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J Bone Miner Res ; 34(2): 215-230, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715766


Phenotypic variation in skeletal traits and diseases is the product of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic mechanisms include information-containing factors, other than DNA sequence, that cause stable changes in gene expression and are maintained during cell divisions. They represent a link between environmental influences, genome features, and the resulting phenotype. The main epigenetic factors are DNA methylation, posttranslational changes of histones, and higher-order chromatin structure. Sometimes non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are also included in the broad term of epigenetic factors. There is rapidly expanding experimental evidence for a role of epigenetic factors in the differentiation of bone cells and the pathogenesis of skeletal disorders, such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. However, different from genetic factors, epigenetic signatures are cell- and tissue-specific and can change with time. Thus, elucidating their role has particular difficulties, especially in human studies. Nevertheless, epigenomewide association studies are beginning to disclose some disease-specific patterns that help to understand skeletal cell biology and may lead to development of new epigenetic-based biomarkers, as well as new drug targets useful for treating diffuse and localized disorders. Here we provide an overview and update of recent advances on the role of epigenomics in bone and cartilage diseases. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

J Bone Miner Res ; 33(4): 560-568, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28719143


Accurate diagnosis of vertebral osteoporotic fractures is crucial for the identification of individuals at high risk of future fractures. Different methods for radiological assessment of vertebral fractures exist, but a gold standard is lacking. The aim of our study was to estimate statistical measures of agreement and prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in the population-based Rotterdam Study, across two assessment methods. The quantitative morphometry assisted by SpineAnalyzer® (QM SA) method evaluates vertebral height loss that affects vertebral shape whereas the algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) method judges endplate integrity and includes guidelines for the differentiation of vertebral fracture and nonfracture deformities. Cross-sectional radiographs were assessed for 7582 participants aged 45 to 95 years. With QM SA, the prevalence was 14.2% (95% CI, 13.4% to 15.0%), compared to 4.0% (95% CI, 3.6% to 4.5%) with ABQ. Inter-method agreement according to kappa (κ) was 0.24. The highest agreement between methods was among females (κ = 0.31), participants age >80 years (κ = 0.40), and at the L1 level (κ = 0.40). With ABQ, most fractures were found at the thoracolumbar junction (T12 -L1 ) followed by the T7 -T8 level, whereas with QM SA, most deformities were in the mid thoracic (T7 -T8 ) and lower thoracic spine (T11 -T12 ), with similar number of fractures in both peaks. Excluding mild QM SA deformities (grade 1 with QM) from the analysis increased, the agreement between the methods from κ = 0.24 to 0.40, whereas reexamining mild deformities based on endplate depression increased agreement from κ = 0.24 to 0.50 (p <0.001). Vertebral fracture prevalence differs significantly between QM SA and ABQ; reexamining QM mild deformities based on endplate depression would increase the agreement between methods. More widespread and consistent application of an optimal method may improve clinical care. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Epigenomics ; 9(11): 1403-1422, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28990796


AIM: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sensitive marker of one-carbon metabolism. Higher Hcy levels have been associated with global DNA hypomethylation. We investigated the association between plasma Hcy and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: Methylation was measured using Illumina 450 k arrays in 2035 individuals from six cohorts. Hcy-associated differentially methylated positions and regions were identified using meta-analysis. RESULTS: Three differentially methylated positions cg21607669 (SLC27A1), cg26382848 (AJUBA) and cg10701000 (KCNMA1) at chromosome 19, 14 and 10, respectively, were significantly associated with Hcy. In addition, we identified 68 Hcy-associated differentially methylated regions, the most significant of which was a 1.8-kb spanning domain (TNXB/ATF6B) at chromosome 6. CONCLUSION: We identified novel epigenetic loci associated with Hcy levels, of which specific role needs to be further validated.

Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Homocisteína/sangue , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/genética , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Masculino , Tenascina/genética , Tenascina/metabolismo
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(4): 446-451, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28051079


Neuropathic pain-like joint symptoms (NP) are seen in a proportion of individuals diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) and post total joint replacement (TJR). In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using NP as defined by the painDETECT questionnaire (score >12 indicating possible NP) in 613 post-TJR participants recruited from Nottinghamshire (UK). The prevalence of possible NP was 17.8%. The top four hits from the GWAS and two other biologically relevant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were replicated in individuals with OA and post TJR from an independent study in the same area (N=908) and in individuals from the Rotterdam Study (N=212). Three of these SNPs showed effect sizes in the same direction as in the GWAS results in both replication cohorts. The strongest association upon meta-analysis of a recessive model was for the variant allele in rs887797 mapping to the protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA) gene odds ratio (OR)possNP=2.41 (95% CI 1.74-3.34, P=1.29 × 10-7). This SNP has been found to be associated with multiple sclerosis and encodes a functional variant affecting splicing and expression of the PRKCA gene. The PRKCA gene has been associated with long-term potentiation, synaptic plasticity, chronic pain and memory in the literature, making this a biologically relevant finding.

Artroplastia de Substituição/efeitos adversos , Neuralgia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Quinase C-alfa/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neuralgia/etiologia
J Bone Miner Res ; 21(6): 845-54, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16753015


UNLABELLED: After reported associations of variations in the BMP-2 gene with osteoporosis in small populations, we studied the association of the BMP-2 gene polymorphisms Ser37Ala and Arg190Ser with osteoporosis in 6353 men and women from the Rotterdam Study. We did not observe an association of these variants with BMD, bone loss, hip structural analysis parameters, and fracture risk. INTRODUCTION: Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) plays a role in osteoblast differentiation. BMP-2 gene variation has previously been associated with osteoporosis in various small populations, but current evidence remains inconclusive about the exact association with osteoporosis. Therefore, we studied the association of two polymorphisms located in the BMP-2 gene (Ser37Ala and Arg190Ser) and haplotypes defined by these polymorphisms with BMD, rates of bone loss, parameters of hip structural analysis (HSA), and fractures in the Rotterdam Study, a large prospective cohort study of diseases in the elderly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Databases were searched for polymorphisms and haplotype blocks in the BMP-2 gene region. Allele frequencies for Ser37Ala and Arg190Ser were determined in 60 blacks and 110 Chinese from Coriell panels. Genotype data on Ser37Ala and Arg190Ser were available for 6353 individuals from the Rotterdam Study population. Haplotype alleles defined by Ser37Ala and Arg190Ser were inferred using PHASE software. Genotype and haplotype analyses for BMD (measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck), bone loss per year (measured at the femoral neck), and HSA were performed using AN(C)OVA. Fractures were analyzed using a Cox proportional-hazards model and logistic regression. All outcomes were adjusted for age, height, and weight. RESULTS: Allele frequencies were 2.5% for Ala37 and 40.2% for Ser190, whereas haplotype allele frequencies were 57.28% (Ser37Arg190), 40.19% (Ser37Ser190), 2.50% (Ala37Arg190), and 0.02% (Ala37Ser190). For BMD, bone loss, HSA outcomes, and (incident) fractures, no differences could be seen between genotype and haplotype groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this large population-based cohort of Dutch whites, we conclude that the BMP-2 Ser37Ala and Arg190Ser polymorphisms or haplotypes thereof are not associated with parameters of osteoporosis.

Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2 , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco