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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616421

RESUMO

Background: Development of chronic rejection is still a severe problem and causes high mortality rates after lung transplantation (LTx). Complement activation is important in the development of acute rejection (AR) and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, with C3 as a key complement factor. Methods: We investigated a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the C3 gene (rs2230199) in relation to long-term outcome after LTx in 144 patient-donor pairs. In addition, we looked at local production of donor C3 by analyzing bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 6 LTx patients using isoelectric focusing (IEF). Results: We demonstrated the presence of C3 in BALF and showed that this is produced by the donor lung based on the genotype of SNP rs2230199. We also analyzed donor and patient SNP configurations and observed a significant association between the SNP configuration in patients and episodes of AR during 4-years follow-up. Survival analysis showed a lower AR-free survival in homozygous C3 slow patients (p = 0.005). Furthermore, we found a significant association between the SNP configuration in donors and BOS development. Patients receiving a graft from a donor with at least one C3 fast variant for rs2230199 had an inferior BOS-free survival (p = 0.044). Conclusions: In conclusion, our data indicate local C3 production by donor lung cells. In addition, a single C3 SNP present in recipients affects short-term outcome after LTx, while this SNP in donors has an opposite effect on long-term outcome after LTx. These results could contribute to an improved risk stratification after transplantation.

2.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570892

RESUMO

The cardiac transcription factor (TF) gene NKX2-5 has been associated with electrocardiographic (EKG) traits through genome-wide association studies (GWASs), but the extent to which differential binding of NKX2-5 at common regulatory variants contributes to these traits has not yet been studied. We analyzed transcriptomic and epigenomic data from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from seven related individuals, and identified ~2,000 single-nucleotide variants associated with allele-specific effects (ASE-SNVs) on NKX2-5 binding. NKX2-5 ASE-SNVs were enriched for altered TF motifs, for heart-specific expression quantitative trait loci and for EKG GWAS signals. Using fine-mapping combined with epigenomic data from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, we prioritized candidate causal variants for EKG traits, many of which were NKX2-5 ASE-SNVs. Experimentally characterizing two NKX2-5 ASE-SNVs (rs3807989 and rs590041) showed that they modulate the expression of target genes via differential protein binding in cardiac cells, indicating that they are functional variants underlying EKG GWAS signals. Our results show that differential NKX2-5 binding at numerous regulatory variants across the genome contributes to EKG phenotypes.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4803, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641117

RESUMO

Features of the QRS complex of the electrocardiogram, reflecting ventricular depolarisation, associate with various physiologic functions and several pathologic conditions. We test 32.5 million variants for association with ten measures of the QRS complex in 12 leads, using 405,732 electrocardiograms from 81,192 Icelanders. We identify 190 associations at 130 loci, the majority of which have not been reported before, including associations with 21 rare or low-frequency coding variants. Assessment of genes expressed in the heart yields an additional 13 rare QRS coding variants at 12 loci. We find 51 unreported associations between the QRS variants and echocardiographic traits and cardiovascular diseases, including atrial fibrillation, complete AV block, heart failure and supraventricular tachycardia. We demonstrate the advantage of in-depth analysis of the QRS complex in conjunction with other cardiovascular phenotypes to enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of myocardial mass, cardiac conduction and disease.

4.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(6): 717-726, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145509

RESUMO

A typical task arising from main effect analyses in a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) is to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in linkage disequilibrium with the observed signals, that are likely causal variants and the affected genes. The affected genes may not be those closest to associating SNPs. Functional genomics data from relevant tissues are believed to be helpful in selecting likely causal SNPs and interpreting implicated biological mechanisms, ultimately facilitating prevention and treatment in the case of a disease trait. These data are typically used post GWAS analyses to fine-map the statistically significant signals identified agnostically by testing all SNPs and applying a multiple testing correction. The number of tested SNPs is typically in the millions, so the multiple testing burden is high. Motivated by this, in this study we investigated an alternative workflow, which consists in utilizing the available functional genomics data as a first step to reduce the number of SNPs tested for association. We analyzed GWAS on electrocardiographic QRS duration using these two workflows. The alternative workflow identified more SNPs, including some residing in loci not discovered with the typical workflow. Moreover, the latter are corroborated by other reports on QRS duration. This indicates the potential value of incorporating functional genomics information at the onset in GWAS analyses.

