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2.
World Psychiatry ; 21(1): 88-95, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015365

RESUMO

Refugees are at high risk of developing mental disorders. There is no evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that psychological interventions can prevent the onset of mental disorders in this group. We assessed the effectiveness of a self-help psychological intervention developed by the World Health Organization, called Self-Help Plus, in preventing the development of mental disorders among Syrian refugees experiencing psychological distress in Turkey. A two-arm, assessor-masked RCT was conducted in two Turkish areas. Eligible participants were adult Syrian refugees experiencing psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire ≥3), but without a diagnosis of mental disorder. They were randomly assigned either to the Self-Help Plus arm (consisting of Self-Help Plus combined with Enhanced Care as Usual, ECAU) or to ECAU only in a 1:1 ratio. Self-Help Plus was delivered in a group format by two facilitators over five sessions. The primary outcome measure was the presence of any mental disorder assessed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at six-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were the presence of mental disorders at post-intervention, and psychological distress, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, personally identified psychological outcomes, functional impairment, subjective well-being, and quality of life at post-intervention and six-month follow-up. Between October 1, 2018 and November 30, 2019, 1,186 refugees were assessed for inclusion. Five hundred forty-four people were ineligible, and 642 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to either Self-Help Plus (N=322) or ECAU (N=320). Self-Help Plus participants were significantly less likely to have any mental disorders at six-month follow-up compared to the ECAU group (21.69% vs. 40.73%; Cramer's V = 0.205, p<0.001, risk ratio: 0.533, 95% CI: 0.408-0.696). Analysis of secondary outcomes suggested that Self-Help Plus was not effective immediately post-intervention, but was associated with beneficial effects at six-month follow-up in terms of symptoms of depression, personally identified psychological outcomes, and quality of life. This is the first prevention RCT ever conducted among refugees experiencing psychological distress but without a mental disorder. Self-Help Plus was found to be an effective strategy for preventing the onset of mental disorders. Based on these findings, this low-intensity self-help psychological intervention could be scaled up as a public health strategy to prevent mental disorders in refugee populations exposed to ongoing adversities.

3.
Psychother Psychosom ; 90(6): 403-414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350902

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Self-Help Plus (SH+) is a group-based psychological intervention developed by the World Health Organization for managing stress. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of SH+ in preventing mental disorders in refugees and asylum seekers in Western Europe. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 5 European countries. Refugees and asylum seekers with psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire score ≥3), but without a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) or ICD/10 diagnosis of mental disorder, as assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), were randomized to SH+ or enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU). The primary outcome was the frequency of mental disorders with the MINI at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included the frequency of mental disorders at postintervention, self-identified problems, psychological symptoms, and other outcomes. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-nine individuals were randomly assigned to SH+ or ETAU. For the primary outcome, we found no difference in the frequency of mental disorders at 6 months (Cramer V = 0.007, p = 0.90, RR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.52-1.78), while the difference significantly favored SH+ at after the intervention (secondary outcome, measured within 2 weeks from the last session; Cramer V = 0.13, p = 0.01, RR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.29-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomized indicated prevention study with the aim of preventing the onset of mental disorders in asylum seekers and refugees in Western Europe. As a prevention effect of SH+ was not observed at 6 months, but rather after the intervention only, modalities to maintain its beneficial effect in the long term need to be identified.

4.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1930690, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262667

