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1.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2706-2712, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause a recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome known as constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD). Family members with a heterozygous MMR variant have Lynch syndrome. We aimed at estimating cancer risk in these heterozygous carriers as a novel approach to avoid complicated statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. METHODS: Cumulative colorectal cancer incidence was estimated in a cohort of PMS2- and MSH6-associated families, ascertained by the CMMRD phenotype of the index, by using mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients as analytical weights in a proportional hazard regression on the cause-specific hazards. Confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by bootstrapping at the family level. RESULTS: The estimated cumulative colorectal cancer risk at age 70 years for heterozygous PMS2 variant carriers was 8.7% (95% CI 4.3-12.7%) for both sexes combined, and 9.9% (95% CI 4.9-15.3%) for men and 5.9% (95% CI 1.6-11.1%) for women separately. For heterozygous MSH6 variant carriers these estimates are 11.8% (95% CI 4.5-22.7%) for both sexes combined, 10.0% (95% CI 1.83-24.5%) for men and 11.7% (95% CI 2.10-26.5%) for women. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with previous reports that used more complex statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. These results underline the need for MMR gene-specific surveillance protocols for Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
2.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Penetrância , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
3.
Br J Cancer ; 119: 357-363, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is rarely examined. As carriers may increasingly undergo IVF as part of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), we examined the impact of ovarian stimulation for IVF on breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1550 BRCA1 and 964 BRCA2 mutation carriers, derived from the nationwide HEBON study and the nationwide PGD registry. Questionnaires, clinical records and linkages with the Netherlands Cancer Registry were used to collect data on IVF exposure, risk-reducing surgeries and cancer diagnosis, respectively. Time-dependent Cox regression analyses were conducted, stratified for birth cohort and adjusted for subfertility. RESULTS: Of the 2514 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, 3% (n = 76) were exposed to ovarian stimulation for IVF. In total, 938 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (37.3%) were diagnosed with breast cancer. IVF exposure was not associated with risk of breast cancer (HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.46-1.36). Similar results were found for the subgroups of subfertile women (n = 232; HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.39-1.37) and BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.60-2.09). In addition, age at and recency of first IVF treatment were not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSION: No evidence was found for an association between ovarian stimulation for IVF and breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Indução da Ovulação , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco
4.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 2(2): pky023, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360853