5.
Am J Transplant ; 19(10): 2795-2804, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953600

RESUMO

Tacrolimus trough and dose requirements vary dramatically between individuals of European and African American ancestry. These differences are less well described in other populations. We conducted an observational, prospective, multicenter study from which 2595 kidney transplant recipients of European, African, Native American, and Asian ancestry were studied for tacrolimus trough, doses, and genetic determinants of metabolism. We studied the well-known variants and conducted a CYP3A4/5 gene-wide analysis to identify new variants. Daily doses, and dose-normalized troughs were significantly different between the four groups (P < .001). CYP3A5*3 (rs776746) was associated with higher dose-normalized tacrolimus troughs in all groups but occurred at different allele frequencies and had differing effect sizes. The CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and *7 (rs413003343) variants were only present in African Americans. CYP3A4*22 (rs35599367) was not found in any of the Asian ancestry samples. We identified seven suggestive variants in the CYP3A4/5 genes associated with dose-normalized troughs in Native Americans (P = 1.1 × 10-5 -8.8 × 10-6 ) and one suggestive variant in Asian Americans (P = 5.6 × 10-6 ). Tacrolimus daily doses and dose-normalized troughs vary significantly among different ancestry groups. We identified potential new variants important in Asians and Native Americans. Studies with larger populations should be conducted to assess the importance of the identified suggestive variants.

6.
Am J Transplant ; 19(8): 2262-2273, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920136

RESUMO

Genetic variation across the human leukocyte antigen loci is known to influence renal-transplant outcome. However, the impact of genetic variation beyond the human leukocyte antigen loci is less clear. We tested the association of common genetic variation and clinical characteristics, from both the donor and recipient, with posttransplant eGFR at different time-points, out to 5 years posttransplantation. We conducted GWAS meta-analyses across 10 844 donors and recipients from five European ancestry cohorts. We also analyzed the impact of polygenic risk scores (PRS), calculated using genetic variants associated with nontransplant eGFR, on posttransplant eGFR. PRS calculated using the recipient genotype alone, as well as combined donor and recipient genotypes were significantly associated with eGFR at 1-year posttransplant. Thirty-two percent of the variability in eGFR at 1-year posttransplant was explained by our model containing clinical covariates (including weights for death/graft-failure), principal components and combined donor-recipient PRS, with 0.3% contributed by the PRS. No individual genetic variant was significantly associated with eGFR posttransplant in the GWAS. This is the first study to examine PRS, composed of variants that impact kidney function in the general population, in a posttransplant context. Despite PRS being a significant predictor of eGFR posttransplant, the effect size of common genetic factors is limited compared to clinical variables.

