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1.
Eur J Radiol ; 139: 109686, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819803

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To validate a candidate instrument, to be used by different professionals to assess image quality in digital mammography (DM), against detection performance results. METHODS: A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) study was conducted to assess the detection performance in DM images with four different image quality levels due to different quality issues. Fourteen expert breast radiologists from five countries assessed a set of 80 DM cases, containing 60 lesions (40 cancers, 20 benign findings) and 20 normal cases. A visual grading analysis (VGA) study using a previously-described candidate instrument was conducted to evaluate a subset of 25 of the images used in the ROC study. Eight radiologists that had participated in the ROC study, and seven expert breast-imaging physicists, evaluated this subset. The VGA score (VGAS) and the ROC and visual grading characteristics (VGC) areas under the curve (AUCROC and AUCVGC) were compared. RESULTS: No large differences in image quality among the four levels were detected by either ROC or VGA studies. However, the ranking of the four levels was consistent: level 1 (partial AUCROC: 0.070, VGAS: 6.77) performed better than levels 2 (0.066, 6.15), 3 (0.061, 5.82), and 4 (0.062, 5.37). Similarity between radiologists' and physicists' assessments was found (average VGAS difference of 10 %). CONCLUSIONS: The results from the candidate instrument were found to correlate with those from ROC analysis, when used by either observer group. Therefore, it may be used by different professionals, such as radiologists, radiographers, and physicists, to assess clinically-relevant image quality variations in DM.

2.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558657

RESUMO

Multigene signatures (MGS) are used to guide adjuvant chemotherapy (aCT) decisions in patients diagnosed with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive HER2-negative early breast cancer. We used results from three MGS (Oncotype DX® (ODX), MammaPrint® (MP) or Prosigna®) and assessed the concordance between high or low risk of recurrence and the predicted risk of recurrence based on statistical models. In addition, we looked at the impact of MGS results on final aCT administration during the multidisciplinary meeting (MDM). We retrospectively included 129 patients with ER-positive HER2-negative early breast cancer for which MGS testing was performed after MDM at University Hospitals Leuven between May 2013 and April 2019 in case there was doubt about aCT recommendation. Tumor tissue was analyzed either by ODX (N = 44), MP (N = 28), or Prosigna® (N = 57). Eight statistical models were computed: Magee equations (ME), Memorial Sloan Kettering simplified risk score (MSK-SRS), Breast Cancer Recurrence Score Estimator (BCRSE), OncotypeDXCalculator (ODXC), new Adjuvant! Online (nAOL), Mymammaprint.com (MyMP), PREDICT, and SiNK. Concordance, negative percent agreement, and positive percent agreement were calculated. Of 129 cases, 53% were MGS low and 47% MGS high risk. Concordances of 100.0% were observed between risk results obtained by ODX and ME. For MP, BCRSE demonstrated the best concordance, and for Prosigna® the average of ME. Concordances of <50.0% were observed between risk results obtained by ODX and nAOL, ODX and MyMP, ODX and SiNK, MP and MSK-SRS, MP and nAOL, MP and MyMP, MP and SiNK, and Prosigna® and ODXC. Integration of MGS results during MDM resulted in change of aCT recommendation in 47% of patients and a 15% relative and 9% absolute reduction. In conclusion, statistical models, especially ME and BCRSE, can be useful in selecting ER-positive HER2-negative early breast cancer patients who may need MGS testing resulting in enhanced cost-effectiveness and reduced delay in therapeutic decision-making.

