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1.
Euro Surveill ; 24(19)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088600

RESUMO

BackgroundA steady increase in HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) has been demonstrated globally in individuals initiating first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). To support effective use of ART and prevent spread of HIVDR, monitoring is essential.AimWe piloted a surveillance system for transmitted HIVDR to assess the feasibility of implementation at the European level.MethodAll 31 countries in the European Union and European Economic Area were invited to retrospectively submit data on individuals newly diagnosed with HIV in 2015 who were tested for antiviral susceptibility before ART, either as case-based or as aggregate data. We used the Stanford HIV database algorithm to translate genetic sequences into levels of drug resistance.ResultsNine countries participated, with six reporting case-based data on 1,680 individuals and four reporting aggregated data on 1,402 cases. Sequence data were available for 1,417 cases: 14.5% of individuals (n = 244) showed resistance to at least one antiretroviral drug. In case-based surveillance, the highest levels of transmitted HIVDR were observed for non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with resistance detected in 8.6% (n = 145), followed by resistance to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) (5.1%; n = 85) and protease inhibitors (2.0%; n = 34).ConclusionWe conclude that standard reporting of HIVDR data was feasible in the participating countries. Legal barriers for data sharing, consensus on definitions and standardisation of interpretation algorithms should be clarified in the process of enhancing European-wide HIV surveillance with drug resistance information.

2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063192

RESUMO

Effect estimates from randomized trials and observational studies may not be directly comparable because of differences in study design, other than randomization, and in data analysis. We propose a three-step procedure to facilitate meaningful comparisons of effect estimates from randomized trials and observational studies: 1) harmonization of the study protocol (eligibility criteria, treatment strategies, outcome, start and end of follow-up, causal contrast) so that the studies target the same causal effect, 2) harmonization of the data analysis to estimate the causal effect, and 3) sensitivity analyses to investigate the impact of discrepancies that could not be accounted for in the harmonization process. To illustrate our approach, we compared estimates of the effect of immediate with deferred initiation of antiretroviral therapy in individuals positive to the human immunodeficiency virus from the START randomized trial and the observational HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration.

3.
Euro Surveill ; 24(14)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968824

RESUMO

BackgroundSweden has a low HIV prevalence. However, among new HIV diagnoses in 2016, the proportion of late presenters and migrants was high (59% and 81%, respectively). This poses challenges in estimating the proportion of undiagnosed persons living with HIV (PLHIV).AimTo estimate the proportion of undiagnosed PLHIV in Sweden comparing two models with different demands on data availability and modelling expertise.MethodsAn individual-based stochastic simulation model of HIV positive populations (SSOPHIE) and the incidence method of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) HIV Modelling Tool were applied to clinical, surveillance and migration data from Sweden 1980-2016.ResultsSSOPHIE estimated that the proportion of undiagnosed PLHIV in 2013 was 26% (n = 2,100; 90% plausibility range (PR): 900-5,000) for all PLHIV, 17% (n = 600; 90% PR: 100-2,000) for men who have sex with men (MSM), 35% in male (n = 300; 90% PR: 200-700) and 34% in female (n = 400; 90% PR: 200-800) migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The estimates for the ECDC model in 2013 were 21% (n = 2,013; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1,831-2,189) for all PLHIV, 15% (n = 369; 95% CI: 299-434) for MSM and 21% (n = 530; 95% CI: 436-632) for migrants from SSA.ConclusionsThe proportion of undiagnosed PLHIV in Sweden is uncertain. SSOPHIE estimates had wide PR. The ECDC model estimates were unreliable because migration was not accounted for. Better migration data and estimation methods are required to obtain reliable estimates of proportions of undiagnosed PLHIV in similar settings.