RESUMO

Background: Refugees and asylum seekers face various stressors due to displacement and are especially vulnerable to common mental disorders. To effectively manage psychological distress in this population, innovative interventions are required. The World Health Organization (WHO) Self-Help Plus (SH+) intervention has shown promising outcomes in reducing symptoms of common mental disorders among refugees and asylum seekers. However, individual participant differences in response to SH+ remain largely unknown. The Individual Participant Data (IPD) meta-analysis synthesizes raw datasets of trials to provide cutting-edge evidence of outcomes that cannot be examined by conventional meta-analytic approaches. Objectives: This protocol outlines the methods of a series of IPD meta-analyses aimed at examining the effects and potential moderators of SH+ in (a) reducing depressive symptoms at post-intervention and (b) preventing the six-month cumulative incidence of mental disorders in refugees and asylum seekers. Method: RCTs on SH+ have been identified through WHO and all authors have agreed to share the datasets of the trials. The primary outcomes of the IPD meta-analyses are (a) reduction in depressive symptoms at post-intervention, and (b) prevention of six-month cumulative incidence of mental disorders. Secondary outcomes include post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, well-being, functioning, quality of life, and twelve-month cumulative incidence of mental disorders. One-stage IPD meta-analyses will be performed using mixed-effects linear/logistic regression. Missing data will be handled by multiple imputation. Conclusions: These results will enrich current knowledge about the response to SH+ and will facilitate its targeted dissemination. The results of these IPD meta-analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals.

5.
PLoS Med ; 18(6): e1003621, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, 235 million people are impacted by humanitarian emergencies worldwide, presenting increased risk of experiencing a mental disorder. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a brief group psychological treatment delivered by trained facilitators without prior professional mental health training in a disaster-prone setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) from November 25, 2018 through September 30, 2019. Participants in both arms were assessed at baseline, midline (7 weeks post-baseline, which was approximately 1 week after treatment in the experimental arm), and endline (20 weeks post-baseline, which was approximately 3 months posttreatment). The intervention was Group Problem Management Plus (PM+), a psychological treatment of 5 weekly sessions, which was compared with enhanced usual care (EUC) consisting of a family psychoeducation meeting with a referral option to primary care providers trained in mental healthcare. The setting was 72 wards (geographic unit of clustering) in eastern Nepal, with 1 PM+ group per ward in the treatment arm. Wards were eligible if they were in disaster-prone regions and residents spoke Nepali. Wards were assigned to study arms based on covariate constrained randomization. Eligible participants were adult women and men 18 years of age and older who met screening criteria for psychological distress and functional impairment. Outcomes were measured at the participant level, with assessors blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was psychological distress assessed with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, "heart-mind" problems, social support, somatic symptoms, and functional impairment. The hypothesized mediator was skill use aligned with the treatment's mechanisms of action. A total of 324 participants were enrolled in the control arm (36 wards) and 319 in the Group PM+ arm (36 wards). The overall sample (N = 611) had a median age of 45 years (range 18-91 years), 82% of participants were female, 50% had recently experienced a natural disaster, and 31% had a chronic physical illness. Endline assessments were completed by 302 participants in the control arm (36 wards) and 303 participants in the Group PM+ arm (36 wards). At the midline assessment (immediately after Group PM+ in the experimental arm), mean GHQ-12 total score was 2.7 units lower in Group PM+ compared to control (95% CI: 1.7, 3.7, p < 0.001), with standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.4 (95% CI: -0.5, -0.2). At 3 months posttreatment (primary endpoint), mean GHQ-12 total score was 1.4 units lower in Group PM+ compared to control (95% CI: 0.3, 2.5, p = 0.014), with SMD of -0.2 (95% CI: -0.4, 0.0). Among the secondary outcomes, Group PM+ was associated with endline with a larger proportion attaining more than 50% reduction in depression symptoms (29.9% of Group PM+ arm versus 17.3% of control arm, risk ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4, p = 0.002). Fewer participants in the Group PM+ arm continued to have "heart-mind" problems at endline (58.8%) compared to the control arm (69.4%), risk ratio = 0.8 (95% CI, 0.7, 1.0, p = 0.042). Group PM+ was not associated with lower PTSD symptoms or functional impairment. Use of psychosocial skills at midline was estimated to explain 31% of the PM+ effect on endline GHQ-12 scores. Adverse events in the control arm included 1 suicide death and 1 reportable incidence of domestic violence; in the Group PM+ arm, there was 1 death due to physical illness. Study limitations include lack of power to evaluate gender-specific effects, lack of long-term outcomes (e.g., 12 months posttreatment), and lack of cost-effectiveness information. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that a 5-session group psychological treatment delivered by nonspecialists modestly reduced psychological distress and depression symptoms in a setting prone to humanitarian emergencies. Benefits were partly explained by the degree of psychosocial skill use in daily life. To improve the treatment benefit, future implementation should focus on approaches to enhance skill use by PM+ participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03747055.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Saúde Mental , Desastres Naturais , Resolução de Problemas , Psicoterapia Breve , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Socorro em Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Internet Interv ; 24: 100380, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747798