3.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study how radiologists' perceived ability to interpret digital mammography (DM) images is affected by decreases in image quality. METHODS: One view from 45 DM cases (including 30 cancers) was degraded to six levels each of two acquisition-related issues (lower spatial resolution and increased quantum noise) and three post-processing-related issues (lower and higher contrast and increased correlated noise) seen during clinical evaluation of DM systems. The images were shown to fifteen breast screening radiologists from five countries. Aware of lesion location, the radiologists selected the most-degraded mammogram (indexed from 1 (reference) to 7 (most degraded)) they still felt was acceptable for interpretation. The median selected index, per degradation type, was calculated separately for calcification and soft tissue (including normal) cases. Using the two-sided, non-parametric Mann-Whitney test, the median indices for each case and degradation type were compared. RESULTS: Radiologists were not tolerant to increases (medians: 1.5 (calcifications) and 2 (soft tissue)) or decreases (median: 2, for both types) in contrast, but were more tolerant to correlated noise (median: 3, for both types). Increases in quantum noise were tolerated more for calcifications than for soft tissue cases (medians: 3 vs. 4, p = 0.02). Spatial resolution losses were considered less acceptable for calcification detection than for soft tissue cases (medians: 3.5 vs. 5, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived ability of radiologists for image interpretation in DM was affected not only by image acquisition-related issues but also by image post-processing issues, and some of those issues affected calcification cases more than soft tissue cases. KEY POINTS: • Lower spatial resolution and increased quantum noise affected the radiologists' perceived ability to interpret calcification cases more than soft tissue lesion or normal cases. • Post-acquisition image processing-related effects, not only image acquisition-related effects, also impact the perceived ability of radiologists to interpret images and detect lesions. • In addition to current practices, post-acquisition image processing-related effects need to also be considered during the testing and evaluation of digital mammography systems.

4.
Eur J Radiol ; 134: 109464, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307458

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a candidate instrument to assess image quality in digital mammography, by identifying clinically relevant features in images that are affected by lower image quality. METHODS: Interviews with fifteen expert breast radiologists from five countries were conducted and analysed by using adapted directed content analysis. During these interviews, 45 mammographic cases, containing 44 lesions (30 cancers, 14 benign findings), and 5 normal cases, were shown with varying image quality. The interviews were performed to identify the structures from breast tissue and lesions relevant for image interpretation, and to investigate how image quality affected the visibility of those structures. The interview findings were used to develop tentative items, which were evaluated in terms of wording, understandability, and ambiguity with expert breast radiologists. The relevance of the tentative items was evaluated using the content validity index (CVI) and modified kappa index (k*). RESULTS: Twelve content areas, representing the content of image quality in digital mammography, emerged from the interviews and were converted into 29 tentative items. Fourteen of these items demonstrated excellent CVI ≥ 0.78 (k* > 0.74), one showed good CVI < 0.78 (0.60 ≤ k* ≤ 0.74), while fourteen were of fair or poor CVI < 0.78 (k* ≤ 0.59). In total, nine items were deleted and five were revised or combined resulting in 18 items. CONCLUSIONS: By following a mixed-method methodology, a candidate instrument was developed that may be used to characterise the clinically-relevant impact that image quality variations can have on digital mammography.

5.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 184(3): 985-998, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920743

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We studied the long-term outcomes of invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPCs) of the breast in relation to stromal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs), prognostic biomarkers and clinicopathological features. METHODS: Stage I-III IMPCs treated with upfront surgery at our institution (January 2000 and December 2016) were included. Central pathology review was performed and sTILs (including zonal distribution and hot spot analysis) and tumor-associated plasma cells (TAPC) were evaluated. Expression of P53, BCL2, FOXP3, and WT1, which are variably linked to breast cancer prognosis, was measured by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. Time-to-event endpoints were distant recurrence free interval (DRFI) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). RESULTS: We included 111 patients of whom 59% were pure IMPCs. Standard clinicopathological features were comparable between pure and non-pure IMPCs. Overall, the mean sTILs level was 20% with higher proportion of sTILs present at the invasive front. There were no significant differences between pure- and non-pure IMPCs in sTILs levels, nor in the spatial distribution of the hot spot regions or in the distribution of TAPC. Higher sTILs correlated with worse DRFI (HR = 1.55; p = 0.0172) and BCSS (HR = 2.10; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicopathological features, geographical distribution of sTILs and TAPC are similar between pure and non-pure IMPCs. Despite a high proportion of grade 3 tumors and lymph node involvement, we observed a low rate of distant recurrences and breast cancer-related death in this cohort of stage I-III IMPCs treated with primary surgery. Caution in interpretation of the observed prognostic correlations is required given the very low number of events, warranting validation in other cohorts.

6.
J Oncol ; 2020: 9873954, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655641

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic alterations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes 1 (BRCA1) and 2 (BRCA2) are the most prevalent causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. The increasing trend in proportion of cancer patients undergoing genetic testing, followed by predictive testing in families of new index patients, results in a significant increase of healthy germline BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who are at increased risk for breast, ovarian, and other BRCA-related cancers. This review aims to give an overview of available screening guidelines for female and male carriers of pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline BRCA1/2 variants per cancer type, incorporating malignancies that are more or less recently well correlated with BRCA1/2. We selected guidelines from national/international organizations and/or professional associations that were published or updated between January 1, 2015, and February 1, 2020. In total, 12 guidelines were included. This review reveals several significant discordances between the different guidelines. Optimal surveillance strategies depend on accurate age-specific cancer risk estimates, which are not reliably available for all BRCA-related cancers. Up-to-date national or international consensus guidelines are of utmost importance to harmonize counseling and proposed surveillance strategies for BRCA1/2 carriers.

7.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 144, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for contralateral breast cancer (CBC), with the consequent burden of further treatment and potentially less favorable prognosis. We aimed to develop and validate a CBC risk prediction model and evaluate its applicability for clinical decision-making. METHODS: We included data of 132,756 invasive non-metastatic breast cancer patients from 20 studies with 4682 CBC events and a median follow-up of 8.8 years. We developed a multivariable Fine and Gray prediction model (PredictCBC-1A) including patient, primary tumor, and treatment characteristics and BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, accounting for the competing risks of death and distant metastasis. We also developed a model without BRCA1/2 mutation status (PredictCBC-1B) since this information was available for only 6% of patients and is routinely unavailable in the general breast cancer population. Prediction performance was evaluated using calibration and discrimination, calculated by a time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary breast cancer, and an internal-external cross-validation procedure. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the net benefit of the model to quantify clinical utility. RESULTS: In the multivariable model, BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, family history, and systemic adjuvant treatment showed the strongest associations with CBC risk. The AUC of PredictCBC-1A was 0.63 (95% prediction interval (PI) at 5 years, 0.52-0.74; at 10 years, 0.53-0.72). Calibration-in-the-large was -0.13 (95% PI: -1.62-1.37), and the calibration slope was 0.90 (95% PI: 0.73-1.08). The AUC of Predict-1B at 10 years was 0.59 (95% PI: 0.52-0.66); calibration was slightly lower. Decision curve analysis for preventive contralateral mastectomy showed potential clinical utility of PredictCBC-1A between thresholds of 4-10% 10-year CBC risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a reasonably calibrated model to predict the risk of CBC in women of European-descent; however, prediction accuracy was moderate. Our model shows potential for improved risk counseling, but decision-making regarding contralateral preventive mastectomy, especially in the general breast cancer population where limited information of the mutation status in BRCA1/2 is available, remains challenging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/prevenção & controle , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 45(4): 550-559, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast constitutes a heterogeneous group of non-obligate precursors for invasive breast cancer. To date, adequate risk stratification is lacking, which is presumed to result in overtreatment. We previously identified myxoid stromal architecture as a potential prognosticator for loco-regional recurrence. In the present study, we investigated the prognostic potential of stromal characteristics. METHODS: Hematoxylin and eosin stained slides from 211 DCIS patients were reviewed. The following histological features were dichotomously assessed: nuclear grade, DCIS architecture, presence of necrosis, intraductal calcifications, stromal inflammation and myxoid stromal architecture. Loco-regional recurrences constituted the primary endpoint. RESULTS: Cox regression analysis showed that high nuclear grade, myxoid stromal architecture and moderate to extensive stromal inflammation were significantly associated with decreased recurrence-free survival, independent of radiotherapy. Based on these features, a combined risk score (CRS) was calculated, ranging from zero to three. A high CRS of three was associated with significantly shorter recurrence-free survival. Nineteen patients had a CRS of three, of which three relapsed (15.7%), whereas only one out of 113 patients with a CRS of zero relapsed (0.9%). CONCLUSIONS: We were able to validate our previously reported findings regarding the prognostic potential of myxoid periductal stroma in an independent DCIS patient cohort. A CRS based on nuclear grade, myxoid stromal architecture and stromal inflammation might facilitate discrimination of low risk from high risk patients. Consequently, the CRS may tailor adjuvant therapy. Future research should investigate whether radiotherapy can be safely omitted in patients with a low CRS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Calcinose/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/radioterapia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Mastectomia Segmentar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
9.
Insights Imaging ; 9(6): 961-970, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The article summarises the available guidelines on breast imaging surveillance after curative treatment for locoregional breast cancer. METHODS: A systematic review of practice guidelines published from 1 January 2007 to 1 January 2017 was performed according to PRISMA methodology. The search was conducted for the EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases. On 8 July 2018, all included guidelines were updated to the most recent version. RESULTS: Twenty-one guidelines originating from 18 publishing bodies matched criteria. Publishing bodies consisted of seven governmental institutions, nine medical societies and two mixed collaborations. Publishing boards consisted of six radiological, four oncological, and 11 multidisciplinary teams. Annual bilateral mammography surveillance after breast-conserving therapy was recommended by 17/18 (94.4%) publishing bodies. Annual contralateral mammography surveillance after mastectomy was recommended by 13/18 (72.2%) publishing bodies. Routine use of digital breast tomosynthesis was recommended by 1/18 (5.6%) publishing bodies. Routine breast ultrasound surveillance was recommended by 2/18 (11.1%), deemed optional by 4/18 (22.2%) and not supported by 8/18 (44.4%) publishing bodies. Routine breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) surveillance was not recommended by 16/18 (88.9%) publishing bodies, although 6/18 (33.3%) specified subgroups for systematic MRI surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Annual mammography is currently the 'gold standard' for breast imaging surveillance. The role of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) remains to be further investigated. Most guidelines do not recommend routine breast ultrasound or MRI surveillance, unless indicated by additional risk factors.

