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1.
Clin Immunol ; : 108359, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New, innovative, costly diagnostic methods for patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) demand upfront insight into their potential cost savings and added value for individual patients. As such, high quality, comparable economic evaluations are of utmost importance to enable informed decisions. The objective of this review was therefore to create an extensive overview of current costing studies and potential cost savings of early diagnosis in primary immunodeficiency disease. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed was conducted and studies involving any form of costing study in the field of PIDs were included. Of the included studies, study characteristics, cost parameters and benefits of early diagnosis were extracted and outlined in separate tables. RESULTS: Twenty two studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The papers were categorized according to their subject: neonatal screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Ig replacement therapies and studies reporting on costs of general or specific PIDs. Within and between these groups variability in reported costing characteristics was observed. In studies that reported cost savings pre- and post-diagnosis, cost savings ranged from 6500 to 108,463 USD of total costs per patient. CONCLUSION: This literature review shows that, regardless of what aspect of PIDs has been studied, in nearly all cases early diagnosis reduces health care consumption and leads to better health outcomes for patients with PIDs. We found considerable variability in costing characteristics of economic evaluations of PID patients, which hampers the comparability of outcomes. More effort is needed to create uniformity and define cost parameters in economic evaluations in the field of PIDs, facilitating further prospective research to extensively assess the benefits of early diagnosis.

2.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 121(6): 142-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe phenotypic and functional characteristics of patients with the homozygous c.973-2A>G splice site mutation in the adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) gene (rs139750129), resulting in deficiency of ADA2 (DADA2). METHODS: We present case synopses of six patients from three unrelated families. Clinical data were analysed and next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed. We also tested for aberrant RNA splicing and measured ADA2 enzyme activity. RESULTS: One family had common DADA2 symptoms, whereas Behçet's disease-like manifestations were observed in the other two families. We detected the homozygous c.973-2A>G splice site mutation in ADA2 in all patients tested. ADA2 enzyme activity was significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls, but no correlation between ADA2 activity levels and disease severity was observed. Aberrant splicing was detected in a minority of mRNA transcripts, but the formation of other, undetected, aberrant splicing products could not be excluded. Patients were treated with TNF-α inhibitors to prevent recurrence of inflammatory findings including cerebral vasculitis-associated stroke. CONCLUSIONS: We describe three families with the same homozygous splice site mutation in ADA2 and observed a novel combination of manifestations resembling Behçet's disease. This further expands the range of phenotypes caused by ADA2 mutations, although no complete genotype-phenotype association could be determined. Even without active disease, the risk of stroke should be addressed in making decisions regarding treatment of DADA2 patients.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase , Síndrome de Behçet/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Mutação/genética , Adenosina Desaminase/deficiência , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Variação Biológica da População , Estudos de Associação Genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/deficiência , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent findings strongly support hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe presentation of LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency, but long-term follow-up and survival data beyond previous patient reports or meta-reviews are scarce for those patients who do not receive a transplant. OBJECTIVE: This international retrospective study was conducted to elucidate the longitudinal clinical course of patients with LRBA deficiency who do and do not receive a transplant. METHOD: We assessed disease burden and treatment responses with a specially developed immune deficiency and dysregulation activity score, reflecting the sum and severity of organ involvement and infections, days of hospitalization, supportive care requirements, and performance indices. RESULTS: Of 76 patients with LRBA deficiency from 29 centers (median follow-up, 10 years; range, 1-52), 24 underwent HSCT from 2005 to 2019. The overall survival rate after HSCT (median follow-up, 20 months) was 70.8% (17 of 24 patients); all deaths were due to nonspecific, early, transplant-related mortality. Currently, 82.7% of patients who did not receive a transplant (43 of 52; age range, 3-69 years) are alive. Of 17 HSCT survivors, 7 are in complete remission and 5 are in good partial remission without treatment (together, 12 of 17 [70.6%]). In contrast, only 5 of 43 patients who did not receive a transplant (11.6%) are without immunosuppression. Immune deficiency and dysregulation activity scores were significantly lower in patients who survived HSCT than in those receiving conventional treatment (P = .005) or in patients who received abatacept or sirolimus as compared with other therapies, and in patients with residual LRBA expression. Higher disease burden, longer duration before HSCT, and lung involvement were associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSION: The lifelong disease activity, implying a need for immunosuppression and risk of malignancy, must be weighed against the risks of HSCT.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(6): 577-591, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the application of next generation sequencing (NGS) is moving to earlier stages in the diagnostic pipeline for primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), re-evaluation of its effectiveness is required. The aim of this study is to systematically review the diagnostic yield of NGS in PIDs. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies. Studies were eligible when describing the use of NGS in patients that had previously been diagnosed with PID on clinical and/or laboratory findings. Relevant data on study characteristics, technological performance and diagnostic yield were extracted. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were eligible for data extraction. Six studies described patient populations from specific PID subcategories. The remaining studies included patients with unsorted PIDs. The studies were based on populations from Italy, Iran, Turkey, Thailand, the Netherlands, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. Eight studies used an array-based targeted gene panel, four used WES in combination with a PID filter, and two used both techniques. The mean reported reading depth ranged from 98 to 1337 times. Five studies described the sensitivity of the applied techniques, ranging from 83 to 100%, whereas specificity ranged from 45 to 99.9%. The percentage of patients who were genetically diagnosed ranged from 15 to 79%. Several studies described clinical implications of the genetic findings. DISCUSSION: NGS has the ability to contribute significantly to the identification of molecular mechanisms in PID patients. The diagnostic yield highly depends on population and on the technical circumstances under which NGS is employed. Further research is needed to determine the exact diagnostic yield and clinical implications of NGS in patients with PID.