7.
Lancet ; 393(10174): 910-917, 2019 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of HLA matching of donors and recipients was a breakthrough in kidney transplantation. However, half of all transplanted kidneys still fail within 15 years after transplantation. Epidemiological data suggest a fundamental role of non-HLA alloimmunity. METHODS: We genotyped 477 pairs of deceased donors and first kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function at three months that were transplanted between Dec 1, 2005, and April 30, 2015. Genome-wide genetic mismatches in non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) were calculated to identify incompatibilities in transmembrane and secreted proteins. We estimated the association between nsSNP mismatch and graft loss in a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for HLA mismatch and clinical covariates. Customised peptide arrays were generated to screen for antibodies against genotype-derived mismatched epitopes in 25 patients with biopsy-confirmed chronic antibody-mediated rejection. FINDINGS: 59 268 nsSNPs affecting a transmembrane or secreted protein were analysed. The median number of nsSNP mismatches in immune-accessible transmembrane and secreted proteins between donors and recipients was 1892 (IQR 1850-1936). The degree of nsSNP mismatch was independently associated with graft loss in a multivariable model adjusted for HLA eplet mismatch (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR). Each increase by a unit of one IQR had an HR of 1·68 (95% CI 1·17-2·41, p=0·005). 5-year death censored graft survival was 98% in the quartile with the lowest mismatch, 91% in the second quartile, 89% in the third quartile, and 82% in the highest quartile (p=0·003, log-rank test). Customised peptide arrays verified a donor-specific alloimmune response to genetically predicted mismatched epitopes. INTERPRETATION: Genetic mismatch of non-HLA haplotypes coding for transmembrane or secreted proteins is associated with an increased risk of functional graft loss independently of HLA incompatibility. As in HLA alloimmunity, donor-specific alloantibodies can be identified against genotype derived non-HLA epitopes. FUNDING: Austrian Science Fund, WWTF (Vienna Science and Technology Fund), and Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Aloenxertos/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Teste de Histocompatibilidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Anticorpos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos
8.
Transplantation ; 103(6): 1131-1139, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immunosuppressants tacrolimus and mycophenolate are important components to the success of organ transplantation, but are also associated with adverse effects, such as nephrotoxicity, anemia, leukopenia, and new-onset diabetes after transplantation. In this report, we attempted to identify genetic variants which are associated with these adverse outcomes. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study, using a genotyping array tailored specifically for transplantation outcomes containing 722 147 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and 2 cohorts of kidney allograft recipients-a discovery cohort and a confirmation cohort-to identify and then confirm genetic variants associated with immunosuppressant pharmacokinetics and adverse outcomes. RESULTS: Several genetic variants were found to be associated with tacrolimus trough concentrations. We did not confirm variants associated with the other phenotypes tested although several suggestive variants were identified. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that adverse effects associated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate are complex, and recipient risk is not determined by a few genetic variants with large effects with but most likely are due to many variants, each with small effect sizes, and clinical factors.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 952-962, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679814

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of quantitative electrocardiographic (ECG) traits in large consortia have identified more than 130 loci associated with QT interval, QRS duration, PR interval, and heart rate (RR interval). In the current study, we meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 30,000 mostly Dutch samples on four ECG traits: PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval, and RR interval. SNP genotype data was imputed using the Genome of the Netherlands reference panel encompassing 19 million SNPs, including millions of rare SNPs (minor allele frequency < 5%). In addition to many known loci, we identified seven novel locus-trait associations: KCND3, NR3C1, and PLN for PR interval, KCNE1, SGIP1, and NFKB1 for QT interval, and ATP2A2 for QRS duration, of which six were successfully replicated. At these seven loci, we performed conditional analyses and annotated significant SNPs (in exons and regulatory regions), demonstrating involvement of cardiac-related pathways and regulation of nearby genes.

10.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(2): e002328, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulatory elements may be involved in the mechanisms by which 52 loci influence myocardial mass, reflected by abnormal amplitude and duration of the QRS complex on the ECG. Functional annotation thus far did not take into account how these elements are affected in disease context. METHODS: We generated maps of regulatory elements on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients (ChIP-seq N=14 and RNA-seq N=11) and nondiseased hearts (ChIP-seq N=4 and RNA-seq N=11). We tested enrichment of QRS-associated loci on elements differentially acetylated and directly regulating differentially expressed genes between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and controls. We further performed functional annotation on QRS-associated loci using these maps of differentially active regulatory elements. RESULTS: Regions differentially affected in disease showed a stronger enrichment ( P=8.6×10-5) for QRS-associated variants than those not showing differential activity ( P=0.01). Promoters of genes differentially regulated between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and controls showed more enrichment ( P=0.001) than differentially acetylated enhancers ( P=0.8) and super-enhancers ( P=0.025). We also identified 74 potential causal variants overlapping these differential regulatory elements. Eighteen of the genes mapped confirmed previous findings, now also pinpointing the potentially affected regulatory elements and candidate causal variants. Fourteen new genes were also mapped. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest differentially active regulatory elements between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and controls can offer more insights into the mechanisms of QRS-associated loci than elements not affected by disease.