RESUMO

Background: For BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the association between oral contraceptive preparation (OCP) use and breast cancer (BC) risk is still unclear. Methods: Breast camcer risk associations were estimated from OCP data on 6030 BRCA1 and 3809 BRCA2 mutation carriers using age-dependent Cox regression, stratified by study and birth cohort. Prospective, left-truncated retrospective and full-cohort retrospective analyses were performed. Results: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, OCP use was not associated with BC risk in prospective analyses (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.56), but in the left-truncated and full-cohort retrospective analyses, risks were increased by 26% (95% CI = 6% to 51%) and 39% (95% CI = 23% to 58%), respectively. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, OCP use was associated with BC risk in prospective analyses (HR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.97), but retrospective analyses were inconsistent (left-truncated: HR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.33; full cohort: HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.81). There was evidence of increasing risk with duration of use, especially before the first full-term pregnancy (BRCA1: both retrospective analyses, P < .001 and P = .001, respectively; BRCA2: full retrospective analysis, P = .002). Conclusions: Prospective analyses did not show that past use of OCP is associated with an increased BC risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers in young middle-aged women (40-50 years). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, a causal association is also not likely at those ages. Findings between retrospective and prospective analyses were inconsistent and could be due to survival bias or a true association for younger women who were underrepresented in the prospective cohort. Given the uncertain safety of long-term OCP use for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, indications other than contraception should be avoided and nonhormonal contraceptive methods should be discussed.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 16(1): 862, 2016 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27821077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a large number of patients with multiple gastrointestinal adenomatous polyps, no causal germline mutation can be found. Non-genetic factors may contribute to the development of adenomatous polyps in these unexplained polyposis patients. In the development of gastrointestinal cancer, prior exposure to abdominal radiotherapy has been identified as such a factor, as it increases the gastrointestinal cancer risk in cancer survivors. A relationship of radiotherapy with intestinal polyposis, however, has not yet been described. Despite the increased cancer risk, these cancer survivors do not receive gastrointestinal screening recommendations. This case series describes three patients with adenomatous polyposis after abdominal radiotherapy. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient 1 was diagnosed with testicular cancer at the age of 31 and was treated with hemicastration, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Thirty-nine years later, he was diagnosed with more than 30 colonic adenomas. Additionally, gastroduodenoscopy revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in the antrum of the stomach. Patient 2 was diagnosed with a nephroblastoma at the age of 10, which was resected and treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At age 36, a rectal adenocarcinoma was diagnosed and treated by radiotherapy and a total mesorectal excision. During 11 years of surveillance endoscopies, 21 colonic adenomas and three duodenal adenomas were detected. Patient 3 was diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 20 and treated with radiotherapy, followed by chemotherapy for a recurrence 3 years later. At age 62, a subtotal colectomy was performed because of colonic polyposis: 36 adenomas were detected. During screening gastro-duodenoscopy, three duodenal adenomas were detected. In all three patients, germline analysis did not reveal a mutation in the APC and MYH genes. The gastric and rectal cancer were both microsatellite stable. CONCLUSION: This report describes three patients with adenomatous polyposis, of which two developed a gastrointestinal cancer. The polyposis was not explained by a germline mutation in APC or MYH and all patients received abdominal radiotherapy. Although an etiologic role has not been established, an association between radiotherapy and intestinal adenomatous polyposis and the subsequent development of cancer seems very likely in our patients.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Colonoscópios , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiação Ionizante , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia , Tumor de Wilms/terapia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 159: A8867, 2015.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25990335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a rare disorder involving multiple organ systems. It is caused by a mutation in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Patients show cutaneous abnormalities or uterine myomas. Approximately 10% of these patients also develop an aggressive type of renal cell carcinoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 35-year-old woman was referred by her general practitioner with a number of progressive red-brown nodules on her arms and trunk. A biopsy was taken, revealing cutaneous leiomyoma. On further examination, a small, benign uterine myoma was found. There were no signs of a renal cell carcinoma. Further diagnostic procedures showed a FH mutation, confirming the diagnosis of HLRCC. CONCLUSION: HRLCC is a rare condition that can be missed easily as clinical symptoms are often subtle. Considering the risk of developing an aggressive form of renal cell carcinoma, it is important to screen these patients thoroughly and to follow them up.


Assuntos
Fumarato Hidratase/genética , Leiomiomatose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Leiomiomatose/genética , Mutação , Doenças Raras , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética
8.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 49(5): 407-12, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24583756