5.
Eur J Radiol ; 112: 200-206, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777211

RESUMO

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is highly prevalent in collagen vascular diseases and reduction of ILD is an important therapeutic target. To that end, reliable quantification of pulmonary disease severity is of great significance. This study systematically reviewed the literature on automated computed tomography (CT) quantification methods for assessing ILD in collagen vascular diseases. PRISMA-DTA guidelines for systematic reviews were used and 19 original research articles up to January 2018 were included based on a MEDLINE/Pubmed and Embase search. Quantitative CT methods were categorized as histogram assessment (12 studies) or pattern/texture recognition (7 studies). R2 for correlation with visual ILD scoring ranged from 0.143 (p < 0.01) to 0.687 (p < 0.0001), for FVC from 0.048 (p < 0.0001) to 0.504 (p < 0.0001) and for DLCO from 0.015 (p = 0.61) to 0.449 (p < 0.0001). Automated CT methods are independent of reader's expertise and are a promising tool in the quantification of ILD in collagen vascular disease patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Colágeno/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1763-1770, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776527

RESUMO

Patient registries are instrumental for clinical research in rare diseases. They help to achieve a sufficient sample size for epidemiological and clinical research and to assess the feasibility of clinical trials. The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry currently comprises information on more than 25,000 patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). The prerequisite of a patient to be included into the ESID registry is an IEI either defined by a defect in a gene included in the disease classification of the international union of immunological societies, or verified by applying clinical criteria. Because a relevant number of patients, including those with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), representing the largest group of patients in the registry, remain without a genetic diagnosis, consensus on classification of these patients is mandatory. Here, we present clinical criteria for a large number of IEI that were designed in expert panels with an external review. They were implemented for novel entries and verification of existing data sets from 2014, yielding a substantial refinement. For instance, 8% of adults and 27% of children with CVID (176 of 1704 patients) were reclassified to 22 different immunodeficiencies, illustrating progress in genetics, but also the previous lack of standardized disease definitions. Importantly, apart from registry purposes, the clinical criteria are also helpful to support treatment decisions in the absence of a genetic diagnosis or in patients with variants of unknown significance.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(3): 848-855, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic variations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene cause a combined immunodeficiency with eczema, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and malignancy. Natural disease outcome is dismal, but allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of HSCT for DOCK8 deficiency and define possible outcome variables. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the results of HSCT in a large international cohort of DOCK8-deficient patients. RESULTS: We identified 81 patients from 22 centers transplanted at a median age of 9.7 years (range, 0.7-27.2 years) between 1995 and 2015. After median follow-up of 26 months (range, 3-135 months), 68 (84%) patients are alive. Severe acute (III-IV) or chronic graft versus host disease occurred in 11% and 10%, respectively. Causes of death were infections (n = 5), graft versus host disease (5), multiorgan failure (2), and preexistent lymphoma (1). Survival after matched related (n = 40) or unrelated (35) HSCT was 89% and 81%, respectively. Reduced-toxicity conditioning based on either treosulfan or reduced-dose busulfan resulted in superior survival compared with fully myeloablative busulfan-based regimens (97% vs 78%; P = .049). Ninety-six percent of patients younger than 8 years at HSCT survived, compared with 78% of those 8 years and older (P = .06). Of the 73 patients with chimerism data available, 65 (89%) had more than 90% donor T-cell chimerism at last follow-up. Not all disease manifestations responded equally well to HSCT: eczema, infections, and mollusca resolved quicker than food allergies or failure to thrive. CONCLUSIONS: HSCT is curative in most DOCK8-deficient patients, confirming this approach as the treatment of choice. HSCT using a reduced-toxicity regimen may offer the best chance for survival.

8.