RESUMO

Background: E-mental health interventions may help to bridge the mental health treatment gap. Evidence on their effectiveness is compelling in high-income countries. Not enough evidence has been generated on their use with communities affected by adversity in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO), the National Mental Health Programme (NMMP) at Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) in Lebanon and other partners have adapted a WHO intervention called Step-by-Step for use with Lebanese and displaced people living in Lebanon. Step-by-Step is a minimally guided, internet-based intervention for adults with depression. In this study, a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) and a qualitative process evaluation were conducted to explore the feasibility and the acceptability of the research methods, and the intervention, in preparation for two fully powered trials to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Step-by-Step in Lebanon. Method: Participants were recruited through social media. Inclusion criteria were: being able to understand and speak Arabic or English; access to an internet connected device; aged over 18; living in Lebanon; scores above cut-off on the Patient Health Questionnaire and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or enhanced care as usual. They completed post-assessments eight weeks after baseline, and follow-up assessments another three months later. Primary outcomes were depression and level of functioning, secondary outcomes were anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and well-being. Qualitative interviews were conducted to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the research procedures and the intervention. Results: A total of N = 138 participants, including 33 Syrians, were recruited and randomised into two equal groups. The dropout rate was higher in the control group (73% post- and 82% follow-up assessment) than in the intervention group (63% post- and 72% follow-up assessment). The intervention was perceived as relevant, acceptable and beneficial to those who completed it. Suggestions were made to further adapt the content and to make the intervention more engaging. Statistical analyses were conducted despite the small sample size. Complete cases analysis showed a statistically significant symptom reduction in depression, anxiety, disability, and post-traumatic stress, and statistically significant improvement in well-being and functioning. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed non-significant effects. Conclusion: The research design, methods and procedures are feasible and acceptable in the context of Lebanon and can be applied in the RCTs. Preliminary findings suggest that Step-by-Step may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and improving functioning and well-being.

7.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 15(1): 11, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many low resource settings, the provision of government mental health care services is limited to specialized psychiatry units in urban hospital care facilities, where the most common treatment for common mental disorders (CMDs) is pharmacotherapy, occasionally with adjunct nonspecific psychological support. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of adding a low intensity, psychological intervention, Problem Management Plus (PM+) for CMDs into routine care in a specialized mental health care facility in Pakistan. METHODS: A two arm, single-blind individual randomized controlled trial (RCT) was carried out with adults (N = 192), referred for psychological support by psychiatrists. The study participants were randomized (1:1) to PM + plus Treatment as Usual (TAU) (n = 96) or TAU only (n = 96). The primary outcomes were symptoms of anxiety and depression, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and functional impairment as measured by WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) at 20 weeks after baseline. RESULTS: The analysis was done on intention-to-treat principle. The linear mixed model analysis showed that at 20 weeks after baseline, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of anxiety and depression (mean [SD], 16.23 [8.81] vs 19.79 [7.77]; AMD, - 3.10; 95% CI, - 0.26 to - 5.76); p = 0.03 and improvement in functioning (mean [SD], 22.94 [9.37] vs 27.37 [8.36]; AMD, - 4.35; 95% CI, - 1.45 to - 7.24); p = 0.004 in PM + plus TAU versus TAU arm. The follow-up rate was 67% at primary end-point. CONCLUSIONS: Specialized care facilities in LMICs may consider adding brief, evidence-based psychological treatments for CMDs to their routine care. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616000381482. Registered March 23, 2016. Retrospectively registered, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Default.aspx/ ACTRN12616000381482.