RESUMO

GOALS: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of screening colonoscopies in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS). BACKGROUND: Patients with SPS are at an increased risk for colorectal cancer. Although inheritance patterns are unknown, FDRs of these patients have an increased risk for both colorectal cancer and SPS. Prospective studies evaluating the yield of screening colonoscopies in this group are however scarce. This information would be useful to evaluate a possible mode of inheritance and to investigate whether screening colonoscopies are justified in this group. STUDY: FDR of patients with SPS were invited to undergo colonoscopy. The diagnostic yield was expressed by the number of FDRs with at least 1 significant polyp relative to the total number of included FDRs. Significant polyps were defined adenomas, traditional serrated adenomas, sessile serrated adenoma/polyp, or proximal hyperplastic polyp. Tissue specimens were reviewed by one expert pathologist. RESULTS: Seventy-seven FDRs underwent colonoscopy (median age 52 y; interquartile range, 41 to 60). Colorectal cancer was not diagnosed. One or more significant polyps were detected in 43% of FDRs. No differences based on age, gender, or familial relationship were observed in the detection of polyps. Seven first-degree (9%) relatives had multiple polyps (≥5). Eleven (14%) FDRs fulfilled SPS WHO-criterion 2, of whom 1 sibling also met SPS WHO-criterion 3. CONCLUSIONS: The yield of a single screening colonoscopy in FDRs of patients with serrated polyposis is substantial, warranting a colonoscopy screening program for these individuals.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Saúde da Família , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 23(11): 2482-91, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25103822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to quantify previously observed relatively high cancer risks in BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA2 carriers) older than 60 in the Northern Netherlands, and to analyze whether these could be explained by mutation spectrum or population background risk. METHODS: This consecutive cohort study included all known pathogenic BRCA1/2 carriers in the Northern Netherlands (N = 1,050). Carrier and general reference populations were: BRCA1/2 carriers in the rest of the Netherlands (N = 2,013) and the general population in both regions. Regional differences were assessed with HRs and ORs. HRs were adjusted for birth year and mutation spectrum. RESULTS: All BRCA1 carriers and BRCA2 carriers younger than 60 had a significantly lower breast cancer risk in the Northern Netherlands; HRs were 0.66 and 0.64, respectively. Above age 60, the breast cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers in the Northern Netherlands was higher than in the rest of the Netherlands [HR, 3.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-14.35]. Adjustment for mutational spectrum changed the HRs for BRCA1, BRCA2 <60, and BRCA2 ≥60 years by -3%, +32%, and +11% to 0.75, 0.50, and 2.61, respectively. There was no difference in background breast cancer incidence between the two regions (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.09). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in mutation spectrum only partly explain the regional differences in breast cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers, and for an even smaller part in BRCA1 carriers. IMPACT: The increased risk in BRCA2 carriers older than 60 may warrant extension of intensive breast screening beyond age 60.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação , Países Baixos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Fam Cancer ; 12(4): 669-73, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23591707

RESUMO

Serrated polyposis syndrome is associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. Although the underlying genetic cause of the condition is unknown, first-degree relatives of patients with serrated polyposis have an increased risk for colorectal cancer compared with the general population. This suggests an inheritable component. Since other hereditary polyposis syndromes are often associated with an expanded extracolonic tumour spectrum, our aim was to determine the extra colonic cancer risks for patients with serrated polyposis and their first-degree relatives and compare these risks with the general population. Serrated polyposis index patients from 5 medical centres were included. Demographic data concerning age, sex and reported malignancies were ascertained by reviewing medical charts and histopathology reports. Family history was obtained by examining pedigree records from the department of Clinical Genetics. Incidence rates of extracolonic malignancies were compared with the general population through a person-year analysis, adjusted for age and sex. Population-based incidence data were derived from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry. A total of 105 patients with serrated polyposis and 341 first-degree relatives were included. Among the patients with serrated polyposis, 9 extracolonic cancers were observed, compared to 13 expected malignancies in the general population (RR 0.69 95% CI 0.36-1.33; p = 0.27). Among the first-degree relatives, 44 extracolonic malignancies were observed, compared to 48 expected malignancies (RR 0.92 95% CI 0.69-1.24; p = 0.60). In this study, the overall incidence of extracolonic malignancies in patients with serrated polyposis and their first-degree relatives was not increased. Large international studies are required to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Família , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias/etiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/complicações , Idoso , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Prognóstico , Síndrome
12.
J Clin Oncol ; 30(35): 4409-15, 2012 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23091106

