DTF) tumors harbor a ß-catenin mutation, affecting specific codons in CTNNB1 exon 3. S45F tumors are reported to have a higher chance of recurrence after surgery and more resistance to systemic treatments compared to wild-type (WT) and T41A tumors. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of S45F and T41A mutated DTF, to explain the observed differences in clinical behavior between these DTF subtypes. Material and Methods: Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation was performed using MeD-seq on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary DTF samples harboring a S45F (n = 14) or a T41A (n = 15) mutation. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between S45F and T41A DTF were identified and used for a supervised hierarchical cluster analysis. DMRs with a fold-change ≥1.5 were considered to be differentially methylated and differences between S45F and T41A tumors were quantitatively assessed. The effect of DMRs on the expression of associated genes was assessed using an independent mRNA expression dataset. Protein-protein interactions between WT ß-catenin and mutant variants and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) were examined by immunoprecipitation experiments. Results: MeD-seq analyses indicated 354 regions that displayed differential methylation. Cluster analysis yielded no distinct clusters based on mutation, sex, tumor site or tumor size. A supervised clustering based on DMRs between small (≤34 mm) and large (>87 mm) DTF distinguished the two groups. Only ten DMRs displayed a fold change of ≥1.5 and six of them were found associated with the following genes: NLRP4, FOXK2, PERM1, CCDC6, NOC4L, and DUX4L6. The effects of DMRs on gene expression yielded a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the expression between S45F and T41A for CCDC6 and FOXK2 but not for all Affymetrix probe-sets used to detect these genes. Immunoprecipitations did not reveal an association of WT ß-catenin or mutant variants with DNMT1. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that S45F and T41A DTF tumors did not exhibit gross differences in DNA methylation patterns. This implies that distinct DNA methylation profiles are not the sole determinant for the divergent clinical behavior of these different DTF mutant subtypes.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201890

RESUMO

Esophageal atresia (EA) and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) are relatively frequently occurring foregut malformations. EA/TEF is thought to have a strong genetic component. Not much is known regarding the biological processes disturbed or which cell type is affected in patients. This hampers the detection of the responsible culprits (genetic or environmental) for the origin of these congenital anatomical malformations. Therefore, we examined gene expression patterns in the TEF and compared them to the patterns in esophageal, tracheal and lung control samples. We studied tissue organization and key proteins using immunohistochemistry. There were clear differences between TEF and control samples. Based on the number of differentially expressed genes as well as histological characteristics, TEFs were most similar to normal esophagus. The BMP-signaling pathway, actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix pathways are downregulated in TEF. Genes involved in smooth muscle contraction are overexpressed in TEF compared to esophagus as well as trachea. These enriched pathways indicate myofibroblast activated fibrosis. TEF represents a specific tissue type with large contributions of intestinal smooth muscle cells and neurons. All major cell types present in esophagus are present-albeit often structurally disorganized-in TEF, indicating that its etiology should not be sought in cell fate specification.


Assuntos
Fístula Traqueoesofágica/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Citoesqueleto de Actina/genética , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Adulto , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Esôfago/metabolismo , Esôfago/patologia , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais , Traqueia/metabolismo , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/genética , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/patologia
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1999, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013853

RESUMO

Transcriptomics can be combined with TRA and TRB clonotype analysis at the single cell level. The aim of this study was to validate this approach on the ICELL8 Single-Cell system and to evaluate its usefulness to analyse clinical paucicellular samples. For this purpose, we carefully selected T cell lines with defined TRA/TRB clonotypes as well as clinical samples enriched for CD3+ T cells that possess a complex TCR repertoire. Low cell numbers of the different samples were dispensed in a chip on the ICELL8 Single-Cell System. Two sequencing libraries were generated from each single cell cDNA preparation, one for the TRA/TRB repertoire and one for the 5' ends of transcripts, and subsequently sequenced. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the cell lines on average express 2,268 unique genes/cell and T cells of clinical samples 770 unique genes/cell. The expected combined TRA/TRB clonotype was determined for on average 71% of the cells of the cell lines. In the clinical samples the TRA/TRB repertoire was more complex than those of the cell lines. Furthermore, the TRB clonotype distribution of the clinical samples was positively correlated to frequencies of TCRVß families in CD3+ T cells obtained by a flow cytometry-based approach (Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient 0.81, P = 6.49 * 10-7). Combined analyses showed that transcriptome-based cell type-specific clusters in clinical samples corresponded to clinical features such as CMV status. In conclusion, we showed that the ICELL8 Single-Cell System enabled combined interrogation of both TRA/TRB repertoire and transcriptome of paucicellular clinical samples. This opens the way to study the response of single T cells within heterogeneous samples for both their transcriptome and TRA/TRB clonotypes in disease or upon treatment.


Assuntos
Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Clonais , Biologia Computacional , Citometria de Fluxo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Análise de Célula Única
16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(15): 2535-2550, 2020 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628253

RESUMO

The transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding protein 2 (ZEB2) controls embryonic and adult cell fate decisions and cellular maturation in many stem/progenitor cell types. Defects in these processes in specific cell types underlie several aspects of Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MOWS), which is caused by ZEB2 haplo-insufficiency. Human ZEB2, like mouse Zeb2, is located on chromosome 2 downstream of a ±3.5 Mb-long gene-desert, lacking any protein-coding gene. Using temporal targeted chromatin capture (T2C), we show major chromatin structural changes based on mapping in-cis proximities between the ZEB2 promoter and this gene desert during neural differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells, including at early neuroprogenitor cell (NPC)/rosette state, where ZEB2 mRNA levels increase significantly. Combining T2C with histone-3 acetylation mapping, we identified three novel candidate enhancers about 500 kb upstream of the ZEB2 transcription start site. Functional luciferase-based assays in heterologous cells and NPCs reveal co-operation between these three enhancers. This study is the first to document in-cis Regulatory Elements located in ZEB2's gene desert. The results further show the usability of T2C for future studies of ZEB2 REs in differentiation and maturation of multiple cell types and the molecular characterization of newly identified MOWS patients that lack mutations in ZEB2 protein-coding exons.

