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1.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1783957, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of disasters and conflicts are widespread and heavily studied. While attention to disasters' impacts on mental health is growing, mental health effects are not well understood due to inconsistencies in measurement. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to review mental health assessment tools and their use in populations affected by disasters and conflicts. METHOD: Tools that assess posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, substance use disorder, and general mental health were examined. This review began with a search for assessment tools in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. Next, validation studies for the tools were obtained through snowball sampling. A final search was conducted for scientific studies using the selected tools in humanitarian settings to collect the data for analysis. The benefits and limitations described for each tool were compiled into a complete table. RESULTS: Twelve assessment tools were included, with 88 studies using them. The primary findings indicate that half of the studies used the Impact of Events Scale-Revised. The most common limitation discussed is that self-report tools inaccurately estimate the prevalence of mental health problems. This inaccuracy is further exacerbated by a lack of cultural appropriateness of the tools, as many are developed for Western contexts. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that researchers and humanitarian workers reflect on the effectiveness of the mental health assessment tool they use to accurately represent the populations under study in emergency settings. In addition, mental health assessment should be coupled with action.

2.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(6): 748-758, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Floods are one of the most common types of disasters in Bangladesh and lead to direct and indirect impacts on health. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of floods on Maternal and Newborn Healthcare (MNH) utilization in Bangladesh between the years 2011 and 2014. METHODS: We used variables from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2014 data and georeferenced data of floods between 2011 and 2014 from the Emergency Events Database. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine whether the flood-affected exposures were significant in predicting differences in MNH utilization. RESULTS: The odds for the received antenatal care by skilled providers, institutional deliveries, deliveries by c-section, and postnatal care of the babies were significantly lower (Unadjusted OR = 0.81, 0.88, 0.83, and 0.82 respectively; P < 0.05) in the flood-affected area than the non-affected area. Additionally, the odds of postnatal checkup of women was statistically significant (P < 0.001) and less likely to be received in flood-affected area (OR = 0.76). The odds of all indicators were significantly lower (OR < 1) for the women living in the twice and four times flooded areas compared to the once flooded areas. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: The study shows that floods can have a negative impact on MNH utilization. In addition, repeated floods have a worse impact on MNH utilization than incidental floods. Extra effort should be put on ensuring access to MNH of women in flood-affected areas.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4956, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188901

RESUMO

Literature on earthquake impact on hospital admissions is lacking, particularly in low-resource settings. Our aim was to study the pattern of admissions before and after the 2015 earthquake in a tertiary hospital in Nepal. We used routine hospital data from 9,596 admissions, and defined four periods: pre-earthquake (pre-EQ), acute (EQ1), post-acute (EQ2), and post-earthquake (post-EQ). We compared length of hospital stay (LOS) across the study periods using negative binomial regressions. We used logistic regressions to study changes in probability of admission for diagnostic categories, and Generalized Additive Models to model the difference in number of admissions compared to pre-EQ baseline. LOS was longer in EQ1 than during pre-EQ, in particular for injury-related admissions. In EQ1, the odds of injury admissions increased, while they decreased for the majority of other diagnoses, with the odds of pregnancy-related admissions remaining low until post-EQ. The number of admissions dropped in EQ1 and EQ2, and returned to pre-EQ trends in post-EQ, accumulating 381 admissions lost (CI: 206-556). Our findings suggest that hospital disaster plans must not only foresee injury management after earthquakes, but also ensure accessibility, in particular for pregnant women, and promote a quick return to normality to prevent additional negative health outcomes.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento em Desastres/normas , Terremotos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Infect ; 80(3): 326-332, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the time-dependent measles effective reproduction number (Rt) as an indicator of the impact of three outbreak response vaccination (ORV) campaigns on measles transmission during a nationwide outbreak in Guinea. METHODS: Rt represents the average number of secondary cases generated by a single primary case in a partially immune population during a given time period. Measles Rt was estimated using daily incidence data for 3952 outbreak-associated measles cases in Guinea in 2017 for the time periods prior to, between, and following each of three ORV campaigns using a simple and extensible mathematical model. RESULTS: Rt was estimated to be above the threshold value of 1 during the initial growth period of the outbreak until the first ORV campaign began on March 13 (Rt = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.55-1.67). It subsequently dropped below 1 and remained <1 through the end of the year (range: 0.71-0.91), although low levels of transmission persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in Rt coincided with implementation of the ORV campaigns, indicating success of the campaigns at maintaining measles transmission intensity below epidemic growth levels. However, persistent measles transmission remains an issue in Guinea due to insufficient levels of herd immunity. Estimation of Rt should be further leveraged to help decision makers and field staff understand outbreak progress and the timing and type of vaccination efforts needed to halt transmission.