4.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(2): 207-215, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Definitions of virological response vary from <50 up to 1000 copies of HIV-RNA/mL. Our previous models estimate the probability of HIV drug combinations reducing the viral load to <50 copies/mL, with no indication of whether higher thresholds of response may be achieved. Here, we describe the development of models that predict absolute viral load over time. METHODS: Two sets of random forest models were developed using 50,270 treatment change episodes from more than 20 countries. The models estimated viral load at different time points following the introduction of a new regimen from variables including baseline viral load, CD4 count, and treatment history. One set also used genotypes in their predictions. Independent data sets were used for evaluation. RESULTS: Both models achieved highly significant correlations between predicted and actual viral load changes (r = 0.67-0.68, mean absolute error of 0.73-0.74 log10 copies/mL). The models produced curves of virological response over time. Using failure definitions of <100, 400, or 1000 copies/mL, but not 50 copies/mL, both models were able to identify alternative regimens they predicted to be effective for the majority of cases where the new regimen prescribed in the clinic failed. CONCLUSIONS: These models could be useful for selecting the optimum combination therapy for patients requiring a change in therapy in settings using any definition of virological response. They also give an idea of the likely response curve over time. Given that genotypes are not required, these models could be a useful addition to the HIV-TRePS system for those in resource-limited settings.

5.
Stat Med ; 38(13): 2428-2446, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883859

RESUMO

Decisions about when to start or switch a therapy often depend on the frequency with which individuals are monitored or tested. For example, the optimal time to switch antiretroviral therapy depends on the frequency with which HIV-positive individuals have HIV RNA measured. This paper describes an approach to use observational data for the comparison of joint monitoring and treatment strategies and applies the method to a clinically relevant question in HIV research: when can monitoring frequency be decreased and when should individuals switch from a first-line treatment regimen to a new regimen? We outline the target trial that would compare the dynamic strategies of interest and then describe how to emulate it using data from HIV-positive individuals included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems. When, as in our example, few individuals follow the dynamic strategies of interest over long periods of follow-up, we describe how to leverage an additional assumption: no direct effect of monitoring on the outcome of interest. We compare our results with and without the "no direct effect" assumption. We found little differences on survival and AIDS-free survival between strategies where monitoring frequency was decreased at a CD4 threshold of 350 cells/µl compared with 500 cells/µl and where treatment was switched at an HIV-RNA threshold of 1000 copies/ml compared with 200 copies/ml. The "no direct effect" assumption resulted in efficiency improvements for the risk difference estimates ranging from an 7- to 53-fold increase in the effective sample size.

6.
AIDS ; 33(12): 1807-1817, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of increased consistent HIV testing among MSM in the Netherlands. METHODS: Among MSM testing at sexually transmitted infection clinics in the Netherlands in 2014-2015, approximately 20% tested consistently every 6 months. We examined four scenarios with increased percentage of MSM testing every 6 months: a small and a moderate increase among all MSM; a small and a moderate increase only among MSM with at least 10 partners in the preceding 6 months. We used an agent-based model to calculate numbers of HIV infections and AIDS cases prevented with increased HIV testing. These numbers were used in an economic model to calculate costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) due to increased testing, over 2018-2027, taking a healthcare payer perspective. RESULTS: A small increase in the percentage testing every 6 months among all MSM resulted in 490 averted HIV infections and an average ICER of &OV0556;27 900/QALY gained. A moderate increase among all MSM, resulted in 1380 averted HIV infections and an average ICER of &OV0556;36 700/QALY gained. Both were not cost-effective, with a &OV0556;20 000 willingness-to-pay threshold. Increasing the percentage testing every 6 months only among MSM with at least 10 partners in the preceding 6 months resulted in less averted HIV infections than increased testing among all MSM, but was on average cost-saving. CONCLUSION: Increased HIV testing can prevent considerable numbers of new HIV infections among MSM, but may be cost-effective only if targeted at high-risk individuals, such as those with many partners.

7.
AIDS ; 32(17): 2615-2623, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising intervention to help end the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Netherlands. We aimed to assess the impact of PrEP on HIV prevalence in this population and to determine the levels of PrEP coverage necessary for HIV elimination. DESIGN AND METHODS: We developed a mathematical model of HIV transmission in a population stratified by sexual risk behavior with universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) and daily PrEP use depending on an individual's risk behavior. We computed the effective reproduction number, HIV prevalence, ART and PrEP coverage for increasing ART and PrEP uptake levels, and examined how these were affected by PrEP effectiveness and duration of PrEP use. RESULTS: At current levels of ART coverage of 80%, PrEP effectiveness of 86% and PrEP duration of 5 years, HIV elimination required 82% PrEP coverage in the highest risk group (12 000 MSM with more than 18 partners per year). If ART coverage increased by 9%, the elimination threshold was at 70% PrEP coverage. For shorter PrEP duration and lower effectiveness elimination prospects were less favorable. For the same number of PrEP users distributed among two groups with highest risk behavior, prevalence dropped from the current 8 to 4.6%. CONCLUSION: PrEP for HIV prevention among MSM could, in principle, eliminate HIV from this population in the Netherlands. The highest impact of PrEP on prevalence was predicted when ART and PrEP coverage increased simultaneously and PrEP was used by the highest risk individuals.

