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1.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

2.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 38: 100673, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252200

RESUMO

Peer preference among classmates is a highly influential factor in children's social development and not being preferred by peers has long-term consequences for children's developmental outcomes. However, little is known about how a history of low peer preference during primary school is associated with neural responses to a new social exclusion experience in childhood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined self-reported social distress and neural responses to social exclusion using the Cyberball paradigm in primary school boys (Mage = 10.40 years) with a history of low (n = 27) versus high peer preference (n = 28). Boys were selected from a longitudinal classroom-based study in which children's peer social preferences were assessed in three consecutive years prior to this study. Neuroimaging results showed that low peer preferred boys exhibited increased activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right supramarginal gyrus during social exclusion as compared to high peer preferred boys. Increased neural activity was not accompanied by higher self-reported levels of social distress during social exclusion in low versus high peer preferred boys. Findings of this study may provide insight into the neural processes associated with real-life peer experiences in children attending primary school.

3.
Dev Psychol ; 55(2): 377-389, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570297

RESUMO

This 4-year, multi-informant longitudinal study (N = 480, initial age: 15) investigated the interplay between parental support, behavioral and psychological control, and adolescents' emotion regulation development. We examined reciprocal effects between parents and children, mothers' versus fathers' unique roles in emotion regulation development, and sex differences. Multi-informant data allowed us to compare effects of adolescent-perceived and parent-reported parenting. Finally, innovative analyses allowed us to disentangle between-family differences from within-family predictive processes. Parenting and emotion regulation were associated at the between-family and within-family levels, especially according to adolescent reports. Support primarily played a role between mothers and adolescents, and perceived behavioral control between fathers and adolescents. Sex moderation revealed that support played a more prominent role in mother-daughter than mother-son relationships, and that daughters experienced greater behavioral control. Child effects outnumbered parent effects, which might reflect the increasing equality of adolescent-parent relationships. Finally, adolescent-perceived parenting was a stronger correlate of emotion regulation than parent-reports, suggesting that adolescents' perceptions are a relevant source of information for research and practice. Consistent with the self-determination theory perspective on parenting, emotion regulation flourished when adolescents felt like mothers provided support, and fathers loosened behavioral control. These results are in line with the notion that mother-child relationships are supportive attachment relationships, whereas fathers provide "activation" relationships, challenging adolescents to regulate emotions autonomously by providing less explicit structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Família/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
4.
Dev Psychol ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507219

RESUMO

One particular developmental task during adolescence is to regulate fluctuating moods to successfully transition through this period. The aim of this person-centered study was to identify distinct developmental trajectories of adolescent mood variability and to compare adolescents in different trajectories on changes in depressive symptoms, delinquency, and alcohol consumption in early to middle (ages 13-16) and middle to late adolescence (ages 16-20). Dutch adolescents (n = 482, 57.1% male) rated their daily emotions three weeks per year for five years using Internet daily diaries (ages 13-18). Day-to-day mood changes were calculated as an indicator of mood variability. Adolescents provided annual reports on depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, and alcohol consumption (ages 13-20). Results showed that most adolescents (88%) followed a trajectory characterized by decreases in mood variability (i.e., more stable moods). However, a minority (12%) followed a trajectory of increases in mood variability with a peak during middle adolescence. Adolescents with an increasing mood variability trajectory showed stable depressive and delinquency symptoms in early to middle adolescence compared with adolescents with a decreasing mood variability trajectory, who showed a decline in these symptoms. At age 16, there was a significant difference between the groups in depressive and delinquency symptoms, which stayed stable toward late adolescence. Although the two groups did not differ concerning alcohol consumption in early to middle adolescence, adolescents from the increasing mood variability class experienced less steep increases in alcohol use from middle to late adolescence compared with adolescents from the decreasing mood variability class. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315439

RESUMO

Although the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is involved in aggression and social affiliation, it has not been examined in gene-environment interaction studies. This longitudinal study examined the effect of genetic variants in OXTR and its gene-environment interaction with perceived deviant peer affiliation in the trajectories of antisocial behavior in 323 adolescents (182 males) from 13 to 18 years. Annual assessments of reactive and proactive aggression, delinquency, and friends' delinquency, as well as DNA at age 17 were collected. Gene-based tests yielded no main effect of OXTR, but revealed a significant gene-environment interaction in proactive aggression and delinquency. Variation in the OXTR might affect the influence of deviant peer affiliation on antisocial behavior, contributing to a better understanding of individual differences in antisocial behavior.