5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(1): 34-38, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679549

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Typhoon Haiyan partially destroyed the Ormoc District Hospital in the Philippines. A field hospital was established to replace its outpatient department for 5 weeks. We investigated the reasons for medical consultation in the field hospital. METHODS: We described the consultations by sex, age, week, and diagnosis according to the Surveillance in Post-Extreme Emergencies and Disasters system. We compared the number and proportion of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) with a control season in 2014. RESULTS: We included 6785 consultations, 55.9% from women. The majority of consultations were communicable diseases (88.2%) followed by noncommunicable (7.1%) and injuries (5.6%). Males suffered more often from injuries than women (66.0% vs 34.0%). Consultations due to injuries decreased from 10.0% in the first to 2.9% in the last week. The most frequent diagnosis over the study period was acute respiratory infections (ARIs) (73.1%), of which 83.0% were children. The number of daily URTIs was higher than in a similar 2014 period. CONCLUSIONS: ARI was the most prevalent diagnosis. We recommend ARI treatments being fully accessible after such a disaster. During the first week, injury prevention should focus on adult men. Studies after natural disasters should include control periods to better understand disease distribution, ultimately improving the prioritization in disasters.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Defesa Civil/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/organização & administração , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220016, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015, an earthquake killing 9,000 and injuring 22,000 people hit Nepal. The Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH), a reference tertiary hospital, was operational immediately after the earthquake. We studied the profile of earthquake victims admitted in TUTH and assessed what factors could influence hospital length of stay. METHODS: An earthquake victim dataset was created based on patient records, with information on sex, age, date of admission and discharge, diagnosis, and surgical intervention. We performed an initial descriptive overview of the earthquake victims followed by a time-to-event analysis to compare length of hospital stay in different groups, using log rank test and cox regression to calculate Hazard Ratios. RESULTS: There were in total 501 admitted victims, with the peak of admissions occurring on the fifth day after the earthquake. About 89% had injury as main diagnosis, mostly in lower limbs, and 66% of all injuries were fractures. Nearly 69% of all patients underwent surgery. The median length of hospital stay was 10 days. Lower limb and trunk injuries had longer hospital stays than injuries in the head and neck (HR = 0.68, p = 0.009, and HR = 0.62 p = 0.005, respectively). Plastic surgeries had longer hospital stays than orthopaedic surgeries (HR = 0.57 p = 0.006). Having a crush injury and undergoing an amputation also increased time to discharge (HR = 0.57, p = 0.013, and HR = 0.65 p = 0.045 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Hospital stay was particularly long in this sample in comparison to other studies on earthquake victims, indirectly indicating the high burden TUTH had to bear to treat these patients. To strengthen resilience, tertiary hospitals should have preparedness plans to cope with a large influx of injured patients after a large-scale disaster, in particular for the initial days when there is limited external aid.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Terremotos , Hospitalização , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Vítimas de Desastres/história , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213362, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835777