10.
Eur Radiol ; 27(9): 3810-3819, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. RESULTS: Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. CONCLUSIONS: DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. KEY POINTS: • Interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. • Cancer detection rate in high-density breasts is superior in DR. • IC rate exceeds CDR for SF and CR in high-density breasts. • DR performs better in high-density breasts for third readings and false-positives.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mamografia/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Idoso , Bélgica , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Mamografia/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 26(5): 396-403, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749382

RESUMO

A small number of studies have investigated breast cancer (BC) risk among women with a history of false-positive recall (FPR) in BC screening, but none of them has used time-to-event analysis while at the same time quantifying the effect of false-negative diagnostic assessment (FNDA). FNDA occurs when screening detects BC, but this BC is missed on diagnostic assessment (DA). As a result of FNDA, screenings that detected cancer are incorrectly classified as FPR. Our study linked data recorded in the Flemish BC screening program (women aged 50-69 years) to data from the national cancer registry. We used Cox proportional hazards models on a retrospective cohort of 298 738 women to assess the association between FPR and subsequent BC, while adjusting for potential confounders. The mean follow-up was 6.9 years. Compared with women without recall, women with a history of FPR were at an increased risk of developing BC [hazard ratio=2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.92-2.31)]. However, 22% of BC after FPR was due to FNDA. The hazard ratio dropped to 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.52-1.87) when FNDA was excluded. Women with FPR have a subsequently increased BC risk compared with women without recall. The risk is higher for women who have a FPR BI-RADS 4 or 5 compared with FPR BI-RADS 3. There is room for improvement of diagnostic assessment: 41% of the excess risk is explained by FNDA after baseline screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/efeitos adversos , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mamografia/efeitos adversos , Programas de Rastreamento/efeitos adversos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Med Phys ; 43(9): 5104, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27587041