6.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(9): 1161-1170, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150663

RESUMO

Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers. The strongest finding across the different analyses was CADM2, which has been associated with substance use and risk-taking. Significant genetic correlations were found with 14 of 25 tested substance use and mental health-related traits, including smoking, alcohol use, schizophrenia and risk-taking. Mendelian randomization analysis showed evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on cannabis use. Overall, our study provides new insights into the etiology of cannabis use and its relation with mental health.

7.
Addiction ; 113(11): 2073-2086, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances among adolescents and young adults. Earlier age at cannabis initiation is linked to adverse life outcomes, including multi-substance use and dependence. This study estimated the heritability of age at first cannabis use and identified associations with genetic variants. METHODS: A twin-based heritability analysis using 8055 twins from three cohorts was performed. We then carried out a genome-wide association meta-analysis of age at first cannabis use in a discovery sample of 24 953 individuals from nine European, North American and Australian cohorts, and a replication sample of 3735 individuals. RESULTS: The twin-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 19-60%]. Shared and unique environmental factors explained 39% (95% CI = 20-56%) and 22% (95% CI = 16-29%). The genome-wide association meta-analysis identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 16 within the calcium-transporting ATPase gene (ATP2C2) at P < 5E-08. All five SNPs are in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r2  > 0.8), with the strongest association at the intronic variant rs1574587 (P = 4.09E-09). Gene-based tests of association identified the ATP2C2 gene on 16q24.1 (P = 1.33e-06). Although the five SNPs and ATP2C2 did not replicate, ATP2C2 has been associated with cocaine dependence in a previous study. ATP2B2, which is a member of the same calcium signalling pathway, has been associated previously with opioid dependence. SNP-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was non-significant. CONCLUSION: Age at cannabis initiation appears to be moderately heritable in western countries, and individual differences in onset can be explained by separate but correlated genetic liabilities. The significant association between age of initiation and ATP2C2 is consistent with the role of calcium signalling mechanisms in substance use disorders.

8.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 59(10): 1052-1060, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of childhood antisocial behaviour on future maladaptation has been acknowledged. Risk-taking has been associated with antisocial behaviour in adolescents and adults, but its association with childhood antisocial behaviour is understudied. In this study, we explored the association of children's risk-taking with antisocial behaviour in mainstream elementary schoolchildren studied longitudinally across 7-11 years. METHODS: One thousand and eighty-six children (51% boys) were assessed in three annual waves. Antisocial behaviours (aggressive, covert antisocial and oppositional defiant behaviour) were assessed using teacher- and peer-reports. Risk-taking was measured using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). The association of antisocial behaviour with risk-taking was analysed using parallel growth models. RESULTS: Children with higher levels of risk-taking at age 7 showed increased growth in peer-reported aggression from age 7 to 11. Risk-taking, that is increased levels at age 7 in boys and increased growth in girls, predicted increased growth in peer-reported oppositional defiant behaviour. Associations of risk-taking with teacher-reported aggression and covert antisocial behaviour were at trend level. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that already in childhood, among typically developing children, risk-taking is associated with the development of antisocial behaviour. Future research focused on antisocial behaviour, but also school mental health workers and clinicians should take into account that already in childhood, risk-taking might affect antisocial behaviour development.

9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 47(9): 1799-1812, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704085

RESUMO

The single nucleotide polymorphism rs53576 of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene is involved in forming and maintaining relationships in various social contexts. However, this has not been studied in the childhood peer context. The present study followed 359 children (51.6% girls) from age 9 to 12 to explore associations between OXTR rs53576 genotype (i.e., AA, AG or GG genotype) and three indicators of children's relationships with peers: likability and dis-likability among, and friendship with, classroom peers. Our results showed that OXTR rs53576 was associated with likability among boys, but not with dis-likability and friendship or among girls. Boys with an A and a G allele (i.e., AG genotype) became increasingly more liked by their peers across the four-year studied period than those with two A alleles or two G alleles (i.e., AA and GG genotype). This study indicates that OXTR rs53576 genotype might influence children's peer relationships, particularly their likeability among peers. Associations between OXTR rs53576 and peer relationships may differ depending on children's sex and the specific type of peer-relationship under scrutiny.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Amigos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Alelos , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado
10.
Dev Sci ; 21(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27753220