11.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(9): e002115, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in part caused by lipid uptake in the vascular wall, but the exact underlying mechanisms leading to acute myocardial infarction and stroke remain poorly understood. Large consortia identified genetic susceptibility loci that associate with large artery ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease. However, deciphering their underlying mechanisms are challenging. Histological studies identified destabilizing characteristics in human atherosclerotic plaques that associate with clinical outcome. To what extent established susceptibility loci for large artery ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease relate to plaque characteristics is thus far unknown but may point to novel mechanisms. METHODS: We studied the associations of 61 established cardiovascular risk loci with 7 histological plaque characteristics assessed in 1443 carotid plaque specimens from the Athero-Express Biobank Study. We also assessed if the genotyped cardiovascular risk loci impact the tissue-specific gene expression in 2 independent biobanks, Biobank of Karolinska Endarterectomy and Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression. RESULTS: A total of 21 established risk variants (out of 61) nominally associated to a plaque characteristic. One variant (rs12539895, risk allele A) at 7q22 associated to a reduction of intraplaque fat, P=5.09×10-6 after correction for multiple testing. We further characterized this 7q22 Locus and show tissue-specific effects of rs12539895 on HBP1 expression in plaques and COG5 expression in whole blood and provide data from public resources showing an association with decreased LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and increase HDL (high-density lipoprotein) in the blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the view that cardiovascular susceptibility loci may exert their effect by influencing the atherosclerotic plaque characteristics.

12.
Am J Transplant ; 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085400

RESUMO

Renal transplant recipients have an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) compared to in the general population. Here, we show polygenic risk scores (PRS) calculated from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of NMSC in a general, nontransplant setting, can predict risk of, and time to posttransplant skin cancer. Genetic variants, reaching predefined P-value thresholds were chosen from published squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) nontransplant GWAS. Using these GWAS, BCC and SCC PRS were calculated for each sample across three European ancestry renal transplant cohorts (n = 889) and tested as predictors of case:control status and time to NMSC posttransplant. BCC PRS calculated at P-value threshold 1 × 10-5 was the most significant predictor of case:control status of NMSC posttransplant (OR = 1.61; adjusted P = .0022; AUC [full model adjusted for clinical predictors and PRS] = 0.81). SCC PRS at P-value threshold 1 × 10-5 was the most significant predictor of time to posttransplant NMSC (adjusted P = 9.39 × 10-7 ; HR = 1.41, concordance [full model] = 0.74). PRS of nontransplant NMSC is predictive of case:control status and time to NMSC posttransplant. These results are relevant to how genomics can risk stratify patients to help develop personalized treatment regimens.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2904, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046033

RESUMO

Electrocardiographic PR interval measures atrio-ventricular depolarization and conduction, and abnormal PR interval is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation and heart block. Our genome-wide association study of over 92,000 European-descent individuals identifies 44 PR interval loci (34 novel). Examination of these loci reveals known and previously not-yet-reported biological processes involved in cardiac atrial electrical activity. Genes in these loci are over-represented in cardiac disease processes including heart block and atrial fibrillation. Variants in over half of the 44 loci were associated with atrial or blood transcript expression levels, or were in high linkage disequilibrium with missense variants. Six additional loci were identified either by meta-analysis of ~105,000 African and European-descent individuals and/or by pleiotropic analyses combining PR interval with heart rate, QRS interval, and atrial fibrillation. These findings implicate developmental pathways, and identify transcription factors, ion-channel genes, and cell-junction/cell-signaling proteins in atrio-ventricular conduction, identifying potential targets for drug development.