8.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e21585, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of availability of evidence-based services for people exposed to adversity globally has led to the development of psychological interventions with features that will likely make them more scalable. The evidence for the efficacy of e-mental health from high-income countries is compelling, and the use of these interventions could be a way to increase the coverage of evidence-based psychological interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Step-by-Step is a brief (5-session) intervention proposed by the World Health Organization as an innovative approach to reducing the suffering and disability associated with depression. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a locally adapted version of Step-by-Step with Syrian nationals (trial 1) and Lebanese nationals and other populations residing in Lebanon (trial 2). METHODS: This Step-by-Step trial involves 2 parallel, two-armed, randomized controlled trials comparing the e-intervention Step-by-Step to enhanced care as usual in participants with depressive symptoms and impaired functioning. The randomized controlled trials are designed and powered to detect effectiveness in 2 populations: Syrians in Lebanon (n=568) and other people residing in Lebanon (n=568; Lebanese nationals and other populations resident in Lebanon). The primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and functioning (measured with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0). Secondary outcomes include anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, personalized measures of psychosocial problems, subjective well-being, and economic effectiveness. Participants are mainly recruited through online advertising. Additional outreach methods will be used if required, for example through dissemination of information through partner agencies and organizations. They can access the intervention on a computer, tablet, and mobile phone through a hybrid app. Step-by-Step has 5 sessions, and users are guided by trained nonspecialist "e-helpers" providing phone-based or message-based support for around 15 minutes a week. RESULTS: The trials were funded in 2018. The study protocol was last verified June 20, 2019 (WHO ERC.0002797) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03720769). The trials started recruitment as of December 9, 2019, and all data collection was completed in December 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The Step-by-Step trials will provide evidence about the effectiveness of an e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. If the intervention proves to be effective, this will inform future scale-up of this and similar interventions in Lebanon and in other settings across the world. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03720769; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03720769. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21585.

9.
Confl Health ; 14(1): 71, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292413

RESUMO

Major knowledge gaps remain concerning the most effective ways to address mental health and psychosocial needs of populations affected by humanitarian crises. The Research for Health in Humanitarian Crisis (R2HC) program aims to strengthen humanitarian health practice and policy through research. As a significant portion of R2HC's research has focused on mental health and psychosocial support interventions, the program has been interested in strengthening a community of practice in this field. Following a meeting between grantees, we set out to provide an overview of the R2HC portfolio, and draw lessons learned. In this paper, we discuss the mental health and psychosocial support-focused research projects funded by R2HC; review the implications of initial findings from this research portfolio; and highlight four remaining knowledge gaps in this field. Between 2014 and 2019, R2HC funded 18 academic-practitioner partnerships focused on mental health and psychosocial support, comprising 38% of the overall portfolio (18 of 48 projects) at a value of approximately 7.2 million GBP. All projects have focused on evaluating the impact of interventions. In line with consensus-based recommendations to consider a wide range of mental health and psychosocial needs in humanitarian settings, research projects have evaluated diverse interventions. Findings so far have both challenged and confirmed widely-held assumptions about the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial interventions in humanitarian settings. They point to the importance of building effective, sustained, and diverse partnerships between scholars, humanitarian practitioners, and funders, to ensure long-term program improvements and appropriate evidence-informed decision making. Further research needs to fill knowledge gaps regarding how to: scale-up interventions that have been found to be effective (e.g., questions related to integration across sectors, adaptation of interventions across different contexts, and optimal care systems); address neglected mental health conditions and populations (e.g., elderly, people with disabilities, sexual minorities, people with severe, pre-existing mental disorders); build on available local resources and supports (e.g., how to build on traditional, religious healing and community-wide social support practices); and ensure equity, quality, fidelity, and sustainability for interventions in real-world contexts (e.g., answering questions about how interventions from controlled studies can be transferred to more representative humanitarian contexts).