Front Immunol ; 9: 446, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563914

RESUMO

Pathogenic gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) cause activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS), a disease characterized by humoral immunodeficiency, lymphadenopathy, and an inability to control persistent viral infections including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Understanding the mechanisms leading to impaired immune response is important to optimally treat APDS patients. Immunosenescence of CD8+ T cells was suggested to contribute to APDS pathogenesis. However, the constitutive activation of T cells in APDS may also result in T cell exhaustion. Therefore, we studied exhaustion of the CD8+ T cell compartment in APDS patients and compared them with healthy controls and HIV patients, as a control for exhaustion. The subset distribution of the T cell compartment of APDS patients was comparable with HIV patients with decreased naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and increased effector CD8+ T cells. Like in HIV+ patients, expression of activation markers and inhibitory receptors CD160, CD244, and programmed death receptor (PD)-1 on CD8+ T cells was increased in APDS patients, indicating exhaustion. EBV-specific CD8+ T cells from APDS patients exhibited an exhausted phenotype that resembled HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in terms of inhibitory receptor expression. Inhibition of PD-1 on EBV-specific CD8+ T cells from APDS patients enhanced in vitro proliferation and effector cytokine production. Based on these results, we conclude that total and EBV-specific CD8+ T cells from APDS patients are characterized by T cell exhaustion. Furthermore, PD-1 checkpoint inhibition may provide a possible therapeutic approach to support the immune system of APDS patients to control EBV and CMV.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Mutação/genética , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Senescência Celular , Criança , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Imunofenotipagem , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Viroses/genética , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(6): 1947-1955, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 1 (PSTPIP1) is a cytosolic adaptor protein involved with T-cell activation, differentiation, and migration. On cognate T-cell contact, PSTPIP1 is recruited to surface-expressed CD2, where it regulates F-actin remodeling. An immune synapse (IS) is thereby rapidly formed, consisting of T-cell receptor clusters surrounded by a ring of adhesion molecules, including CD2. OBJECTIVE: From genetic screening of patients with primary immunodeficiencies, we identified 2 mutations in PSTPIP1, R228C and T274M, which we further characterized in the primary patients' T cells. METHODS: F-actin dynamics were assessed in primary T cells from the patients and control subjects by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. HEK293T and Jurkat cells were transfected with R228C, T274M, and wild-type PSTPIP1 to visualize F-actin in IS formation. CD2-PSTPIP1 association was quantified through immunoprecipitation assays. RESULTS: The patients presented with immunodeficiency without signs of autoinflammation. The patient with the R228C mutation had expansion of mostly naive phenotype T cells and few memory T cells; the patient with the T274M mutation had 75% reduction in CD4 T cells that were predominantly of the memory subset. We observed F-actin polymerization defects in T cells from both patients with PSTPIP1, most notably the patient with the T274M mutation. Capping of CD2-containing membrane microdomains was disrupted. Analysis of IS formation using Jurkat T-cell transfectants revealed a reduction in F-actin accumulation at the IS, again especially in cells from the patient with the T274M PSTPIP1 mutation. T cells from the patient with the T274M mutation migrated spontaneously at increased speed, as assessed in a 3-dimensional collagen matrix, whereas T-cell receptor cross-linking induced a significantly diminished calcium flux. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that PSTPIP1 T-cell differentiation defects are caused by defective control of F-actin polymerization. A preactivated polymerized F-actin status, as seen in T cells from patients with the PSTPIP1 T274M mutation, appears particularly damaging. PSTPIP1 controls IS formation and cell adhesion through its function as an orchestrator of the F-actin cytoskeleton.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adesão Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Movimento Celular , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação , Linfócitos T/fisiologia
10.
Blood ; 130(24): 2682-2688, 2017 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974505

RESUMO

Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is caused by biallelic deleterious mutations in CECR1 DADA2 results in variable autoinflammation and vasculopathy (recurrent fevers, livedo reticularis, polyarteritis nodosa, lacunar ischemic strokes, and intracranial hemorrhages), immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure. Tumor necrosis factor-α blockade is the treatment of choice for the autoinflammation and vascular manifestations. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents a potential definitive treatment. We present a cohort of 14 patients from 6 countries who received HSCT for DADA2. Indication for HSCT was bone marrow dysfunction or immunodeficiency. Six of 14 patients had vasculitis pre-HSCT. The median age at HSCT was 7.5 years. Conditioning regimens were myeloablative (9) and reduced intensity (5). Donors were HLA-matched sibling (n = 1), HLA-matched unrelated (n = 9), HLA-mismatched unrelated (n = 3), and HLA haploidentical sibling (n = 1). All patients are alive and well with no new vascular events and resolution of hematological and immunological phenotype at a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 5 months to 13 years). Plasma ADA2 enzyme activity normalized in those tested post-HSCT (7/7), as early as day +14 (myeloid engraftment). Post-HSCT hematological autoimmunity (cytopenias) was reported in 4 patients, acute graft-versus-host disease grade 1 in 2, grade 2 in 3, and grade 3-4 in 1, and moderate chronic graft-versus-host disease in 1 patient. In conclusion, in 14 patients, HSCT was an effective and definitive treatment of DADA2.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Mutação , Adenosina Desaminase/sangue , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/enzimologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos
11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 6529, 2017 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28747804

RESUMO

A wide variety of microbial and inflammatory factors induce DNA release from neutrophils as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Consensus on the kinetics and mechanism of NET release has been hindered by the lack of distinctive methods to specifically quantify NET release in time. Here, we validate and refine a semi-automatic live imaging approach for quantification of NET release. Importantly, our approach is able to correct for neutrophil input and distinguishes NET release from neutrophil death by other means, aspects that are lacking in many NET quantification methods. Real time visualization shows that opsonized S. aureus rapidly induces cell death by toxins, while actual NET formation occurs after 90 minutes, similar to the kinetics of NET release by immune complexes and PMA. Inhibition of SYK, PI3K and mTORC2 attenuates NET release upon challenge with physiological stimuli but not with PMA. In contrast, neutrophils from chronic granulomatous disease patients show decreased NET release only in response to PMA. With this refined method, we conclude that NET release in primary human neutrophils is dependent on the SYK-PI3K-mTORC2 pathway and that PMA stimulation should be regarded as mechanistically distinct from NET formation induced by natural triggers.