14.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 87, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies conducted on QRS duration, an electrocardiographic measurement associated with heart failure and sudden cardiac death, have led to novel biological insights into cardiac function. However, the variants identified fall predominantly in non-coding regions and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. RESULTS: Here, we identify putative functional coding variation associated with changes in the QRS interval duration by combining Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotype data from 77,898 participants of European ancestry and 7695 of African descent in our discovery cohort, followed by replication in 111,874 individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank and deCODE cohorts. We identify ten novel loci, seven within coding regions, including ADAMTS6, significantly associated with QRS duration in gene-based analyses. ADAMTS6 encodes a secreted metalloprotease of currently unknown function. In vitro validation analysis shows that the QRS-associated variants lead to impaired ADAMTS6 secretion and loss-of function analysis in mice demonstrates a previously unappreciated role for ADAMTS6 in connexin 43 gap junction expression, which is essential for myocardial conduction. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach identifies novel coding and non-coding variants underlying ventricular depolarization and provides a possible mechanism for the ADAMTS6-associated conduction changes.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Conexina 43/genética , Exoma , Loci Gênicos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Animais , Eletrocardiografia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(1): e001758, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: QT interval, measured through a standard ECG, captures the time it takes for the cardiac ventricles to depolarize and repolarize. JT interval is the component of the QT interval that reflects ventricular repolarization alone. Prolonged QT interval has been linked to higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an ExomeChip-wide analysis for both QT and JT intervals, including 209 449 variants, both common and rare, in 17 341 genes from the Illumina Infinium HumanExome BeadChip. We identified 10 loci that modulate QT and JT interval duration that have not been previously reported in the literature using single-variant statistical models in a meta-analysis of 95 626 individuals from 23 cohorts (comprised 83 884 European ancestry individuals, 9610 blacks, 1382 Hispanics, and 750 Asians). This brings the total number of ventricular repolarization associated loci to 45. In addition, our approach of using coding variants has highlighted the role of 17 specific genes for involvement in ventricular repolarization, 7 of which are in novel loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses show a role for myocyte internal structure and interconnections in modulating QT interval duration, adding to previous known roles of potassium, sodium, and calcium ion regulation, as well as autonomic control. We anticipate that these discoveries will open new paths to the goal of making novel remedies for the prevention of lethal ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest.

16.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(5): e002037, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrical conduction from the cardiac sinoatrial node to the ventricles is critical for normal heart function. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than a dozen common genetic loci that are associated with PR interval. However, it is unclear whether rare and low-frequency variants also contribute to PR interval heritability. METHODS: We performed large-scale meta-analyses of the PR interval that included 83 367 participants of European ancestry and 9436 of African ancestry. We examined both common and rare variants associated with the PR interval. RESULTS: We identified 31 genetic loci that were significantly associated with PR interval after Bonferroni correction (P<1.2×10-6), including 11 novel loci that have not been reported previously. Many of these loci are involved in heart morphogenesis. In gene-based analysis, we found that multiple rare variants at MYH6 (P=5.9×10-11) and SCN5A (P=1.1×10-7) were associated with PR interval. SCN5A locus also was implicated in the common variant analysis, whereas MYH6 was a novel locus. CONCLUSIONS: We identified common variants at 11 novel loci and rare variants within 2 gene regions that were significantly associated with PR interval. Our findings provide novel insights to the current understanding of atrioventricular conduction, which is critical for cardiac activity and an important determinant of health.

17.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 5: 25, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670885

RESUMO

High blood pressure or hypertension is an established risk factor for a myriad of cardiovascular diseases. Genome-wide association studies have successfully found over nine hundred loci that contribute to blood pressure. However, the mechanisms through which these loci contribute to disease are still relatively undetermined as less than 10% of hypertension-associated variants are located in coding regions. Phenotypic cell-type specificity analyses and expression quantitative trait loci show predominant vascular and cardiac tissue involvement for blood pressure-associated variants. Maps of chromosomal conformation and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in critical tissues identified 2,424 genes interacting with blood pressure-associated loci, of which 517 are druggable. Integrating genome, regulome and transcriptome information in relevant cell-types could help to functionally annotate blood pressure associated loci and identify drug targets.