10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012417, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living in 'humanitarian settings' in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are exposed to a constellation of physical and psychological stressors that make them vulnerable to developing mental disorders. A range of psychological and social interventions have been implemented with the aim to prevent the onset of mental disorders and/or lower psychological distress in populations at risk, and it is not known whether interventions are effective. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and acceptability of psychological and social interventions versus control conditions (wait list, treatment as usual, attention placebo, psychological placebo, or no treatment) aimed at preventing the onset of non-psychotic mental disorders in people living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Review Group (CDAG) Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), PsycINFO (OVID), and ProQuest PILOTS database with results incorporated from searches to February 2020. We also searched the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify unpublished or ongoing studies. We checked the reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing psychological and social interventions versus control conditions to prevent the onset of mental disorders in adults and children living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. We excluded studies that enrolled participants based on a positive diagnosis of mental disorder (or based on a proxy of scoring above a cut-off score on a screening measure). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We calculated standardised mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous data, using a random-effects model. We analysed data at endpoint (zero to four weeks after therapy) and at medium term (one to four months after intervention). No data were available at long term (six months or longer). We used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: In the present review we included seven RCTs with a total of 2398 participants, coming from both children/adolescents (five RCTs), and adults (two RCTs). Together, the seven RCTs compared six different psychosocial interventions against a control comparator (waiting list in all studies). All the interventions were delivered by paraprofessionals and, with the exception of one study, delivered at a group level. None of the included studies provided data on the efficacy of interventions to prevent the onset of mental disorders (incidence). For the primary outcome of acceptability, there may be no evidence of a difference between psychological and social interventions and control at endpoint for children and adolescents (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.10; 5 studies, 1372 participants; low-quality evidence) or adults (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.50; 2 studies, 767 participants; very low quality evidence). No information on adverse events related to the interventions was available. For children's and adolescents' secondary outcomes of prevention interventions, there may be no evidence of a difference between psychological and social intervention groups and control groups for reducing PTSD symptoms (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.16, 95% CI -0.50 to 0.18; 3 studies, 590 participants; very low quality evidence), depressive symptoms (SMD -0.01, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.31; 4 RCTs, 746 participants; very low quality evidence) and anxiety symptoms (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.31; 3 studies, 632 participants; very low quality evidence) at study endpoint. In adults' secondary outcomes of prevention interventions, psychological counselling may be effective for reducing depressive symptoms (MD -7.50, 95% CI -9.19 to -5.81; 1 study, 258 participants; very low quality evidence) and anxiety symptoms (MD -6.10, 95% CI -7.57 to -4.63; 1 study, 258 participants; very low quality evidence) at endpoint. No data were available for PTSD symptoms in the adult population. Owing to the small number of RCTs included in the present review, it was not possible to carry out neither sensitivity nor subgroup analyses. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Of the seven prevention studies included in this review, none assessed whether prevention interventions reduced the incidence of mental disorders and there may be no evidence for any differences in acceptability. Additionally, for both child and adolescent populations and adult populations, a very small number of RCTs with low quality evidence on the review's secondary outcomes (changes in symptomatology at endpoint) did not suggest any beneficial effect for the studied prevention interventions. Confidence in the findings is hampered by the scarcity of prevention studies eligible for inclusion in the review, by risk of bias in the studies, and by substantial levels of heterogeneity. Moreover, it is possible that random error had a role in distorting results, and that a more thorough picture of the efficacy of prevention interventions will be provided by future studies. For this reason, prevention studies are urgently needed to assess the impact of interventions on the incidence of mental disorders in children and adults, with extended periods of follow-up.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia , Problemas Sociais/psicologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Viés , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera
11.
Br J Psychiatry ; 217(5): 623-629, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of evidence-based interventions for treatment of priority mental health conditions in humanitarian settings, it is important to establish the cost-effectiveness of such interventions to enable their scale-up. AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Problem Management Plus (PM+) intervention compared with enhanced usual care (EUC) for common mental disorders in primary healthcare in Peshawar, Pakistan. Trial registration ACTRN12614001235695 (anzctr.org.au). METHOD: We randomly allocated 346 participants to either PM+ (n = 172) or EUC (n = 174). Effectiveness was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at 3 months post-intervention. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed as incremental costs (measured in Pakistani rupees, PKR) per unit change in anxiety, depression and functioning scores. RESULTS: The total cost of delivering PM+ per participant was estimated at PKR 16 967 (US$163.14) using an international trainer and supervisor, and PKR 3645 (US$35.04) employing a local trainer. The mean cost per unit score improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms on the HADS was PKR 2957 (95% CI 2262-4029) (US$28) with an international trainer/supervisor and PKR 588 (95% CI 434-820) (US$6) with a local trainer/supervisor. The mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) to successfully treat a case of depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) using an international supervisor was PKR 53 770 (95% CI 39 394-77 399) (US$517), compared with PKR 10 705 (95% CI 7731-15 627) (US$102.93) using a local supervisor. CONCLUSIONS: The PM+ intervention was more effective but also more costly than EUC in reducing symptoms of anxiety, depression and improving functioning in adults impaired by psychological distress in a post-conflict setting of Pakistan.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/economia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Depressão/economia , Depressão/terapia , Organização Mundial da Saúde/economia , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Adulto , Ansiedade/economia , Ansiedade/terapia , Humanos , Paquistão , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