RESUMO

Childhood peer acceptance is associated with high levels of prosocial behavior and advanced perspective taking skills. Yet, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these associations have not been studied. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of sharing decisions in a group of adolescents who had a stable accepted status (n = 27) and a group who had a chronic rejected status (n = 19) across six elementary school grades. Both groups of adolescents played three allocation games in which they could share money with strangers with varying costs and profits to them and the other person. Stably accepted adolescents were more likely to share their money with unknown others than chronically rejected adolescents when sharing was not costly. Neuroimaging analyses showed that stably accepted adolescents, compared to chronically rejected adolescents, exhibited higher levels of activation in the temporo-parietal junction, posterior superior temporal sulcus, temporal pole, pre-supplementary motor area, and anterior insula during costly sharing decisions. These findings demonstrate that stable peer acceptance across childhood is associated with heightened activity in brain regions previously linked to perspective taking and the detection of social norm violations during adolescence, and thereby provide insight into processes underlying the widely established links between peer acceptance and prosocial behavior.

11.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 46(7): 1497-1507, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256027

RESUMO

Holding a low social position among peers has been widely demonstrated to be associated with the development of depressive and aggressive symptoms in children. However, little is known about potential protective factors in this association. The present study examined whether increases in children's prosocial behavior can buffer the association between their low social preference among peers and the development of depressive and aggressive symptoms in the first few school years. We followed 324 children over 1.5 years with three assessments across kindergarten and first grade elementary school. Children rated the (dis)likability of each of their classroom peers and teachers rated each child's prosocial behavior, depressive and aggressive symptoms. Results showed that low social preference at the start of kindergarten predicted persistent low social preference at the start of first grade in elementary school, which in turn predicted increases in both depressive and aggressive symptoms at the end of first grade. However, the indirect pathways were moderated by change in prosocial behavior. Specifically, for children whose prosocial behavior increased during kindergarten, low social preference in first grade elementary school no longer predicted increases in depressive and aggressive symptoms. In contrast, for children whose prosocial behavior did not increase, their low social preference in first grade elementary school continued to predict increases in both depressive and aggressive symptoms. These results suggest that improving prosocial behavior in children with low social preference as early as kindergarten may reduce subsequent risk of developing depressive and aggressive symptom.

12.
Child Dev ; 88(6): 1823-1833, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28849587

RESUMO

This study examined reciprocal associations between adolescents' self-concept clarity (SCC) and their relationship quality with parents and best friends in a five-wave longitudinal study from age 13 to 18 years. In all, 497 adolescents (57% boys) reported on their SCC and all informants (i.e., adolescents, both parents, and adolescents' best friends) reported on support and negative interaction. Within-person cross-lagged analyses provided systematic evidence for both parent effects and child effects, with the direction of effects being strongly dependent on the relational context. For example, higher maternal support predicted higher adolescent SCC, supporting a parent effects perspective, whereas higher SCC predicted lower paternal negative interaction, supporting a child effects perspective. Peer effects on adolescent SCC were not consistently found across adolescent and best friend reports.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Amigos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Relações Pais-Filho , Grupo Associado , Autoimagem , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
13.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 112(6): 948-966, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28358544