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this work was twofold: (1) to examine whether, with standard automatic exposure control (AEC) settings that maintain pixel values in the detector constant, lesion detectability in clinical images decreases as a function of breast thickness and (2) to verify whether a new AEC setup can increase lesion detectability at larger breast thicknesses. METHODS: Screening patient images, acquired on two identical digital mammography systems, were collected over a period of 2 yr. Mammograms were acquired under standard AEC conditions (part 1) and subsequently with a new AEC setup (part 2), programmed to use the standard AEC settings for compressed breast thicknesses ≤49 mm, while a relative dose increase was applied above this thickness. The images were divided into four thickness groups: T1 ≤ 29 mm, T2 = 30-49 mm, T3 = 50-69 mm, and T4 ≥ 70 mm, with each thickness group containing 130 randomly selected craniocaudal lesion-free images. Two measures of density were obtained for every image: a BI-RADS score and a map of volumetric breast density created with a software application (VolparaDensity, Matakina, NZ). This information was used to select subsets of four images, containing one image from each thickness group, matched to a (global) BI-RADS score and containing a region with the same (local) volpara volumetric density value. One selected lesion (a microcalcification cluster or a mass) was simulated into each of the four images. This process was repeated so that, for a given thickness group, half the images contained a single lesion and half were lesion-free. The lesion templates created and inserted in groups T3 and T4 for the first part of the study were then inserted into the images of thickness groups T3 and T4 acquired with higher dose settings. Finally, all images were visualized using the ViewDEX software and scored by four radiologists performing a free search study. A statistical jackknife-alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis was applied. RESULTS: For part 1, the alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic curves for the four readers were 0.80, 0.65, 0.55 and 0.56 in going from T1 to T4, indicating a decrease in detectability with increasing breast thickness. P-values and the 95% confidence interval showed no significant difference for the T3-T4 comparison (p = 0.78) while all the other differences were significant (p < 0.05). Separate analysis of microcalcification clusters presented the same results while for mass detection, the only significant difference came when comparing T1 to the other thickness groups. Comparing the scores of part 1 and part 2, results for the T3 group acquired with the new AEC setup and T3 group at standard AEC doses were significantly different (p = 0.0004), indicating improved detection. For this group a subanalysis for microcalcification detection gave the same results while no significant difference was found for mass detection. CONCLUSIONS: These data using clinical images confirm results found in simple QA tests for many mammography systems that detectability falls as breast thickness increases. Results obtained with the AEC setup for constant detectability above 49 mm showed an increase in lesion detection with compressed breast thickness, bringing detectability of lesions to the same level.


Assuntos
Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Mamografia/métodos , Curva ROC , Doses de Radiação , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/patologia , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas
13.
Phys Med ; 32(2): 312-22, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26803225

RESUMO

A retrofit flat panel detector was integrated with a GE DMR+ analog mammography system and characterized using detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Technical system performance was evaluated using the European Guidelines protocol, followed by a limited evaluation of clinical image quality for 20 cases using image quality criteria in the European Guidelines. Optimal anode/filter selections were established using signal difference-to-noise ratio measurements. Only small differences in peak DQE were seen between the three anode/filter settings, with an average value of 0.53. For poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses above 60 mm, the Rh/Rh setting was the optimal anode/filter setting. The system required a mean glandular dose of 0.54 mGy at 30 kV Rh/Rh to reach the Acceptable gold thickness limit for 0.1 mm details. Imaging performance of the retrofit unit with the GE DMR+ is notably better than of powder based computed radiography systems and is comparable to current flat panel FFDM systems.


Assuntos
Mamografia/instrumentação , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/instrumentação , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
14.
J Belg Soc Radiol ; 100(1): 107, 2016 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038990

RESUMO

November 8, 2016, is the International Day of Radiology (IDoR), which is dedicated to breast imaging and the essential role that radiology plays in the detection, diagnosis, and management of diseases of the breast (http://www.internationaldayofradiology.com). On the website, you can find the book to honour the International Day of Radiology, Screening & Beyond, which provides an amazing overview of breast imaging, with contributions from many of the world's top breast radiologists.