8.
Ann Epidemiol ; 28(12): 874-880, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the article was to investigate recent trends in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries in North America, Western Europe, and Australia. METHODS: Data on annual rates of HIV diagnoses among MSM aged 15 to 65 years from 2000 to 2014 were collected from 13 high-income countries. Joinpoint regression software was used to empirically determine country-specific trend periods. Trends in HIV diagnosis rates and in the proportion of diagnoses occurring in young MSM aged 15 to 24 years were analyzed using Poisson regression and log-binomial regression, respectively. RESULTS: Six countries experienced an increasing trend from 2000 to 2007-08 followed by either a stable or declining trend through 2014. Five countries had recently increasing trends, and two countries had one stable trend from 2000 to 2014. All 13 countries experienced increases in the proportion of diagnoses occurring in young MSM. CONCLUSIONS: Since 2008, half of the 13 high-income countries examined experienced stable or decreasing trends. Still, some countries continue to experience increasing HIV trends, and young MSM are increasingly represented among new diagnoses. Efforts to support early sexual health promotion, reduce barriers to pre-exposure prophylaxis, and improve care engagement for young MSM are critical to addressing current HIV trends.

9.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(8): 2186-2196, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889249

RESUMO

Objectives: Optimizing antiretroviral drug combination on an individual basis can be challenging, particularly in settings with limited access to drugs and genotypic resistance testing. Here we describe our latest computational models to predict treatment responses, with or without a genotype, and compare their predictive accuracy with that of genotyping. Methods: Random forest models were trained to predict the probability of virological response to a new therapy introduced following virological failure using up to 50 000 treatment change episodes (TCEs) without a genotype and 18 000 TCEs including genotypes. Independent data sets were used to evaluate the models. This study tested the effects on model accuracy of relaxing the baseline data timing windows, the use of a new filter to exclude probable non-adherent cases and the addition of maraviroc, tipranavir and elvitegravir to the system. Results: The no-genotype models achieved area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.82 and 0.81 using the standard and relaxed baseline data windows, respectively. The genotype models achieved AUC values of 0.86 with the new non-adherence filter and 0.84 without. Both sets of models were significantly more accurate than genotyping with rules-based interpretation, which achieved AUC values of only 0.55-0.63, and were marginally more accurate than previous models. The models were able to identify alternative regimens that were predicted to be effective for the vast majority of cases in which the new regimen prescribed in the clinic failed. Conclusions: These latest global models predict treatment responses accurately even without a genotype and have the potential to help optimize therapy, particularly in resource-limited settings.

10.
Virus Evol ; 4(1): vey007, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876136

RESUMO

Studying the evolution of viruses and their molecular epidemiology relies on accurate viral sequence data, so that small differences between similar viruses can be meaningfully interpreted. Despite its higher throughput and more detailed minority variant data, next-generation sequencing has yet to be widely adopted for HIV. The difficulty of accurately reconstructing the consensus sequence of a quasispecies from reads (short fragments of DNA) in the presence of large between- and within-host diversity, including frequent indels, may have presented a barrier. In particular, mapping (aligning) reads to a reference sequence leads to biased loss of information; this bias can distort epidemiological and evolutionary conclusions. De novo assembly avoids this bias by aligning the reads to themselves, producing a set of sequences called contigs. However contigs provide only a partial summary of the reads, misassembly may result in their having an incorrect structure, and no information is available at parts of the genome where contigs could not be assembled. To address these problems we developed the tool shiver to pre-process reads for quality and contamination, then map them to a reference tailored to the sample using corrected contigs supplemented with the user's choice of existing reference sequences. Run with two commands per sample, it can easily be used for large heterogeneous data sets. We used shiver to reconstruct the consensus sequence and minority variant information from paired-end short-read whole-genome data produced with the Illumina platform, for sixty-five existing publicly available samples and fifty new samples. We show the systematic superiority of mapping to shiver's constructed reference compared with mapping the same reads to the closest of 3,249 real references: median values of 13 bases called differently and more accurately, 0 bases called differently and less accurately, and 205 bases of missing sequence recovered. We also successfully applied shiver to whole-genome samples of Hepatitis C Virus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus. shiver is publicly available from https://github.com/ChrisHIV/shiver.