RESUMO

This study investigated 3 developmental pathways involving the peer environment that may explain how certain temperamental dispositions in childhood may become manifested in later antisocial behavior and substance use. A total of 411 (52% boys) Canadian children were followed annually from ages 6 to 15 years. The study tested whether the temperamental traits approach, negative reactivity and attention (assessed at ages 6-7 years), were associated with overt antisocial behavior, covert antisocial behavior and illicit substance use (assessed at ages 14-15 years), via poor social preference among peers, inflated social self-perception and antisocial behavior of peer-group affiliates (assessed throughout ages 8-13 years). Results indicated that negative reactivity was indirectly associated with overt antisocial behavior and substance use via poor social preference. Specifically, negative reactivity in earlier childhood predicted poor social preference in later childhood and early adolescence. This poor social standing among peers, in turn, predicted more engagement in overt antisocial behavior but less substance use in later adolescence. Over and above the influence of social preference, negative reactivity predicted engagement in all 3 outcomes via children's antisocial behavior in childhood and early adolescence. Inflated social self-perception and antisocial behavior of peer-group affiliates did not mediate the link between temperament and the outcomes under scrutiny. No sex differences in developmental pathways from temperament to the outcomes were found. To further our understanding of the developmental link between childhood temperament and later antisocial behavior and substance use, we need to recognize the role of peer environmental factors, specifically poor preference among peers. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Autoimagem , Comportamento Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Canadá , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Psychol Assess ; 29(1): 35-49, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27099977

RESUMO

Adolescence is an important time for emotional development. Recently, daily diary methods are increasingly employed in research on emotional development and are used to explore the development of and sex differences in emotions during adolescence. However, before drawing conclusions about sex differences and developmental trends, one needs to ensure that the same construct is measured across sex and time. The present study tested measurement invariance of daily emotion assessments across sex, short-term (days within weeks) and long-term periods (days across years) in a sample of 394 adolescents (55.6% male) that were followed from ages 13 to 18. Moreover, the study examined the developmental trajectories of adolescent emotional experiences. Adolescents rated their daily emotions (happiness, anger, sadness, anxiety) during each day of a normal school week (Monday to Friday) for 3 weeks per year for 5 years (i.e., 15 weeks × 5 days = 75 assessments in total). Measurement invariance analyses suggest that the measurement of adolescent daily mood was invariant between boys and girls and across shorter and longer time intervals. Moreover, latent growth curve analyses showed that happiness decreased from early to middle adolescence, whereas anger, sadness, and anxiety increased. Anger returned to baseline toward late adolescence. In contrast, the decrease of happiness and the increase of anxiety leveled off without reversing, whereas sadness continued to increase. The discussion highlights the implications of measurement invariance in research on individual and developmental differences and discusses the findings in light of normative emotional development. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Ira , Ansiedade , Emoções , Felicidade , Adolescente , Afeto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 19: 288-97, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27261927

RESUMO

Social exclusion is a distressing experience and can lead to both retaliatory and prosocial reactions toward the sources of exclusion. The way people react to social exclusion has been hypothesized to be shaped through chronic exposure to peer rejection. This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study examined associations between chronic peer rejection and retaliatory (i.e. punishing) and prosocial (i.e. forgiving) reactions to social exclusion and the neural processes underlying them. Chronically rejected (n=19) and stably highly accepted adolescents (n=27) distributed money between themselves and unknown others who previously included or excluded them in a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Decreasing the excluders' monetary profits (i.e., punishment) was associated with increased activity in the ventral striatum, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and parietal cortex in both groups. Compared to stably highly accepted adolescents, chronically rejected adolescents exhibited higher activity in the dorsal striatum and lateral prefrontal cortex - brain regions implicated in cognitive control - when they refrained from punishment and shared their money equally with (i.e. forgave) the excluders. These results provide insights into processes that might underlie the maintenance of peer rejection across development, such as difficulties controlling the urge to retaliate after exclusion.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Punição/psicologia , Distância Social , Adolescente , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
16.
Biol Psychol ; 117: 67-79, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26956979