World Psychiatry ; 19(2): 251-252, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394577
14.
Trials ; 21(1): 343, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the lack of availability of psychological services for people exposed to adversities has led to the development of a range of scalable psychological interventions with features that enable better scale-up. Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief intervention of five sessions that can be delivered by non-specialists. It is designed for people in communities in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) affected by any kind of adversity. Two recent randomized controlled trials in Pakistan and Kenya demonstrated the effectiveness of individually delivered PM+. A group version of PM+ has been developed to make the intervention more scalable and acceptable. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial (c-RCT) on locally adapted Group PM+ in Nepal. METHODS/DESIGN: This c-RCT will compare Group PM+ to enhanced usual care (EUC) in participants with high levels of psychological distress recruited from the community. The study is designed as a two-arm, single-blind c-RCT that will be conducted in a community-based setting in Morang, a flood affected district in Eastern Nepal. Randomization will occur at ward level, the smallest administrative level in Nepal, with 72 enrolled wards allocated to Group PM+ or to EUC (ratio 1:1). Group PM+ consists of five approximately 2.5-h sessions, in which participants are taught techniques to manage their stressors and problems, and is delivered by trained and supervised community psychosocial workers (CPSWs). EUC consists of a family meeting with (a) basic information on adversity and mental health, (b) benefits of getting support, (c) information on seeking services from local health facilities with mhGAP-trained staff. The primary outcome measure is levels of individual psychological distress at endline (equivalent to 20 ± 1 weeks after baseline), measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Secondary outcome measures include levels of functioning, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, levels of social support, somatic symptoms, and ways of coping. We hypothesize that skills acquired will mediate any impact of the intervention. DISCUSSION: This c-RCT will contribute to the growing evidence-base for transdiagnostic psychological interventions delivered by non-specialists for people in communities affected by adversity. If Group PM+ is proven effective, the intervention manual will be released for use, giving the opportunity for further adaptation and implementation of the intervention in diverse settings with communities that require better access to psychological interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03747055.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Intervenção na Crise/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Inundações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise por Conglomerados , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(2): e254-e263, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovative solutions are required to provide mental health support at scale in low-resource humanitarian contexts. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a facilitator-guided, group-based, self-help intervention (Self-Help Plus) to reduce psychological distress in female refugees. METHODS: We did a cluster randomised trial in rural refugee settlements in northern Uganda. Participants were female South Sudanese refugees with at least moderate levels of psychological distress (cutoff ≥5 on the Kessler 6). The intervention comprised access to usual care and five 2-h audio-recorded stress-management workshops (20-30 refugees) led by briefly trained lay facilitators, accompanied by an illustrated self-help book. Villages were randomly assigned to either intervention (Self-Help Plus or enhanced usual care) on a 1:1 basis. Within 14 villages, randomly selected households were approached. Screening of women in households continued until 20-30 eligible participants were identified per site. The primary outcome was individual psychological distress, assessed using the Kessler 6 symptom checklist 1 week before, 1 week after, and 3 months after intervention, in the intention-to-treat population. All outcomes were measured at the individual (rather than cluster) level. Secondary outcomes included personally identified problems, post-traumatic stress, depression symptoms, feelings of anger, social interactions with other ethnic groups, functional impairment, and subjective wellbeing. Assessors were masked to allocation. This trial was prospectively registered at ISRCTN, number 50148022. FINDINGS: Of 694 eligible participants (331 Self-Help Plus, 363 enhanced usual care), 613 (88%) completed all assessments. Compared with controls, we found stronger improvements for Self-Help Plus on psychological distress 3 months post intervention (ß -1·20, 95% CI -2·33 to -0·08; p=0·04; d -0·26). We also found larger improvements for Self-Help Plus 3 months post-intervention for five of eight secondary outcomes (effect size range -0·30 to -0·36). Refugees with different trauma exposure, length of time in settlements, and initial psychological distress benefited similarly. With regard to safety considerations, the independent data safety management board responded to six adverse events, and none were evaluated to be concerns in response to the intervention. INTERPRETATION: Self-Help Plus is an innovative, facilitator-guided, group-based self-help intervention that can be rapidly deployed to large numbers of participants, and resulted in meaningful reductions in psychological distress at 3 months among South Sudanese female refugees. FUNDING: Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) Programme.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Refugiados/psicologia , Autocuidado/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
17.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 57(1): 108-123, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237805