Assuntos
Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Microscopia Intravital/métodos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Humanos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Biol Chem ; 292(19): 7904-7920, 2017 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28302725

RESUMO

Infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IO IBD) is an invalidating illness with an onset before 2 years of age and has a complex pathophysiology in which genetic factors are important. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in an IO IBD patient and subsequent sequencing of the candidate gene in 12 additional IO IBD patients revealed two patients with two mutated ankyrin repeat and zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (ANKZF1) alleles (homozygous ANKZF1 R585Q mutation and compound heterozygous ANKZF1 E152K and V32_Q87del mutations, respectively) and two patients with one mutated ANKZF1 allele. Although the function of ANKZF1 in mammals had not been previously evaluated, we show that ANKZF1 has an indispensable role in the mitochondrial response to cellular stress. ANKZF1 is located diffusely in the cytoplasm and translocates to the mitochondria upon cellular stress. ANKZF1 depletion reduces mitochondrial integrity and mitochondrial respiration under conditions of cellular stress. The ANKZF1 mutations identified in IO IBD patients with two mutated ANKZF1 alleles result in dysfunctional ANKZF1, as shown by an increased level of apoptosis in patients' lymphocytes, a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in patient fibroblasts with a homozygous ANKZF1 R585Q mutation, and an inability of ANKZF1 R585Q and E152K to rescue the phenotype of yeast deficient in Vms1, the yeast homologue of ANKZF1. These data indicate that loss-of-function mutations in ANKZF1 result in deregulation of mitochondrial integrity, and this may play a pathogenic role in the development of IO IBD.


Assuntos
Repetição de Anquirina/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Dedos de Zinco , Idade de Início , Alelos , Apoptose , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pré-Escolar , Exoma , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Genoma Humano , Células HEK293 , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Linfócitos/citologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Zinco/química
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1282-1292, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is a primary immunodeficiency with high morbidity and mortality compared with those seen in healthy subjects. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been considered a curative therapy, but the procedure has inherent complications and might not be available for all patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to collect data on the clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of a large sample of patients with XHIGM to (1) compare long-term overall survival and general well-being of patients treated with or without HCT along with clinical factors associated with mortality and (2) summarize clinical practice and risk factors in the subgroup of patients treated with HCT. METHODS: Physicians caring for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases were identified through the Jeffrey Modell Foundation, United States Immunodeficiency Network, Latin American Society for Immunodeficiency, and Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium. Data were collected with a Research Electronic Data Capture Web application. Survival from time of diagnosis or transplantation was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method compared with log-rank tests and modeled by using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Twenty-eight clinical sites provided data on 189 patients given a diagnosis of XHIGM between 1964 and 2013; 176 had valid follow-up and vital status information. Sixty-seven (38%) patients received HCT. The average follow-up time was 8.5 ± 7.2 years (range, 0.1-36.2 years). No difference in overall survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT (P = .671). However, risk associated with HCT decreased for diagnosis years 1987-1995; the hazard ratio was significantly less than 1 for diagnosis years 1995-1999. Liver disease was a significant predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence limits, 2.2-10.8; P < .001). Among survivors, those treated with HCT had higher median Karnofsky/Lansky scores than those treated without HCT (P < .001). Among patients receiving HCT, 27 (40%) had graft-versus-host disease, and most deaths occurred within 1 year of transplantation. CONCLUSION: No difference in survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT across all diagnosis years (1964-2013). However, survivors treated with HCT experienced somewhat greater well-being, and hazards associated with HCT decreased, reaching levels of significantly less risk in the late 1990s. Among patients treated with HCT, treatment at an early age is associated with improved survival. Optimism remains guarded as additional evidence accumulates.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Immunol ; 7: 587, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28018353