RESUMO

The current study examined mean level and change in extraversion and neuroticism across adolescence in relation to physiological stress reactivity to social evaluation. Adolescents (n=327) from the Dutch general population reported on personality measures at five annual assessments. At age 17 years, adolescents participated in a psychosocial stress procedure characterized by social evaluation during which cortisol, heart rate, pre-ejection period (PEP) and heart rate variability were assessed. Dual latent growth curve models were fitted in which the intercepts (mean level) and slopes (change) of personality across adolescence predicted the intercepts (baseline) and slopes (reactivity) of the physiological stress measures. Most comparisons revealed no relation between personality and stress reactivity. Adolescents with higher mean level scores on extraversion did show lower cortisol reactivity. Adolescents with higher mean level neuroticism scores showed higher PEP reactivity. Our findings lend partial support for a relation between personality and physiological stress reactivity.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Extroversão (Psicologia) , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo
17.
Ethn Health ; 21(6): 535-50, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26758767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study examined whether the relation of parental solicitation, parental control, and child disclosure with adolescent alcohol and cannabis use is similar for native and non-Western immigrant Dutch adolescents. DESIGN: Questionnaire data from two study-samples were used with a combined sample of 705 adolescents (mean age 16.2 years; 47.2% female; 25.2% non-Western immigrant background). RESULTS: Native Dutch adolescents reported more weekly alcohol use than immigrant adolescents, while rates of cannabis use by native and immigrant adolescents were similar. Immigrant females reported lower levels of parental solicitation and child disclosure, but higher levels of parental control than native females. There were no differences in the sources of parental knowledge between native and immigrant males. Regression analyses showed no significant interaction effects of parental solicitation, parental control, or child disclosure with ethnic background for both alcohol and cannabis use (all p values > .05). CONCLUSION: Despite mean level differences in various factors, we did not find evidence of an interaction effect of the sources of parental knowledge with ethnic background on alcohol and cannabis use. This suggests that theories and prevention strategies focusing on these sources of parental knowledge in relation to substance use can be applicable to both native and immigrant Dutch adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Islamismo , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/etnologia , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/etnologia , Poder Familiar , Pais , Análise de Regressão , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Revelação da Verdade , Turquia/etnologia
18.
Cogn Emot ; 30(4): 745-61, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25864486

RESUMO

This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective and cognitive state empathy were assessed in response to empathy-inducing film clips portraying happiness and sadness. Adolescents who responded with stronger motor empathy consistently reported higher affective state empathy. Adolescents' motor empathy was also positively related to cognitive state empathy, either directly or indirectly via affective state empathy. Whereas trait empathy was consistently, but modestly, related to state empathy with sadness, for state empathy with happiness few trait-state associations were found. Together, the findings provide support for the notion that empathy is a multi-faceted phenomenon. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy seem to be related processes, each playing a different role in the ability to understand and share others' feelings.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Adolescente , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 44(1): 43-55, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25758671

RESUMO

This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study examined subjective and neural responses to social exclusion in adolescents (age 12-15) who either had a stable accepted (n = 27; 14 males) or a chronic rejected (n = 19; 12 males) status among peers from age 6 to 12. Both groups of adolescents reported similar increases in distress after being excluded in a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball), but adolescents with a history of chronic peer rejection showed higher activity in brain regions previously linked to the detection of, and the distress caused by, social exclusion. Specifically, compared with stably accepted adolescents, chronically rejected adolescents displayed: 1) higher activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during social exclusion and 2) higher activity in the dACC and anterior prefrontal cortex when they were incidentally excluded in a social interaction in which they were overall included. These findings demonstrate that chronic childhood peer rejection is associated with heightened neural responses to social exclusion during adolescence, which has implications for understanding the processes through which peer rejection may lead to adverse effects on mental health over time.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Rejeição (Psicologia) , Adolescente , Afeto , Análise de Variância , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Autoimagem , Esportes/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
20.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 25(5): 483-92, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26254219

RESUMO

There appear to be contradicting theories and empirical findings on the association between adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms and cannabis use, suggesting potential risk as well as protective pathways. The aim of this six-year longitudinal study was to further examine associations between SAD symptoms and cannabis use over time in adolescents from the general population, specifically focusing on the potential role that adolescents' involvement with their peers may have in these associations. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys; M age = 13.03 at T1), who completed annual self-report questionnaires for 6 successive years. Cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that adolescent SAD symptoms were associated with less peer involvement 1 year later. Less adolescent peer involvement was in turn associated with lower probabilities of cannabis use as well as lower frequency of cannabis use 1 year later. Most importantly, results suggested significant longitudinal indirect paths from adolescent SAD symptoms to cannabis use via adolescents' peer involvement. Overall, these results provide support for a protective function of SAD symptoms in association with cannabis use in adolescents from the general population. This association is partially explained by less peer involvement (suggesting increased social isolation) for those adolescents with higher levels of SAD symptoms. Future research should aim to gain more insight into the exact nature of the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use in adolescents from the general population, especially regarding potential risk and protective processes that may explain this relationship.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Cannabis , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
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