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1.
Hypertension ; 76(6): 1971-1979, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131310

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. To identify targets for the prevention of hypertension and its associated disease burden, we used the 2-sample Mendelian randomization method to investigate the causal associations of 18 cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle behaviors with hypertension. From European-descent genome-wide association studies, we selected genetic variants (P<5×10-8) for type 2 diabetes, fasting glucose, lipids, body mass index, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, physical activity, sleep duration, insomnia, and educational level. We extracted the genetic associations with hypertension from 2 European cohorts: the FinnGen Study (15 870 cases and 74 345 controls) and UK Biobank (54 358 cases and 408 652 controls). The inverse-variance weighted method was used as main analysis method. Genetically predicted triglycerides (pooled odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD, 1.17 [1.10-1.25]), body mass index (OR per 1 SD, 1.42 [1.37-1.48]), alcohol dependence (OR, 1.10 [1.06-1.13]), and insomnia (OR, 1.17 [1.13-1.20]) were associated with a higher odds of hypertension. Higher genetically predicted high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR per 1 SD, 0.88 [0.83-0.94]) and educational level (OR per 1 SD, 0.56 [0.54-0.59]) were associated with a lower odds of hypertension. Suggestive evidence was obtained for type 2 diabetes, smoking initiation and alcohol consumption with a higher hypertension odds, and longer sleep duration with a lower hypertension odds. This Mendelian randomization study identified high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index, alcohol dependence, insomnia, and educational level as causal risk factors for hypertension. This implicates that these modifiable risk factors are important targets in the prevention of hypertension.

2.
Atherosclerosis ; 313: 35-42, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest levels of alcohol consumption are observed in Europe, where alcohol as contributing cause of coronary heart disease (CHD) is also most significant. We aimed to describe alcohol consumption patterns across European regions and adherence to the current guidelines in patients with a recent CHD event. METHODS: The ESC-EORP survey (EUROASPIRE V) has been conducted in 2016-2017 at 131 centers in 27 European countries in 7350 patients with a recent CHD. Median alcohol consumption, as well as the proportion of abstainers and excessive drinkers (i.e. >70 g/week for women and >140 for men, as recommended by the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention), was calculated for each region. To assess adherence to guidelines, proportions of participants who were advised to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and participants who were incorrectly not advised were calculated per region. RESULTS: Mean age was 64 years (SD: 9.5), 75% were male. Abstention rates were 53% in males and 77% in females, whereas excessive drinking was reported by 9% and 5% of them, respectively. Overall, 57% of the participants were advised to reduce alcohol consumption. In the total population, 3% were incorrectly not advised, however, this percentage differed per region (range: 1%-9%). In regions where alcohol consumption was highest, participants were less often advised to reduce their consumption. CONCLUSION: In this EUROASPIRE V survey, the majority of CHD patients adhere to the current drinking guidelines, but substantial heterogeneity exists between European regions.

3.
Am Heart J ; 227: 64-73, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors may be important targets in the prevention of heart failure. The current knowledge on the relationship between lifestyle factors and heart failure originates mostly from observational studies. The objective of this study was to investigate causal associations of multiple lifestyle factors with heart failure risk by using Mendelian randomization. METHODS: We obtained summary statistics data for single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the following 5 lifestyle factors at genome-wide significance in genome-wide association studies of European-descent individuals: smoking, alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, physical activity, and sleep duration. The corresponding data for heart failure were acquired from a genome-wide association study comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls of European ancestry. For the primary analyses, we used the inverse-variance weighted method. RESULTS: Genetic predisposition to smoking initiation (ever smoked regularly) was robustly associated with a higher odds of heart failure (odds ratio: 1.28; 99% CI: 1.21-1.35). Genetically predicted longer sleep duration was associated with a lower odds of heart failure (odds ratio per hour/day: 0.73; 99% CI: 0.60-0.89). We found no associations of alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, and physical activity with heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: This Mendelian randomization study showed that smoking initiation increases heart failure risk, whereas longer sleep duration decreases the risk of heart failure. Sleep duration should be regarded as novel risk factor in heart failure prevention guidelines. The potential causal role of alcohol and coffee consumption and physical activity for heart failure warrants further investigation in future larger Mendelian randomization analyses.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e014324, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200717