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Delays in arrival and treatment at health facilities lead to negative health outcomes. Individual and external factors could be associated with these delays. This study aimed to assess common factors associated with arrival and treatment delays in the emergency departments (ED) of three hospitals in humanitarian settings. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study based on routine data collected from three MSF-supported hospitals in Afghanistan, Haiti and Sierra Leone. We calculated the proportion of consultations with delay in arrival (>24 hours) and in treatment (based on target time according to triage categories). We used a multinomial logistic regression model (MLR) to analyse the association between age, sex, hospital and diagnosis (trauma and non-trauma) with these delays. RESULTS: We included 95,025 consultations. Males represented 65.2%, Delay in arrival was present in 27.8% of cases and delay in treatment in 27.2%. The MLR showed higher risk of delay in arrival for females (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2-1.3), children <5 (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.4-1.5), patients attending to Gondama (OR 30.0, 95% CI 25.6-35.3) and non-trauma cases (OR 4.7, 95% CI 4.4-4.8). A higher risk of delay in treatment was observed for females (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1), children <5 (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.1), patients attending to Martissant (OR 14.6, 95% CI 13.9-15.4) and non-trauma cases (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Women, children <5 and non-trauma cases suffered most from delays. These delays could relate to educational and cultural barriers, and severity perception of the disease. Treatment delay could be due to insufficient resources with consequent overcrowding, and severity perception from medical staff for non-trauma patients. Extended community outreach, health promotion and support to community health workers could improve emergency care in humanitarian settings.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Tratamento de Emergência , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Idoso , Altruísmo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Haiti , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Serra Leoa , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 108, 2018 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to a global warming-related increase in heatwaves, it is important to obtain detailed understanding of the relationship between heat and health. We assessed the relationship between heat and urgent emergency room admissions in the Netherlands. METHODS: We collected daily maximum temperature and relative humidity data over the period 2002-2007. Daily urgent emergency room admissions were divided by sex, age group and disease category. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models, estimating temperature-admission associations. We estimated the relative risk (RR) for urgent hospital admissions for a range of temperatures compared to a baseline temperature of 21 °C. In addition, we compared the impact of three different temperature scenarios on admissions using the RR. RESULTS: There is a positive relationship between increasing temperatures above 21 °C and the RR for urgent emergency room admissions for the disease categories 'Potential heat-related diseases' and 'Respiratory diseases'. This relationship is strongest in the 85+ group. The RRs are strongest for lag 0. For admissions for 'circulatory diseases', there is only a small significant increase of RRs within the 85+ age group for moderate heat, but not for extreme heat. The RRs for a one-day event with extreme heat are comparable to the RRs for multiple-day events with moderate heat. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals should adjust the capacity of their emergency departments on warm days, and the days immediately thereafter. The elderly in particular should be targeted through prevention programmes to reduce harmful effects of heat. The fact that this increase in admissions already occurs in temperatures above 21 °C is different from previous findings in warmer countries. Given the similar impact of three consecutive days of moderate heat and one day of extreme heat on admissions, criteria for activation of national heatwave plans need adjustments based on different temperature scenarios.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Calor Extremo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191516, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the short-term impact of Typhoon Haiyan, one of the strongest typhoons ever to make landfall, on the pattern of admissions in two hospitals in Eastern Visayas, the Philippines. METHODS: This study took place at Eastern Visayas Regional Medical Center (EVRMC) in Tacloban, and Ormoc District Hospital (ODH) in Ormoc. We determined whether there were differences in the pattern of admissions between the week before and the three weeks after Haiyan by using information on sex, age, diagnosis, ward and outcome at discharge from patient records. RESULTS: There was a drop in admissions in both hospitals after Haiyan as compared to before. Admissions climbed back to the baseline after ten days in EVRMC and after two weeks in ODH. When comparing the period after Haiyan to the period before, there was a relative increase in male versus female admissions in ODH (OR 2.8, 95%CI 1.7-4.3), but not in EVRMC. Patients aged ≥50 years and 0-14 years had the highest relative increase in admissions. There was a relative decrease in admissions for the ICD10 group 'Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium' (OR 0.4, 95%CI 0.3-0.6), and an increase in 'Certain infectious and parasitic diseases' (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.2-3.5), mainly gastroenteritis, and 'Diseases of the respiratory system' (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.0-3.0), mainly pneumonia, compared to all other diagnosis groups in ODH. Out of all reasons for admission within the study period, 66% belong to these three ICD-10 groups. Data on reasons for admission were not available for EVRMC. CONCLUSIONS: The observed reduction in patients after the Typhoon calls for ensuring that hospital accessibility should be protected and reinforced, especially for pregnant women, by trying to remove debris in the direct hospital vicinity. Hospitals in areas prone to tropical cyclones should be prepared to treat large numbers of patients with gastroenteritis and pneumonia, as part of their disaster plans.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Hospitais , Admissão do Paciente , Humanos , Filipinas
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 17(1): 72, 2017 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28114994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various barriers exist that preclude individuals from undergoing surgical care in low-income countries. Our study assessed the main barriers in Nepal, and identified individuals most at risk for not receiving required surgical care. METHODS: A countrywide survey, using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey tool, was carried out in 2014, surveying 2,695 individuals with a response rate of 97%. Our study used data from a subset, namely individuals who required surgical care in the last twelve months. Data were collected on individual characteristics, transport characteristics, and reasons why individuals did not undergo surgical care. RESULTS: Of the 2,695 individuals surveyed, 207 individuals needed surgical care at least once in the previous 12 months. The main reasons for not undergoing surgery were affordability (n = 42), accessibility (n = 42) and fear/no trust (n = 34). A factor significantly associated with affordability was having a low education (OR = 5.77 of having no education vs. having secondary education). Living in a rural area (OR = 2.59) and a long travel time to a secondary and tertiary health facility (OR = 1.17 and 1.09, respectively) were some of the factors significantly associated with accessibility. Being a woman was significantly associated with fear/no trust (OR = 3.54). CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the individuals who needed surgical care did not undergo surgery due to affordability, accessibility, or fear/no trust. Providing subsidised transport, introducing mobile surgical clinics or organising awareness raising campaigns are measures that could be implemented to overcome these barriers to surgical care.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral , Instalações de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões/provisão & distribução , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28134849

