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1.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564728

RESUMO

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients are at risk of memory deficits, which have been linked to functional network disturbances, particularly of integration of the default mode network (DMN). However, the cellular substrates of functional network integration are unknown. We leverage a unique cross-scale dataset of drug-resistant TLE patients (n = 31), who underwent pseudo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) and/or neuropsychological testing before neurosurgery. fMRI and MEG underwent atlas-based connectivity analyses. Functional network centrality of the lateral middle temporal gyrus, part of the DMN, was used as a measure of local network integration. Subsequently, non-pathological cortical tissue from this region was used for single cell morphological and electrophysiological patch-clamp analysis, assessing integration in terms of total dendritic length and action potential rise speed. As could be hypothesized, greater network centrality related to better memory performance. Moreover, greater network centrality correlated with more integrative properties at the cellular level across patients. We conclude that individual differences in cognitively relevant functional network integration of a DMN region are mirrored by differences in cellular integrative properties of this region in TLE patients. These findings connect previously separate scales of investigation, increasing translational insight into focal pathology and large-scale network disturbances in TLE.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19025, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561483

RESUMO

The success of epilepsy surgery in patients with refractory epilepsy depends upon correct identification of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) and an optimal choice of the resection area. In this study we developed individualized computational models based upon structural brain networks to explore the impact of different virtual resections on the propagation of seizures. The propagation of seizures was modelled as an epidemic process [susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model] on individual structural networks derived from presurgical diffusion tensor imaging in 19 patients. The candidate connections for the virtual resection were all connections from the clinically hypothesized EZ, from which the seizures were modelled to start, to other brain areas. As a computationally feasible surrogate for the SIR model, we also removed the connections that maximally reduced the eigenvector centrality (EC) (large values indicate network hubs) of the hypothesized EZ, with a large reduction meaning a large effect. The optimal combination of connections to be removed for a maximal effect were found using simulated annealing. For comparison, the same number of connections were removed randomly, or based on measures that quantify the importance of a node or connection within the network. We found that 90% of the effect (defined as reduction of EC of the hypothesized EZ) could already be obtained by removing substantially less than 90% of the connections. Thus, a smaller, optimized, virtual resection achieved almost the same effect as the actual surgery yet at a considerably smaller cost, sparing on average 27.49% (standard deviation: 4.65%) of the connections. Furthermore, the maximally effective connections linked the hypothesized EZ to hubs. Finally, the optimized resection was equally or more effective than removal based on structural network characteristics both regarding reducing the EC of the hypothesized EZ and seizure spreading. The approach of using reduced EC as a surrogate for simulating seizure propagation can suggest more restrictive resection strategies, whilst obtaining an almost optimal effect on reducing seizure propagation, by taking into account the unique topology of individual structural brain networks of patients.

3.
J Neurosci ; 41(31): 6714-6725, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183446

RESUMO

An indispensable feature of episodic memory is our ability to temporally piece together different elements of an experience into a coherent memory. Hippocampal time cells-neurons that represent temporal information-may play a critical role in this process. Although these cells have been repeatedly found in rodents, it is still unclear to what extent similar temporal selectivity exists in the human hippocampus. Here, we show that temporal context modulates the firing activity of human hippocampal neurons during structured temporal experiences. We recorded neuronal activity in the human brain while patients of either sex learned predictable sequences of pictures. We report that human time cells fire at successive moments in this task. Furthermore, time cells also signaled inherently changing temporal contexts during empty 10 s gap periods between trials while participants waited for the task to resume. Finally, population activity allowed for decoding temporal epoch identity, both during sequence learning and during the gap periods. These findings suggest that human hippocampal neurons could play an essential role in temporally organizing distinct moments of an experience in episodic memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memory refers to our ability to remember the what, where, and when of a past experience. Representing time is an important component of this form of memory. Here, we show that neurons in the human hippocampus represent temporal information. This temporal signature was observed both when participants were actively engaged in a memory task, as well as during 10-s-long gaps when they were asked to wait before performing the task. Furthermore, the activity of the population of hippocampal cells allowed for decoding one temporal epoch from another. These results suggest a robust representation of time in the human hippocampus.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Neurônios/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletrocorticografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107355, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In cases undergoing epilepsy surgery, postoperative psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) may be underdiagnosed complicating the assessment of postsurgical seizures' outcome and the clinical management. We conducted a survey to investigate the current practices in the European epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) and the data that EMUs could provide to retrospectively detect cases with postoperative PNES and to assess the feasibility of a subsequent postoperative PNES research project for cases with postoperative PNES. METHODS: We developed and distributed a questionnaire survey to 57 EMUs. Questions addressed the number of patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, the performance of systematic preoperative and postoperative psychiatric evaluation, the recording of sexual or other abuse, the follow-up period of patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, the performance of video-electroencephalogram (EEG) and postoperative psychiatric assessment in suspected postoperative cases with PNES, the existence of electronic databases to allow extraction of cases with postoperative PNES, the data that these bases could provide, and EMUs' interest to participate in a retrospective postoperative PNES project. RESULTS: Twenty EMUs completed the questionnaire sheet. The number of patients operated every year/per center is 26.7 ( ±â€¯19.1), and systematic preoperative and postoperative psychiatric evaluation is performed in 75% and 50% of the EMUs accordingly. Sexual or other abuse is systematically recorded in one-third of the centers, and the mean follow-up period after epilepsy surgery is 10.5 ±â€¯7.5 years. In suspected postoperative PNES, video-EEG is performed in 85% and psychiatric assessment in 95% of the centers. An electronic database to allow extraction of patients with PNES after epilepsy surgery is used in 75% of the EMUs, and all EMUs that sent the sheet completed expressed their interest to participate in a retrospective postoperative PNES project. CONCLUSION: Postoperative PNES is an underestimated and not well-studied entity. This is a European survey to assess the type of data that the EMUs surgical cohorts could provide to retrospectively detect postoperative PNES. In cases with suspected PNES, most EMUs perform video-EEG and psychiatric assessment, and most EMUs use an electronic database to allow extraction of patients developing PNES.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Convulsões , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Netw Neurosci ; 3(4): 969-993, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637334