11.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 79(1): 28-37, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target by 2020 is expected to end the HIV epidemic by 2030. We report on progress in the WHO European Region in meeting this target. METHODS: The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) sent questionnaires to 55 countries in 2016. We report estimates for 4 stages of the continuum of HIV care (living with HIV, diagnosed, treated, and virally suppressed), corresponding to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) target and explore differences by subregion and challenges with reporting data. FINDINGS: Forty-four countries provided data for ≥1 stage, and 29 for all 4 stages. Estimated HIV prevalence was 0.19% (range 0.02%-0.84%, n = 37 countries providing stage 1 data). The proportion diagnosed of people living with HIV ranged from 38% to 98% (n = 37 reporting number of people living with HIV and diagnosed). The proportion on ART of those diagnosed ranged from 27% to 96% (n = 40 reporting numbers diagnosed and treated), and viral suppression rates ranged from 32% to 97% (n = 31 providing numbers treated and virally suppressed). The overall continuum of care estimate for 29 countries with complete data was 81-84-88, which differed by subregion: 84-88-90, 84-69-62, and 57-45-57 for the western, central, and eastern subregions, respectively. Challenges in reporting data included absence of a single data source for all stages, shortage of expertise, and lack of financial and human resources. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to strengthen HIV testing programs throughout Europe, particularly in the eastern subregion, and to remove constraints hampering access to testing and care. Recent changes to treatment guidelines should help reduce the numbers diagnosed not treated.

12.
AIDS ; 32(3): 327-335, 2018 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We estimated and compared the risk of clinically identified acquired drug resistance under immediate initiation [the currently recommended antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation strategy], initiation with CD4 cell count less than 500 cells/µl and initiation with CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/µl. DESIGN: Cohort study based on routinely collected data from the HIV-CAUSAL collaboration. METHODS: For each individual, baseline was the earliest time when all eligibility criteria (ART-naive, AIDS free, and others) were met after 1999. Acquired drug resistance was defined using the Stanford classification as resistance to any antiretroviral drug that was clinically identified at least 6 months after ART initiation. We used the parametric g-formula to adjust for time-varying (CD4 cell count, HIV RNA, AIDS, ART regimen, and drug resistance testing) and baseline (calendar period, mode of acquisition, sex, age, geographical origin, ethnicity and cohort) characteristics. RESULTS: In 50 981 eligible individuals, 10% had CD4 cell count more than 500 cells/µl at baseline, and 63% initiated ART during follow-up. Of 2672 tests for acquired drug resistance, 794 found resistance. The estimated 7-year risk (95% confidence interval) of acquired drug resistance was 3.2% (2.8,3.5) for immediate initiation, 3.1% (2.7,3.3) for initiation with CD4 cell count less than 500 cells/µl, and 2.8% (2.5,3.0) for initiation with CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/µl. In analyses restricted to individuals with baseline in 2005-2015, the corresponding estimates were 1.9% (1.8, 2.5), 1.9% (1.7, 2.4), and 1.8% (1.7, 2.2). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the risk of acquired drug resistance is very low, especially in recent calendar periods, and that immediate ART initiation only slightly increases the risk. It is unlikely that drug resistance will jeopardize the proven benefits of immediate ART initiation.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 66(5): 743-750, 2018 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029103