18.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(6): 1772-1779, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654215

RESUMO

Background Nephronophthisis (NPH) is the most prevalent genetic cause for ESRD in children. However, little is known about the prevalence of NPH in adult-onset ESRD. Homozygous full gene deletions of the NPHP1 gene encoding nephrocystin-1 are a prominent cause of NPH. We determined the prevalence of NPH in adults by assessing homozygous NPHP1 full gene deletions in adult-onset ESRD.Methods Adult renal transplant recipients from five cohorts of the International Genetics and Translational Research in Transplantation Network (iGeneTRAiN) underwent single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. After quality control, we determined autosomal copy number variants (such as deletions) on the basis of median log2 ratios and B-allele frequency patterns. The findings were independently validated in one cohort. Patients were included in the analysis if they had adult-onset ESRD, defined as start of RRT at ≥18 years old.Results We included 5606 patients with adult-onset ESRD; 26 (0.5%) showed homozygous NPHP1 deletions. No donor controls showed homozygosity for this deletion. Median age at ESRD onset was 30 (range, 18-61) years old for patients with NPH, with 54% of patients age ≥30 years old. Notably, only three (12%) patients were phenotypically classified as having NPH, whereas most patients were defined as having CKD with unknown etiology (n=11; 42%).Conclusions Considering that other mutation types in NPHP1 or mutations in other NPH-causing genes were not analyzed, NPH is a relatively frequent monogenic cause of adult-onset ESRD. Because 88% of patients had not been clinically diagnosed with NPH, wider application of genetic testing in adult-onset ESRD may be warranted.

19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 3105, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705675

RESUMO

Obstructive chronic lung allograft dysfunction (BOS) is the major limiting factor for lung transplantation (LTx) outcome. PTPN22 is described as the hallmark autoimmunity gene, and one specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2476601, is associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, impaired T cell regulation, and autoantibody formation. Taking into consideration the contribution of autoimmunity to LTx outcome, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in the PTPN22 gene could be associated with BOS incidence. We selected six SNPs within PTPN22 and analyzed both patient and donor genotypes on BOS development post-LTx. A total of 144 patients and matched donors were included, and individual SNPs and haplotype configurations were analyzed. We found a significant association between patients carrying the heterozygous configuration of rs2476601 and a higher risk for BOS development (p = 0.005, OR: 4.400, 95%CI: 1.563-12.390). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that heterozygous patients exhibit a lower BOS-free survival compared to patients homozygous for rs2476601 (p = 0.0047). One haplotype, which solely contained the heterozygous risk variant, was associated with BOS development (p = 0.015, OR: 7.029, 95%CI: 1.352-36.543). Our results show that LTx patients heterozygous for rs2476601 are more susceptible for BOS development and indicate a deleterious effect of the autoimmune-related risk factor of PTPN22 in patients on LTx outcome.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/genética , Bronquiolite Obliterante/genética , Rejeição de Enxerto/genética , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/genética , Adulto , Aloenxertos/imunologia , Aloenxertos/patologia , Bronquiolite Obliterante/imunologia , Bronquiolite Obliterante/mortalidade , Bronquiolite Obliterante/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/mortalidade , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/imunologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/imunologia
20.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1109, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28932229

RESUMO

Lung transplantation (LTx) outcome is hampered by development of chronic rejection, often manifested as the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Low serum levels of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17), a chemoattractant, measured during the first month post-LTx are predictive for BOS development. Since TARC/CCL17 promotor polymorphisms correlate with serum TARC/CCL17 levels, we investigated seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within this region and their potential association with LTx outcome. We analyzed donor and patient SNP configurations and haplotypes and observed a trend between a donor SNP (rs223899) configuration and patient TARC/CCL17 serum levels post-LTx (p = 0.066). Interestingly, this SNP configuration in patients did not show any correlation with pre-LTx TARC/CCL17 serum levels (p = 0.776). Survival analysis showed that receiving a graft from a donor heterozygous for rs223899 has a disadvantageous impact on transplantation outcome. When stratified per donor SNP genotype, patients receiving a transplant from a heterozygous donor showed a lower BOS-free survival (p = 0.023) and survival rate (p = 0.0079). Since rs223899 is located within a NFκB binding site, heterozygosity at this position could result in a reduced TARC/CCL17 expression. Our data indicate that a single TARC/CCL17 promotor SNP in the donor correlates with lower serum TARC/CCL17 levels measured 1 month after LTx and affects clinical outcome after LTx.

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