15.
Breast ; 24(5): 642-8, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26279132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Compared to European women, breast cancers in African women present at a younger age, with a higher tumor grade and are more often estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) negative. We here investigate the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics (ER, PR and human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2)) and the proportion of triple negative (Tneg) invasive breast cancers from an unselected series of patients diagnosed in Kinshasa, and compare them to a population of Caucasian women with a palpable breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 till 2013, during the first breast cancer awareness campaign, organized in Kinshasa, 87 patients were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Diagnose was based on core biopsy. The control group consisted of Caucasian women (University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgium) with a palpable mass, diagnosed between 2000 till 2009, treated with surgery of which the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics were collected on excision specimens. Each patient in the Kinshasa group was matched based on age and tumor size to one or more patients of the Leuven database. Differences between both groups with respect to hormone receptors (ER, PR, HER2, Tneg) or grade are presented as relative risks (RR). The analysis is based on a log-binomial model accounting for clustering through matching by a random intercept for cluster. Differences between both groups with respect to hormone receptors correcting for grade is performed by the inclusion of grade as a covariate in the model. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, tumor volume and tumor grade, ER was more frequently negative (RR = 0.71, p < 0.001), with a trend in the same direction for PR (RR = 0.87, p = 0.057), and HER2 more often positive (RR = 1.60, p = 0.015) compared to the group from the University Hospitals of Leuven. There was no difference in the proportion of breast cancers being triple negative. Sub-analysis showed that the higher HER2 positive rate was only observed in older patients (≥50y: RR = 2.07, p = 0.007) whereas no difference in HER2 positive rate was found in younger patients (<50y: RR = 1.30, p = 0.358). A higher ER negative rate was observed in both age groups, however more pronounced in older patients (≥50y: RR = 0.64, p = 0.001; <50y: RR = 0.79, p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Breast cancer in women of Kinshasa presents at younger age and is more aggressive (more frequently ER negative and HER2 positive) compared to Caucasian women and this is more pronounced in older women (>50y). Only the ER results were concordant with the results of two similar studies (comparing an African with a European group), but were different when compared to studies on African-American women with breast cancer. This information is very important considering the treatment option: as more tumors are ER negative, endocrine therapy cannot be given while chemotherapy is often too expensive.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Receptor ErbB-2/análise , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , República Democrática do Congo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/etnologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(5)2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25855707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data for multiple common susceptibility alleles for breast cancer may be combined to identify women at different levels of breast cancer risk. Such stratification could guide preventive and screening strategies. However, empirical evidence for genetic risk stratification is lacking. METHODS: We investigated the value of using 77 breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for risk stratification, in a study of 33 673 breast cancer cases and 33 381 control women of European origin. We tested all possible pair-wise multiplicative interactions and constructed a 77-SNP polygenic risk score (PRS) for breast cancer overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Absolute risks of breast cancer by PRS were derived from relative risk estimates and UK incidence and mortality rates. RESULTS: There was no strong evidence for departure from a multiplicative model for any SNP pair. Women in the highest 1% of the PRS had a three-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer compared with women in the middle quintile (odds ratio [OR] = 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.95 to 3.83). The ORs for ER-positive and ER-negative disease were 3.73 (95% CI = 3.24 to 4.30) and 2.80 (95% CI = 2.26 to 3.46), respectively. Lifetime risk of breast cancer for women in the lowest and highest quintiles of the PRS were 5.2% and 16.6% for a woman without family history, and 8.6% and 24.4% for a woman with a first-degree family history of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The PRS stratifies breast cancer risk in women both with and without a family history of breast cancer. The observed level of risk discrimination could inform targeted screening and prevention strategies. Further discrimination may be achievable through combining the PRS with lifestyle/environmental factors, although these were not considered in this report.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
17.
Phys Med Biol ; 60(10): 3939-58, 2015 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25909596

RESUMO

This paper introduces a hybrid method for performing detection studies in projection image based modalities, based on image acquisitions of target objects and patients. The method was used to compare 2D mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in terms of the detection performance of spherical densities and microcalcifications. The method starts with the acquisition of spheres of different glandular equivalent densities and microcalcifications of different sizes immersed in a homogeneous breast tissue simulating medium. These target objects are then segmented and the subsequent templates are fused in projection images of patients and processed or reconstructed. This results in hybrid images with true mammographic anatomy and clinically relevant target objects, ready for use in observer studies. The detection study of spherical densities used 108 normal and 178 hybrid 2D and DBT images; 156 normal and 321 hybrid images were used for the microcalcifications. Seven observers scored the presence/absence of the spheres/microcalcifications in a square region via a 5-point confidence rating scale. Detection performance in 2D and DBT was compared via ROC analysis with sub-analyses for the density of the spheres, microcalcification size, breast thickness and z-position. The study was performed on a Siemens Inspiration tomosynthesis system using patient acquisitions with an average age of 58 years and an average breast thickness of 53 mm providing mean glandular doses of 1.06 mGy (2D) and 2.39 mGy (DBT). Study results showed that breast tomosynthesis (AUC = 0.973) outperformed 2D (AUC = 0.831) for the detection of spheres (p < 0.0001) and this applied for all spherical densities and breast thicknesses. By way of contrast, DBT was worse than 2D for microcalcification detection (AUC2D = 0.974, AUCDBT = 0.838, p < 0.0001), with significant differences found for all sizes (150-354 µm), for breast thicknesses above 40 mm and for heights above the detector of 20 mm and above. In conclusion, the hybrid method was successfully used to produce images for a detection study; results showed breast tomosynthesis outperformed 2D for spherical densities while further optimization of DBT for microcalcifications is suggested.