RESUMO

In order to combat chronic immune disorders (CIDs), it is an absolute necessity to understand the bigger picture, one that goes beyond insights at a one-disease, molecular, cellular, and static level. To unravel this bigger picture we advocate an integral, cross-disciplinary approach capable of embracing the complexity of the field. This paper discusses the current knowledge on common pathways in CIDs including general psychosocial and lifestyle factors associated with immune functioning. We demonstrate the lack of more in-depth psychosocial and lifestyle factors in current research cohorts and most importantly the need for an all-encompassing analysis of these factors. The second part of the paper discusses the challenges of understanding immune system dynamics and effectively integrating all key perspectives on immune functioning, including the patient's perspective itself. This paper suggests the use of techniques from complex systems science in describing and simulating healthy or deviating behavior of the immune system in its biopsychosocial surroundings. The patient's perspective data are suggested to be generated by using specific narrative techniques. We conclude that to gain more insight into the behavior of the whole system and to acquire new ways of combatting CIDs, we need to construct and apply new techniques in the field of computational and complexity science, to an even wider variety of dynamic data than used in today's systems medicine.

16.
J Clin Invest ; 126(8): 2881-92, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27427983

RESUMO

The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins supports mitotic proliferation, meiosis, and DNA repair to control genomic stability. Impairments in chromosome maintenance are linked to rare chromosome breakage disorders. Here, we have identified a chromosome breakage syndrome associated with severe lung disease in early childhood. Four children from two unrelated kindreds died of severe pulmonary disease during infancy following viral pneumonia with evidence of combined T and B cell immunodeficiency. Whole exome sequencing revealed biallelic missense mutations in the NSMCE3 (also known as NDNL2) gene, which encodes a subunit of the SMC5/6 complex that is essential for DNA damage response and chromosome segregation. The NSMCE3 mutations disrupted interactions within the SMC5/6 complex, leading to destabilization of the complex. Patient cells showed chromosome rearrangements, micronuclei, sensitivity to replication stress and DNA damage, and defective homologous recombination. This work associates missense mutations in NSMCE3 with an autosomal recessive chromosome breakage syndrome that leads to defective T and B cell function and acute respiratory distress syndrome in early childhood.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Quebra Cromossômica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Pneumopatias/genética , Alelos , Linfócitos B/citologia , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Replicação do DNA , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Meiose , Mitose , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Recombinação Genética , Síndrome , Linfócitos T/citologia
17.
Blood ; 127(25): 3154-64, 2016 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27114460