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with Lynch syndrome are at high risk for colon and endometrial cancer, but also at an elevated risk for other less common cancers. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to provide risk estimates for these less common cancers in proven carriers of pathogenic mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were pooled from the German and Dutch national Lynch syndrome registries. Seven different cancer types were analyzed: stomach, small bowel, urinary bladder, other urothelial, breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Age-, sex- and MMR gene-specific cumulative risks (CRs) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Sex-specific incidence rates were compared with general population incidence rates by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the impact of sex and mutated gene on cancer risk. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 2,118 MMR gene mutation carriers (MLH1, n = 806; MSH2, n = 1,004; MSH6, n = 308). All cancers were significantly more frequent than in the general population. The highest risks were found for male small bowel cancer (SIR, 251; 95% CI, 177 to 346; CR at 70 years, 12.0; 95% CI, 5.7 to 18.2). Breast cancer showed an SIR of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.4) and a CR of 14.4 (95% CI, 9.5 to 19.3). MSH2 mutation carriers had a considerably higher risk of developing urothelial cancer than MLH1 or MSH6 carriers. CONCLUSION: The sex- and gene-specific differences of less common cancer risks should be taken into account in cancer surveillance and prevention programs for patients with Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Mutação , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Med Genet ; 49(6): 362-5, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22636603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CDKN2A-mutation carriers run a high risk of developing melanomas and have an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer (PC). Familial PC (FPC) patients with a personal history or family history of melanomas are therefore offered CDKN2A-mutation analysis. In contrast, CDKN2A testing in FPC families without a history of melanomas is not generally recommended. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of CDKN2A-mutations in FPC families without melanomas. METHODS: Data were gathered from PC family registers. FPC families were defined as families with clustering of PC without meeting diagnostic criteria of familial cutaneous malignant melanoma (familial CMM) or other inherited cancer syndromes. Blood samples were obtained for DNA isolation from PC patients or first degree relatives and analysed for CDKN2A-mutations. RESULTS: Among 40 FPC families, DNA analyses were carried out in 28 families (70%), leading to identification of CDKN2A-mutations in six families (21%). None of the CDKN2A-mutation-positive families fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for familial CMM and in three CDKN2A families no melanomas were observed. Two CDKN2A-mutations were found; the Dutch founder mutation p16-Leiden (c.225_243del, p.Ala76fs) and the c.19_23dup, p.Ser8fs-mutation. After disclosure of the CDKN2A-mutation in one of the families, a curable melanoma was diagnosed at dermatological surveillance in a 17-year-old family member. CONCLUSION: CDKN2A-mutation can be found in a considerable proportion of families with FPC. CDKN2A-mutation analysis should therefore be included in genetic testing in FPC families, even in the absence of reported melanomas. This strategy will enhance the recognition of individuals at risk for PC and facilitate the early detection of melanomas.


Assuntos
Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Int J Cancer ; 131(2): 367-76, 2012 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22020549

RESUMO

CDH1 mutation carriers have a strongly increased risk of developing gastric cancer (GC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). Clinical data of GC cases and surgical and histological data of prophylactic gastrectomies and mastectomies of all 10 Dutch CDH1 mutation families were collected. In vitro functional assays were performed to analyze the nature of the newly found missense mutation c.1748T>G (p.Leu583Arg). Ten different CDH1 mutations were found. Functional assays gave strong arguments for the pathogenic nature of the p.Leu583Arg mutation. The pedigrees comprised 36 GC cases (mean age 40 years, range 20-72 years) and one LBC case. Twenty-nine/37 carriers alive, aged 18-61 years, underwent prophylactic gastrectomy. Invasive GC-foci and premalignant abnormalities were detected in 2 and 25 patients, respectively. In four patients GC/signetring cell (SRC) foci were diagnosed at preoperative gastroscopy. Long-standing presence of SRCs without progression to invasive carcinoma was shown in two others. Multifocal LBC/LCIS was found in the two prophylactic mastectomy specimens. Clefts of lip and/or palate (CL/P) were reported in seven individuals from three families. The age at onset and aggressiveness of GC is highly variable, which has to be included in counseling on planning prophylactic gastrectomies. The incidence of LBC is expected to increase and prophylactic mastectomy needs to be considered. The relationship between CL/P and CDH1 needs further study to inform future parents from hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) families adequately.