RESUMO

Health care should be informed by the physical, socioeconomic, mental, and emotional well-being of the person, and account for social circumstances and culture. Patient-generated outcome measures can contribute positively to mental health research in culturally diverse populations. In this study, we analysed qualitative responses to the Psychological Outcome Profiles (PSYCHLOPS) Questionnaire-a patient-generated outcome measure based on open-ended questions, and compared the qualitative responses gathered to conventional, nomothetic measures used alongside the PSYCHLOPS in two studies. Data were collected as part of outcome research on a psychological intervention in Pakistan (N = 346) and Kenya (N = 521). Two researchers coded the qualitative responses to the PSYCHLOPS and identified overarching themes. We compared the overarching themes identified to the items in the conventional, nomothetic outcome measures to investigate conceptual equivalence. Using the PSYCHLOPS, the most frequently reported problems in Kenya were financial constraints, poor health, and unemployment. In Pakistan, the most frequent problems were poor health and emotional problems. Most of the person-generated problem concepts were covered also in nomothetic measures that were part of the same study. However, there was no item equivalence in the nomothetic measures for the most frequent PSYCHLOPS problem cited in both countries. Response bias and measurement bias may not be excluded. More research on the use of PSYCHLOPS alongside conventional outcome measures is needed to further explore the extent to which it may bring added value. Use of a PSYCHLOPS semistructured interview schedule and efforts to minimise response biases should be considered.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(3): 3873-3885, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880425

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS2 are promising materials for nanoelectronic applications. However, growth of the desired horizontal basal-plane oriented 2D TMD layers is often accompanied by the growth of vertical nanostructures that can hinder charge transport and, consequently, hamper device application. In this work, we discuss both the formation and suppression of vertical nanostructures during plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of WS2. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy studies, formation pathways of vertical nanostructures are established for a two-step (AB-type) PEALD process. Grain boundaries are identified as the principal formation centers of vertical nanostructures. Based on the obtained insights, we introduce an approach to suppress the growth of vertical nanostructures, wherein an additional step (C)-a chemically inert Ar plasma or a reactive H2 plasma-is added to the original two-step (AB-type) PEALD process. This approach reduces the vertical nanostructure density by 80%. It was confirmed that suppression of vertical nanostructures goes hand in hand with grain size enhancement. The vertical nanostructure density reduction consequently lowers film resistivity by an order of magnitude. Insights obtained in this work can contribute toward devising additional pathways, besides plasma treatments, for suppressing the growth of vertical nanostructures and improving the material properties of 2D TMDs that are relevant for nanoelectronic device applications.

19.
Lancet ; 394(10216): 2238, 2019 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868624

Assuntos
Saúde Mental
20.
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