RESUMO

Since their discovery in patients with autosomal dominant (AD) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) in 2011, heterozygous STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have increasingly been identified worldwide. The clinical spectrum associated with them needed to be delineated. We enrolled 274 patients from 167 kindreds originating from 40 countries from 5 continents. Demographic data, clinical features, immunological parameters, treatment, and outcome were recorded. The median age of the 274 patients was 22 years (range, 1-71 years); 98% of them had CMC, with a median age at onset of 1 year (range, 0-24 years). Patients often displayed bacterial (74%) infections, mostly because of Staphylococcus aureus (36%), including the respiratory tract and the skin in 47% and 28% of patients, respectively, and viral (38%) infections, mostly because of Herpesviridae (83%) and affecting the skin in 32% of patients. Invasive fungal infections (10%), mostly caused by Candida spp. (29%), and mycobacterial disease (6%) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, environmental mycobacteria, or Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccines were less common. Many patients had autoimmune manifestations (37%), including hypothyroidism (22%), type 1 diabetes (4%), blood cytopenia (4%), and systemic lupus erythematosus (2%). Invasive infections (25%), cerebral aneurysms (6%), and cancers (6%) were the strongest predictors of poor outcome. CMC persisted in 39% of the 202 patients receiving prolonged antifungal treatment. Circulating interleukin-17A-producing T-cell count was low for most (82%) but not all of the patients tested. STAT1 GOF mutations underlie AD CMC, as well as an unexpectedly wide range of other clinical features, including not only a variety of infectious and autoimmune diseases, but also cerebral aneurysms and carcinomas that confer a poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 138(2): 544-550.e4, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27016798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have shown a pattern of rare copy number variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID), which was recognizable by a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. However, rare monogenic causes of CVID might lack such a genetic fingerprint. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify a unique monogenic cause of familial immunodeficiency and evaluate the use of SVM to identify patients with possible monogenic disorders. METHODS: A family with multiple members with a diagnosis of CVID was screened by using whole-exome sequencing. The proband and other subjects with mutations associated with CVID-like phenotypes were screened through the SVM algorithm from our recent CVID genome-wide association study. RT-PCR, protein immunoblots, and in vitro plasmablast differentiation assays were performed on patient and control EBV lymphoblastoids cell lines. RESULTS: Exome sequencing identified a novel heterozygous mutation in IRF2BP2 (c.1652G>A:p.[S551N]) in affected family members. Transduction of the mutant gene into control human B cells decreased production of plasmablasts in vitro, and IRF2BP2 transcripts and protein expression were increased in proband versus control EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines. The SVM algorithm categorized the proband and subjects with other immunodeficiency-associated gene variants in TACI, BAFFR, ICOS, CD21, LRBA, and CD27 as genetically dissimilar from polygenic CVID. CONCLUSION: A novel IRFBP2 mutation was identified in a family with autosomal dominant CVID. Transduction experiments suggest that the mutant protein has an effect on B-cell differentiation and is likely a monogenic cause of the family's CVID phenotype. Successful grouping by the SVM algorithm suggests that our family and other subjects with rare immunodeficiency disorders cluster separately and lack the genetic pattern present in polygenic CVID cases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Exoma , Família , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 55(5): 902-10, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26867732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the genotype-phenotype association in patients with adenosine deaminase-2 (ADA2) deficiency due to identical homozygous R169Q mutations inCECR1 METHODS: We present a case series of nine ADA2-deficient patients with an identical homozygous R169Q mutation. Clinical and diagnostic data were collected and available MRI studies were reviewed. We performed genealogy and haplotype analyses and measured serum ADA2 activity. ADA2 activity values were correlated to clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Age of presentation differed widely between the nine presented patients (range: 0 months to 8 years). The main clinical manifestations were (hepato)splenomegaly (8/9), skin involvement (8/9) and neurological involvement (8/9, of whom 6 encountered stroke). Considerable variation was seen in type, frequency and intensity of other symptoms, which included aplastic anaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and cutaneous ulcers. Common laboratory abnormalities included cytopenias and hypogammaglobulinaemia. ADA2 enzyme activity in patients was significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. ADA2 activity levels tended to be lower in patients with stroke compared with patients without stroke. Genealogical studies did not identify a common ancestor; however, based on allele frequency, a North-West European founder effect can be noted. Three patients underwent haematopoietic cell transplantation, after which ADA2 activity was restored and clinical symptoms resolved. CONCLUSION: This case series revealed large phenotypic variability in patients with ADA2 deficiency though they were homozygous for the same R169Q mutation inCECR1 Disease modifiers, including epigenetic and environmental factors, thus seem important in determining the phenotype. Furthermore, haematopoietic cell transplantation appears promising for those patients with a severe clinical phenotype.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/deficiência , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/deficiência , Mutação , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Adenosina Desaminase/sangue , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Haplótipos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Vaccine ; 33(46): 6320-6, 2015 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26413880

RESUMO

Paediatric patients with antibody deficiency may either be delayed in development of humoral immunity or may be persistently deficient in antibody production. To differentiate between these entities, we examined the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnPS) vaccine-induced IgM-, IgG- and IgA antibody responses in a cohort of 66 children with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Individual serum titres against 11 pneumococcal serotypes were measured by Luminex. The cohort contained 33 antibody deficiency patients, 17 transient antibody deficiency patients and 16 patients without antibody deficiency diagnosis (control group). Transient antibody deficiency patients produced consistently higher levels of PnPS-specific IgA responses than antibody deficiency patients. Decreased IgA responses to serotypes 1, 5, 7F and 18C were most discriminative to stratify transient antibody deficiency patients from antibody deficiency patients with persistent disease. We conclude that measuring PnPS-specific IgA responses may predict the disease course in young children diagnosed with antibody deficiency and suggest confirmation of these data in a prospective setting.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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