RESUMO

Extreme heat is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. National heat plans have been implemented to minimize the effect of extreme heat. The population's awareness and knowledge of national heat plans and extreme heat is essential to improve the community's behavior and adaptation. A general population survey was conducted in Lisbon and in Madrid to assess this knowledge. We used a questionnaire to interview passers-by. Results were compared between Lisbon and Madrid and between locals and foreigners, using Pearson Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test. We conducted 260 interviews in six locations of different socio-economic backgrounds in each city. The most frequently mentioned extreme heat-related risk groups were the elderly (79.2%), children (49.6%) and babies (21.5%). The most frequently reported protective measures were increased fluid intake (73.1%) and avoiding exposure to the sun (50.8%). Knowledge about the heat plan was higher in Lisbon (37.2%) than in Madrid (25.2%) (p-value = 0.03). Foreigners had less knowledge of risk groups compared to locals. Heat plans were not widely known in Madrid and Lisbon. Nonetheless, knowledge of practical concepts to face extreme heat, such as certain risk groups and protective measures, was found. Our results were similar to comparable surveys where specific respondents' groups were identified as less knowledgeable. This highlighted the importance of addressing these groups when communicating public health messages on heat. Foreigners should be specifically targeted to increase their awareness.


Assuntos
Cidades , Calor Extremo/efeitos adversos , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Pública/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Características de Residência , Espanha
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27834925

RESUMO

National heatwave plans are aimed at reducing the avoidable human health consequences due to heatwaves, by providing warnings as well as improving communication between relevant stakeholders. The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of key stakeholders within plans in Belgium and The Netherlands on their responsibilities, the partnerships, and the effectiveness of the local implementation in Brussels and Amsterdam. Key informant interviews were held with stakeholders that had an important role in development of the heatwave plan in these countries, or its implementation in Brussels or Amsterdam. Care organisations, including hospitals and elderly care organisations, had a lack of familiarity with the national heatwave plan in both cities, and prioritised heat the lowest. Some groups of individuals, specifically socially isolated individuals, are not sufficiently addressed by the current national heatwave plans and most local plans. Stakeholders reported that responsibilities were not clearly described and that the national plan does not describe tasks on a local level. We recommend to urgently increase awareness on the impact of heat on health among care organisations. More emphasis needs to be given to the variety of heat-risk groups. Stakeholders should be involved in the development of updates of the plans.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Opinião Pública , Bélgica , Humanos , Países Baixos , Percepção
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 9(1): 499, 2016 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27894334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown an increase in mortality and morbidity during heatwaves, especially among the elderly. We assessed the knowledge of the general population of Brussels and Amsterdam on groups at risk and protective measures for heat-related health effects. RESULTS: Six locations with mixed populations were selected in each city. Passer-by's in both cities were asked to participate in a short survey. Respondents in Brussels (n = 120) had significantly more knowledge on risk groups and protective measures than respondents in Amsterdam (n = 133). In both cities, individuals with higher education had better knowledge on risk groups and protective measures than individuals with lower education. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts at heat-awareness raising must be strengthened, especially in Amsterdam, and public health actions should effectively target vulnerable groups with lower education in both cities.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Bélgica , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Saúde Pública , Risco , Classe Social , Estresse Fisiológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Bull World Health Organ ; 94(9): 667-674, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27708472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pre-emptive oral cholera vaccination reduces disease severity and mortality in people who develop cholera disease during an outbreak. METHODS: The study involved a retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data from 41 cholera treatment facilities in South Sudan on patients who developed cholera disease between 23 April and 20 July 2014 during a large outbreak, a few months after a pre-emptive oral vaccination campaign. Patients who developed severe dehydration were regarded as having a severe cholera infection. Vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were compared and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with developing severe disease or death. FINDINGS: In total, 4115 cholera patients were treated at the 41 facilities: 1946 (47.3%) had severe disease and 62 (1.5%) deaths occurred. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who received two doses of oral cholera vaccine were 4.5-fold less likely to develop severe disease than unvaccinated patients (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 0.22; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.11-0.44). Moreover, those with severe cholera were significantly more likely to die than those without (aOR: 4.76; 95% CI: 2.33-9.77). CONCLUSION: Pre-emptive vaccination with two doses of oral cholera vaccine was associated with a significant reduction in the likelihood of developing severe cholera disease during an outbreak in South Sudan. Moreover, severe disease was the strongest predictor of death. Two doses of oral cholera vaccine should be used in emergencies to reduce the disease burden.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Cólera/farmacologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Cólera/fisiopatologia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/mortalidade , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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