Assuntos
Mamografia/métodos , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Tomografia por Raios X/métodos , Doenças Mamárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC
18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 17: 58, 2015 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25897948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have identified common germline variants nominally associated with breast cancer survival. These associations have not been widely replicated in further studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of previously reported SNPs with breast cancer-specific survival using data from a pooled analysis of eight breast cancer survival genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: A literature review was conducted of all previously published associations between common germline variants and three survival outcomes: breast cancer-specific survival, overall survival and disease-free survival. All associations that reached the nominal significance level of P value <0.05 were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms that had been previously reported as nominally associated with at least one survival outcome were evaluated in the pooled analysis of over 37,000 breast cancer cases for association with breast cancer-specific survival. Previous associations were evaluated using a one-sided test based on the reported direction of effect. RESULTS: Fifty-six variants from 45 previous publications were evaluated in the meta-analysis. Fifty-four of these were evaluated in the full set of 37,954 breast cancer cases with 2,900 events and the two additional variants were evaluated in a reduced sample size of 30,000 samples in order to ensure independence from the previously published studies. Five variants reached nominal significance (P <0.05) in the pooled GWAS data compared to 2.8 expected under the null hypothesis. Seven additional variants were associated (P <0.05) with ER-positive disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although no variants reached genome-wide significance (P <5 x 10(-8)), these results suggest that there is some evidence of association between candidate common germline variants and breast cancer prognosis. Larger studies from multinational collaborations are necessary to increase the power to detect associations, between common variants and prognosis, at more stringent significance levels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Prognóstico
19.
Med Phys ; 41(8): 081913, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25086544

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. METHODS: Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. RESULTS: The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly suggestive for malignancy (BIRADS 5) indicating the required variety of shapes and margins of these models. The assessment of the BIRADS scores for all observers indicated good agreement based on Kendall's coefficient for both the 2D and the tomosynthesis evaluations. The paired analysis of the BIRADS scores between 2D and tomosynthesis for each observer revealed consistent behavior for the real and simulated masses. CONCLUSIONS: A database of 3D mass models, with variety of shapes and margins, was validated for the realism of their appearance for 2D digital mammography and for breast tomosynthesis. This database is suitable for use in future observer performance studies whether in virtual clinical trials or in patient images with simulated lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mamografia/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Mama/anatomia & histologia , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Curva ROC
20.
BMC Public Health ; 14: 759, 2014 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25070656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence in African population is low compared to western countries but the mortality rate is higher and the disease presents at a younger age and at a more advanced stage. The World Health Organisation and the Breast Health Global Initiative concluded that in low and middle income countries early breast cancer detection can be achieved by informing women on symptoms of breast cancer, on the practice of breast self-examination and clinical breast examination by trained health care workers. Based on these recommendations, we set up a breast cancer awareness campaign in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This paper describes the strategy that was established and the results that were achieved. METHODS: A breast cancer awareness campaign was started in 2010 and data were collected until the end of 2012. Clinicians (expert group) trained nurses and health care workers (awareness groups) on clinical, technical and social aspects of breast cancer. Different channels were used to inform women about the campaign and clinical data (on medical and family history) were collected. The participating women were investigated with clinical breast examination by the awareness group. Women in whom a palpable mass was detected were referred to the hospital: they received a mammography and ultrasound and--in case of suspicious findings--additionally a core needle biopsy. In case of a positive family history, a blood sample was taken for genetic investigation. RESULTS: In total, 4,315 women participated, resulting in 1,113 radiological breast examinations, performed in the General Hospital of Kinshasa of which 101 turned out to be malignant lesions. Fifty six percent of the women with breast cancer were less than 50 years old and 75% (65/87) were stage III tumors. A BRCA gene mutation was identified in a family with a severe history of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Even without financial support, it was possible to start an awareness campaign for breast cancer in Kinshasa. This campaign increased the awareness on cancer of the women in Kinshasa. The results demonstrate that this campaign had an immediate impact on patients and their families.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Autoexame de Mama/métodos , Autoexame de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Congo , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Mamografia/métodos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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