Assuntos
Caderinas/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Aconselhamento Genético , Variação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 20(5): 577-9, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22166947

RESUMO

PALB2-mutation carriers not only have an increased risk for breast cancer (BC) but also for pancreatic cancer (PC). Thus far, PALB2 mutations have been mainly found in PC patients from families affected by both PC and BC. As it is well known that the prevalence of gene mutations varies between different populations, we studied the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in a Dutch cohort of non-BRCA1/2 familial PC (FPC) families and in non-BRCA1/2 familial BC (FBC) families with at least one PC case. Mutation analysis included direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and was performed in a total of 64 patients from 56 distinct families (28 FPC families, 28 FBC families). In total, 31 patients (48%) originated from FPC families; 24 were FPC patients (77%), 6 had a personal history of BC (19%) and 1 was a suspected carrier (3.2%). The remaining 33 patients (52%) were all female BC patients of whom 31 (94%) had a family history of PC and 2 (6.1%) had a personal history of PC. In none of these 64 patients a PALB2 mutation was found. Therefore, PALB2 does not have a major causal role in familial clustering of PC and BC in non-BRCA1/2 families in the Dutch population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
16.
Genet Med ; 13(6): 519-27, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21415761

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess compliance with a periodic surveillance regimen for Von Hippel-Lindau disease. METHODS: In this nationwide study, Von Hippel-Lindau disease mutation carriers and those at 50% risk were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing (compliance with) advice given for periodic surveillance. Medical record data on compliance with recommended radiologic surveillance examinations were also collected. RESULTS: Of the 84 (77%) participants, 78 indicated having received advice to undergo periodic surveillance. Of these, 71 reported being fully compliant with that advice. In 64% of the cases, this advice was only partially consistent with published guidelines. Based on medical record data, between one quarter and one third of individuals did not undergo surveillance as recommended in the guidelines for central nervous system lesions and one half for visceral lesions. Screening delay for central nervous system lesions was significantly higher in one hospital and in those cases where "the advice given" deviated from the guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of those with or at risk of Von Hippel-Lindau disease reported having received and being fully compliant with screening advice. However, in many cases, the advice given was only partially consistent with published guidelines, and screening delays were observed. Efforts should be undertaken to stimulate guideline-based surveillance advice and to minimize screening delay.


Assuntos
Cooperação do Paciente , Doença de von Hippel-Lindau/diagnóstico , Doença de von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doença de von Hippel-Lindau/epidemiologia
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 28(18): 3008-14, 2010 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20479422

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a hereditary cancer syndrome, characterized by a high risk of developing cancer at various sites and ages. To date, limited clinical benefits of genetic testing for LFS have been demonstrated, and there are concerns about the potential adverse psychosocial impact of genetic testing for LFS. In this study, we evaluated the uptake of genetic testing and the psychosocial impact of undergoing or not undergoing a genetic test for LFS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 18 families with a p53 germline mutation in the Netherlands were identified. Eligible family members were invited to complete a self-report questionnaire assessing motives for undergoing or not undergoing genetic testing, LFS-related distress and worries, and health-related quality of life. RESULTS: Uptake of presymptomatic testing was 55% (65 of 119). Of the total group, 23% reported clinically relevant levels of LFS-related distress. Carriers were not significantly more distressed than noncarriers or than those with a 50% risk who did not undergo genetic testing. Those with a lack of social support were more prone to report clinically relevant levels of distress (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.5). CONCLUSION: Although preventive and treatment options for LFS are limited, more than half of the family members from known LFS families choose to undergo presymptomatic testing. An unfavorable genetic test result, in general, does not cause adverse psychological effects. Nonetheless, it is important to note that a substantial proportion of individuals, irrespective of their carrier status, exhibit clinically relevant levels of distress which warrant psychological support.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 11(1): R8, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19200354