RESUMO

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is expected to contribute a large noncommunicable disease burden among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people. We quantify the impact of prevention interventions on annual CVD burden and costs among HIV-infected people in the Netherlands. Methods: We constructed an individual-based model of CVD in HIV-infected people using national ATHENA (AIDS Therapy Evaluation in The Netherlands) cohort data on 8791 patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The model follows patients as they age, develop CVD (by incorporating a CVD risk equation), and start cardiovascular medication. Four prevention interventions were evaluated: (1) increasing the rate of earlier HIV diagnosis and treatment; (2) avoiding use of cART with increased CVD risk; (3) smoking cessation; and (4) intensified monitoring and drug treatment of hypertension and dyslipidemia, quantifying annual number of averted CVDs and costs. Results: The model predicts that annual CVD incidence and costs will increase by 55% and 36% between 2015 and 2030. Traditional prevention interventions (ie, smoking cessation and intensified monitoring and treatment of hypertension and dyslipidemia) will avert the largest number of annual CVD cases (13.1% and 20.0%) compared with HIV-related interventions-that is, earlier HIV diagnosis and treatment and avoiding cART with increased CVD risk (0.8% and 3.7%, respectively)-as well as reduce cumulative CVD-related costs. Targeting high-risk patients could avert the majority of events and costs. Conclusions: Traditional CVD prevention interventions can maximize cardiovascular health and defray future costs, particularly if targeting high-risk patients. Quantifying additional public health benefits, beyond CVD, is likely to provide further evidence for policy development.

14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 77(1): 102-109, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28991888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The differential effects of commonly prescribed combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens on AIDS-defining neurological conditions (neuroAIDS) remain unknown. SETTING: Prospective cohort studies of HIV-positive individuals from Europe and the Americas included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: Individuals who initiated a first-line cART regimen in 2004 or later containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone and either atazanavir, lopinavir, darunavir, or efavirenz were followed from cART initiation until death, lost to follow-up, pregnancy, the cohort-specific administrative end of follow-up, or the event of interest, whichever occurred earliest. We evaluated 4 neuroAIDS conditions: HIV dementia and the opportunistic infections toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. For each outcome, we estimated hazard ratios for atazanavir, lopinavir, and darunavir compared with efavirenz via a pooled logistic model. Our models were adjusted for baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Twenty six thousand one hundred seventy-two individuals initiated efavirenz, 5858 initiated atazanavir, 8479 initiated lopinavir, and 4799 initiated darunavir. Compared with efavirenz, the adjusted HIV dementia hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.72 (1.00 to 2.96) for atazanavir, 2.21 (1.38 to 3.54) for lopinavir, and 1.41 (0.61 to 3.24) for darunavir. The respective hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the combined end point were 1.18 (0.74 to 1.88) for atazanavir, 1.61 (1.14 to 2.27) for lopinavir, and 1.36 (0.74 to 2.48) for darunavir. The results varied in subsets defined by calendar year, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone, and age. CONCLUSION: Our results are consistent with an increased risk of neuroAIDS after initiating lopinavir compared with efavirenz, but temporal changes in prescribing trends and confounding by indication could explain our findings.


Assuntos
Complexo AIDS Demência/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva/epidemiologia , Meningite Criptocócica/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Américas/epidemiologia , Sulfato de Atazanavir/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico
15.
Euro Surveill ; 22(48)2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29208159

RESUMO

It is well-documented that early HIV diagnosis and linkage to care reduces morbidity and mortality as well as HIV transmission. We estimated the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) at 2.9 years in 2016, with regional variation. Despite evidence of a decline in the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in the EU/EEA, many remain undiagnosed, including 33% with more advanced HIV infection (CD4 < 350 cells/mm3).


Assuntos
Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soroprevalência de HIV/tendências , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 72(10): 2869-2878, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091198