RESUMO

Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality compared with heavy drinkers and abstainers. To date, studies have relied on self-reported consumption, which may be prone to misclassification. Urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is an alcohol metabolite and validated biomarker for recent alcohol consumption. We aimed to examine and compare the associations of self-reported alcohol consumption and EtG with CVD and all-cause mortality. Methods and Results In 5676 participants of the PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease) study cohort, EtG was measured in 24-hour urine samples and alcohol consumption questionnaires were administered. Participants were followed up for occurrence of first CVD and all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and CVD risk factors, were fitted for self-reported consumption, divided into 5 categories: abstention, 1 to 4 units/month (reference), 2 to 7 units/week, 1 to 3 units/day, and ≥4 units/day. Similar models were fitted for EtG, analyzed as both continuous and categorical variables. Follow-up times differed for CVD (8 years; 385 CVD events) and all-cause mortality (14 years; 724 deaths). For both self-reported alcohol consumption and EtG, nonsignificant trends were found toward J-shaped associations between alcohol consumption and CVD, with higher risk in the lowest (hazard ratio for abstention versus 1-4 units/month, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02-1.98) and highest drinking categories (hazard ratio for ≥4 units/day versus 1-4 units/month, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.68-1.84). Neither self-report nor EtG was associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusions Comparable associations with CVD events and all-cause mortality were found for self-report and EtG. This argues for the validity of self-reported alcohol consumption in epidemiologic research.

5.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(1): 132-140, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Data on the prospective relationship of alcohol consumption at more moderate levels with systolic and diastolic function are scarce. We aimed to examine the prospective association of alcohol consumption with echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function, in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 778 participants from the Hoorn Study (aged 68.4 ± 7.2 years, 49% women), a population-based prospective cohort study, oversampled for people with impaired glucose metabolism or T2DM. Self-reported alcohol consumption was collected at baseline with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and categorized into: none (0/week), light (>0-≤30 g/week), light-to-moderate (>30-≤70 g/week), moderate (>70-≤140 g/week), and heavy drinkers (>140 g/week). Echocardiography was performed at baseline (N = 778) and after 8 years follow-up (N = 404). Multiple linear regression was used to study the association between alcohol consumption and echocardiographic measures (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left atrial volume index (LAVI) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI)), adjusted for confounders. Moderate and heavy alcohol consumption were associated with a decreased LVEF of -3.91% (CI: -7.13;-0.69) for moderate and -4.77% (-8.18;-1.36) for heavy drinkers compared to light drinkers. No associations were found between alcohol consumption, LVMI and LAVI. Modified Poisson regression showed a trend that higher alcohol consumption amounts were associated with a higher risk of incident systolic dysfunction (LVEF≤50%) (P-for-trend 0.058). CONCLUSION: The findings provide longitudinal evidence that moderate and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with decreased LVEF and trend towards a higher risk of incident LV systolic dysfunction, compared to light drinkers.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia
6.
J Nutr ; 149(12): 2199-2205, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is a frequently studied risk factor for chronic diseases, but many studies are hampered by self-report of alcohol consumption. The urinary metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG), reflecting alcohol consumption during the past 72 h, is a promising objective marker, but population data are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of EtG as a marker for habitual alcohol consumption compared with self-report and other biomarkers in the general population. METHODS: Among 6211 participants in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort, EtG concentrations were measured in 24-h urine samples. EtG was considered positive when concentrations were ≥100 ng/mL. Habitual alcohol consumption was self-reported by questionnaire (categories: no/almost never, 1-4 units per month, 2-7 units per week, 1-3 units per day or ≥4 units per day). Plasma HDL cholesterol concentration, erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were determined as indirect biomarkers of alcohol consumption. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and proportions of agreement between reported consumption and EtG were calculated. To test the agreement of EtG concentration and alcohol consumption in categories, linear regression analysis was performed. In addition, the association between EtG concentrations and indirect biomarkers was analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age was 53.7 y, and 52.9% of participants men. Of the self-reported abstainers, 92.3% had an EtG concentration <100 ng/mL. Sensitivity was 66.3%, positive predictive value was 96.3%, and negative predictive value was 47.4%. The proportion of positive agreement was 78.5%, and the proportion of negative agreement was 62.7%. EtG concentrations were linearly associated with higher categories of alcohol consumption (P-trend < 0.001), adjusted for age, sex, and renal function. EtG was positively related to MCV, HDL cholesterol, and GGT but not to AST and ALT concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that urinary EtG is in reasonable agreement with self-reported alcohol consumption and therefore can be used as an objective marker of habitual alcohol consumption in the general population.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Glucuronatos/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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