17.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008555, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579593

RESUMO

Exhaustion is a dysfunctional state of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTL) observed in chronic infection and cancer. Current in vivo models of CTL exhaustion using chronic viral infections or cancer yield very few exhausted CTL, limiting the analysis that can be done on these cells. Establishing an in vitro system that rapidly induces CTL exhaustion would therefore greatly facilitate the study of this phenotype, identify the truly exhaustion-associated changes and allow the testing of novel approaches to reverse or prevent exhaustion. Here we show that repeat stimulation of purified TCR transgenic OT-I CTL with their specific peptide induces all the functional (reduced cytokine production and polyfunctionality, decreased in vivo expansion capacity) and phenotypic (increased inhibitory receptors expression and transcription factor changes) characteristics of exhaustion. Importantly, in vitro exhausted cells shared the transcriptomic characteristics of the gold standard of exhaustion, CTL from LCMV cl13 infections. Gene expression of both in vitro and in vivo exhausted CTL was distinct from T cell anergy. Using this system, we show that Tcf7 promoter DNA methylation contributes to TCF1 downregulation in exhausted CTL. Thus this novel in vitro system can be used to identify genes and signaling pathways involved in exhaustion and will facilitate the screening of reagents that prevent/reverse CTL exhaustion.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Metilação de DNA/imunologia , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/genética , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/patologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
18.
Cell Rep ; 31(7): 107647, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433956

RESUMO

The NIPBL/MAU2 heterodimer loads cohesin onto chromatin. Mutations in NIPBL account for most cases of the rare developmental disorder Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Here we report a MAU2 variant causing CdLS, a deletion of seven amino acids that impairs the interaction between MAU2 and the NIPBL N terminus. Investigating this interaction, we discovered that MAU2 and the NIPBL N terminus are largely dispensable for normal cohesin and NIPBL function in cells with a NIPBL early truncating mutation. Despite a predicted fatal outcome of an out-of-frame single nucleotide duplication in NIPBL, engineered in two different cell lines, alternative translation initiation yields a form of NIPBL missing N-terminal residues. This form cannot interact with MAU2, but binds DNA and mediates cohesin loading. Altogether, our work reveals that cohesin loading can occur independently of functional NIPBL/MAU2 complexes and highlights a novel mechanism protective against out-of-frame mutations that is potentially relevant for other genetic conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Síndrome de Cornélia de Lange/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos
19.
Front Genet ; 11: 337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425970

RESUMO

Telomeres are important for maintaining genomic stability. Telomere length has been associated with aging, disease, and mortality and is highly heritable (∼82%). In this study, we aimed to identify rare genetic variants associated with telomere length using whole-exome sequence data. We studied 1,303 participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) study, 1,259 of the Rotterdam Study (RS), and 674 of the British Heart Foundation Family Heart Study (BHF-FHS). We conducted two analyses, first we analyzed the family-based ERF study and used the RS and BHF-FHS for replication. Second, we combined the summary data of the three studies in a meta-analysis. Telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in blood. We identified nine rare variants significantly associated with telomere length (p-value < 1.42 × 10-7, minor allele frequency of 0.2-0.5%) in the ERF study. Eight of these variants (in C11orf65, ACAT1, NPAT, ATM, KDELC2, and EXPH5) were located on chromosome 11q22.3 that contains ATM, a gene involved in telomere maintenance. Although we were unable to replicate the variants in the RS and BHF-FHS (p-value ≥ 0.21), segregation analysis showed that all variants segregate with shorter telomere length in a family. In the meta-analysis of all studies, a nominally significant association with LTL was observed with a rare variant in RPL8 (p-value = 1.48 × 10-6), which has previously been associated with age. Additionally, a novel rare variant in the known RTEL1 locus showed suggestive evidence for association (p-value = 1.18 × 10-4) with LTL. To conclude, we identified novel rare variants associated with telomere length. Larger samples size are needed to confirm these findings and to identify additional variants.

20.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(5): 534-545, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367046

RESUMO

Following implantation, the naive pluripotent epiblast of the mouse blastocyst generates a rosette, undergoes lumenogenesis and forms the primed pluripotent egg cylinder, which is able to generate the embryonic tissues. How pluripotency progression and morphogenesis are linked and whether intermediate pluripotent states exist remain controversial. We identify here a rosette pluripotent state defined by the co-expression of naive factors with the transcription factor OTX2. Downregulation of blastocyst WNT signals drives the transition into rosette pluripotency by inducing OTX2. The rosette then activates MEK signals that induce lumenogenesis and drive progression to primed pluripotency. Consequently, combined WNT and MEK inhibition supports rosette-like stem cells, a self-renewing naive-primed intermediate. Rosette-like stem cells erase constitutive heterochromatin marks and display a primed chromatin landscape, with bivalently marked primed pluripotency genes. Nonetheless, WNT induces reversion to naive pluripotency. The rosette is therefore a reversible pluripotent intermediate whereby control over both pluripotency progression and morphogenesis pivots from WNT to MEK signals.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Camadas Germinativas/metabolismo , Camadas Germinativas/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo
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