RESUMO

Background: CD4 cell recovery following first-line combination ART (cART) is poorer in HIV-2+ than in HIV-1+ patients. Only large comparisons may allow adjustments for demographic and pretreatment plasma viral load (pVL). Methods: ART-naive HIV+ adults from two European multicohort collaborations, COHERE (HIV-1 alone) and ACHIeV2e (HIV-2 alone), were included, if they started first-line cART (without NNRTIs or fusion inhibitors) between 1997 and 2011. Patients without at least one CD4 cell count before start of cART, without a pretreatment pVL and with missing a priori-defined covariables were excluded. Evolution of CD4 cell count was studied using adjusted linear mixed models. Results: We included 185 HIV-2+ and 30321 HIV-1+ patients with median age of 46 years (IQR 36-52) and 37 years (IQR 31-44), respectively. Median observed pretreatment CD4 cell counts/mm3 were 203 (95% CI 100-290) in HIV-2+ patients and 223 (95% CI 100-353) in HIV-1+ patients. Mean observed CD4 cell count changes from start of cART to 12 months were +105 (95% CI 77-134) in HIV-2+ patients and +202 (95% CI 199-205) in HIV-1+ patients, an observed difference of 97 cells/mm3 in 1 year. In adjusted analysis, the mean CD4 cell increase was overall 25 CD4 cells/mm3/year lower (95% CI 5-44; P = 0.0127) in HIV-2+ patients compared with HIV-1+ patients. Conclusions: A poorer CD4 cell increase during first-line cART was observed in HIV-2+ patients, even after adjusting for pretreatment pVL and other potential confounders. Our results underline the need to identify more potent therapeutic regimens or strategies against HIV-2.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Carga Viral
18.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 76(3): 311-318, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend immediate initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy for all HIV-positive individuals. However, those guidelines are based on trials of relatively young participants. METHODS: We included HIV-positive antiretroviral therapy-naive, AIDS-free individuals aged 50-70 years after 2004 in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. We used the parametric g-formula to estimate the 5-year risk of all-cause and non-AIDS mortality under (1) immediate initiation at baseline and initiation at CD4 count, (2) <500 cells/mm, and (3) <350 cells/mm. Results were presented separately for the general HIV population and for a US Veterans cohort with high mortality. RESULTS: The study included 9596 individuals (28% US Veterans) with median (interquantile range) age of 55 (52-60) years and CD4 count of 336 (182-513) at baseline. The 5-year risk of all-cause mortality was 0.40% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10 to 0.71) lower for the general HIV population and 1.61% (95% CI: 0.79 to 2.67) lower for US Veterans when comparing immediate initiation vs initiation at CD4 <350 cells/mm. The 5-year risk of non-AIDS mortality was 0.17% (95% CI: -0.07 to 0.43) lower for the general HIV population and 1% (95% CI: 0.31 to 2.00) lower for US Veterans when comparing immediate initiation vs initiation at CD4 <350 cells/mm. CONCLUSIONS: Immediate initiation seems to reduce all-cause and non-AIDS mortality in patients aged 50-70 years.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
20.
AIDS ; 31(15): 2147-2158, 2017 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MSM are at increased risk for infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Is HIV/HCV coinfection confined to specific HIV transmission networks? DESIGN AND METHODS: A HIV phylogenetic tree was constructed for 5038 HIV-1 subtype B polymerase (pol) sequences obtained from MSM in the AIDS therapy evaluation in the Netherlands cohort. We investigated the existence of HIV clusters with increased HCV prevalence, the HIV phylogenetic density (i.e. the number of potential HIV transmission partners) of HIV/HCV-coinfected MSM compared with HIV-infected MSM without HCV, and the overlap in HIV and HCV phylogenies using HCV nonstructural protein 5B sequences from 183 HIV-infected MSM with acute HCV infection. RESULTS: Five hundred and sixty-three of 5038 (11.2%) HIV-infected MSM tested HCV positive. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 93 large HIV clusters (≥10 MSM), 370 small HIV clusters (2-9 MSM), and 867 singletons with a median HCV prevalence of 11.5, 11.6, and 9.3%, respectively. We identified six large HIV clusters with elevated HCV prevalence (range 23.5-46.2%). Median HIV phylogenetic densities for MSM with HCV (3, interquartile range 1-7) and without HCV (3, interquartile range 1-8) were similar. HCV phylogeny showed 12 MSM-specific HCV clusters (clustersize: 2-39 HCV sequences); 12.7% of HCV infections were part of the same HIV and HCV cluster. CONCLUSION: We observed few HIV clusters with elevated HCV prevalence, no increase in the HIV phylogenetic density of HIV/HCV-coinfected MSM compared to HIV-infected MSM without HCV, and limited overlap between HIV and HCV phylogenies among HIV/HCV-coinfected MSM. Our data do not support the existence of MSM-specific sexual networks that fuel both the HIV and HCV epidemic.


Assuntos
Análise por Conglomerados , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV/classificação , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepatite C/transmissão , Homossexualidade Masculina , Adulto , Genótipo , HIV/genética , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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