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unclassified variants (UVs) in the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes are a frequent problem in counseling breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer families. Information about cancer family history is usually available, but has rarely been used to evaluate UVs. The aim of the present study was to identify which is the best combination of clinical parameters that can predict whether a UV is deleterious, to be used for the classification of UVs. METHODS: We developed logistic regression models with the best combination of clinical features that distinguished a positive control of BRCA pathogenic variants (115 families) from a negative control population of BRCA variants initially classified as UVs and later considered neutral (38 families). RESULTS: The models included a combination of BRCAPRO scores, Myriad scores, number of ovarian cancers in the family, the age at diagnosis, and the number of persons with ovarian tumors and/or breast tumors. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were respectively 0.935 and 0.836 for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 models. For each model, the minimum receiver operating characteristic distance (respectively 90% and 78% specificity for BRCA1 and BRCA2) was chosen as the cutoff value to predict which UVs are deleterious from a study population of 12 UVs, present in 59 Dutch families. The p.S1655F, p.R1699W, and p.R1699Q variants in BRCA1 and the p.Y2660D, p.R2784Q, and p.R3052W variants in BRCA2 are classified as deleterious according to our models. The predictions of the p.L246V variant in BRCA1 and of the p.Y42C, p.E462G, p.R2888C, and p.R3052Q variants in BRCA2 are in agreement with published information of them being neutral. The p.R2784W variant in BRCA2 remains uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that these developed models are useful to classify UVs in clinical genetic practice.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Curva ROC
19.
Gastroenterology ; 136(1): 131-7, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19010329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified common low-risk variants for colorectal cancer (CRC). To assess whether these influence CRC risk in the Lynch syndrome, we genotyped these variants in a large series of proven mutation carriers. METHODS: We studied 675 individuals from 127 different families from the Dutch Lynch syndrome Registry whose mutation carrier status was known. We genotyped 8q24.21, 8q23.3, 10p14, 11q23.1, 15q13.3, and 18q21.1 variants in carriers of a mismatch repair gene mutation. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to analyse the association between the presence of a risk variant and CRC risk. RESULTS: A significant association was found between CRC risk and rs16892766 (8q23.3) and rs3802842 (11q23.1). For rs16892766, possession of the C-allele was associated with an elevated risk of CRC in a dose-dependent fashion, with homozygosity for CC being associated with a 2.16-fold increased risk. For rs3802842, the increased risk of CRC associated with the C-allele was only found among female carriers, while CRC risk was substantially higher among homozygous (hazard ratio [HR] 3.08) than among heterozygous carriers of the C-allele (HR 1.49). In an additive model of both variants, the risk was significantly associated with the number of risk alleles (HR 1.60 for carriers of 2 or more risk alleles). The effects were stronger in female carriers than in male carriers. CONCLUSION: We have identified 2 loci that are significantly associated with CRC risk in Lynch syndrome families. These modifiers may be helpful in identifying high-risk individuals who require more intensive surveillance.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
20.
J Invest Dermatol ; 128(1): 45-9, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17611575

RESUMO

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an autosomal-dominant genodermatosis characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas and an increased risk of spontaneous pneumothorax, renal and possibly other tumors. A causative gene (FLCN) on chromosome 17p has recently been identified. We here report clinical and genetic studies of 20 BHD families ascertained by the presence of multiple fibrofolliculomas or trichodiscomas in the proband. Pathogenic FLCN germline mutations were found in 11 (69%) of 16 probands tested and in 14 family members. Six different FLCN germline mutations were detected, four of which have not been reported previously. The clinical features were variable. None and less than 10 skin lesions were observed in two mutation carriers at the age of 67 and 29 years, respectively. Spontaneous pneumothorax was reported in four and renal carcinoma of mixed histological types in two of 36 BHD-affected individuals and/or FLCN mutation carriers. Both the prevalence of spontaneous pneumothorax and renal tumors appeared to be relatively low compared with previously reported data. Various other extracutaneous tumors were observed in 11 of 36 BHD-affected individuals and/or FLCN mutation carriers. This study of the second largest cohort to date contributes to the expanding data on the variable phenotype and underlying gene defects in BHD.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/genética , Pneumotórax/genética , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Dermatopatias/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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