RESUMO

Clinical network neuroscience, the study of brain network topology in neurological and psychiatric diseases, has become a mainstay field within clinical neuroscience. Being a multidisciplinary group of clinical network neuroscience experts based in The Netherlands, we often discuss the current state of the art and possible avenues for future investigations. These discussions revolve around questions like "How do dynamic processes alter the underlying structural network?" and "Can we use network neuroscience for disease classification?" This opinion paper is an incomplete overview of these discussions and expands on ten questions that may potentially advance the field. By no means intended as a review of the current state of the field, it is instead meant as a conversation starter and source of inspiration to others.

6.
Front Neurol ; 9: 647, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131762

RESUMO

Objective: Epilepsy surgery results in seizure freedom in the majority of drug-resistant patients. To improve surgery outcome we studied whether MEG metrics combined with machine learning can improve localization of the epileptogenic zone, thereby enhancing the chance of seizure freedom. Methods: Presurgical interictal MEG recordings of 94 patients (64 seizure-free >1y post-surgery) were analyzed to extract four metrics in source space: delta power, low-to-high-frequency power ratio, functional connectivity (phase lag index), and minimum spanning tree betweenness centrality. At the group level, we estimated the overlap of the resection area with the five highest values for each metric and determined whether this overlap differed between surgery outcomes. At the individual level, those metrics were used in machine learning classifiers (linear support vector machine (SVM) and random forest) to distinguish between resection and non-resection areas and between surgery outcome groups. Results: The highest values, for all metrics, overlapped with the resection area in more than half of the patients, but the overlap did not differ between surgery outcome groups. The classifiers distinguished the resection areas from non-resection areas with 59.94% accuracy (95% confidence interval: 59.67-60.22%) for SVM and 60.34% (59.98-60.71%) for random forest, but could not differentiate seizure-free from not seizure-free patients [43.77% accuracy (42.08-45.45%) for SVM and 49.03% (47.25-50.82%) for random forest]. Significance: All four metrics localized the resection area but did not distinguish between surgery outcome groups, demonstrating that metrics derived from interictal MEG correspond to expert consensus based on several presurgical evaluation modalities, but do not yet localize the epileptogenic zone. Metrics should be improved such that they correspond to the resection area in seizure-free patients but not in patients with persistent seizures. It is important to test such localization strategies at an individual level, for example by using machine learning or individualized models, since surgery is individually tailored.

7.
Neuroimage Clin ; 19: 758-766, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009129

RESUMO

In some patients with medically refractory epilepsy, EEG with intracerebrally placed electrodes (stereo-electroencephalography, SEEG) is needed to locate the seizure onset zone (SOZ) for successful epilepsy surgery. SEEG has limitations and entails risk of complications because of its invasive character. Non-invasive magnetoencephalography virtual electrodes (MEG-VEs) may overcome SEEG limitations and optimize electrode placement making SOZ localization safer. Our purpose was to assess whether interictal activity measured by MEG-VEs and SEEG at identical anatomical locations were comparable, and whether MEG-VEs activity properties could determine the location of a later resected brain area (RA) as an approximation of the SOZ. We analyzed data from nine patients who underwent MEG and SEEG evaluation, and surgery for medically refractory epilepsy. MEG activity was retrospectively reconstructed using beamforming to obtain VEs at the anatomical locations corresponding to those of SEEG electrodes. Spectral, functional connectivity and functional network properties were obtained for both, MEG-VEs and SEEG time series, and their correlation and reliability were established. Based on these properties, the approximation of the SOZ was characterized by the differences between RA and non-RA (NRA). We found significant positive correlation and reliability between MEG-VEs and SEEG spectral measures (particularly in delta [0.5-4 Hz], alpha2 [10-13 Hz], and beta [13-30 Hz] bands) and broadband functional connectivity. Both modalities showed significantly slower activity and a tendency towards increased broadband functional connectivity in the RA compared to the NRA. Our findings show that spectral and functional connectivity properties of non-invasively obtained MEG-VEs match those of invasive SEEG recordings, and can characterize the SOZ. This suggests that MEG-VEs might be used for optimal SEEG planning and fewer depth electrode implantations, making the localization of the SOZ safer and more successful.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 129(6): 1221-1229, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Kurtosis beamforming is a useful technique for analysing magnetoencephalograpy (MEG) data containing epileptic spikes. However, the implementation varies and few studies measure concordance with subsequently resected areas. We evaluated kurtosis beamforming as a means of localizing spikes in drug-resistant epilepsy patients. METHODS: We retrospectively applied kurtosis beamforming to MEG recordings of 22 epilepsy patients that had previously been analysed using equivalent current dipole (ECD) fitting. Virtual electrodes were placed in the kurtosis volumetric peaks and visually inspected to select a candidate source. The candidate sources were compared to the ECD localizations and resection areas. RESULTS: The kurtosis beamformer produced interpretable localizations in 18/22 patients, of which the candidate source coincided with the resection lobe in 9/13 seizure-free patients and in 3/5 patients with persistent seizures. The sublobar accuracy of the kurtosis beamformer with respect to the resection zone was higher than ECD (56% and 50%, respectively), however, ECD resulted in a higher lobar accuracy (75%, 67%). CONCLUSIONS: Kurtosis beamforming may provide additional value when spikes are not clearly discernible on the sensors and support ECD localizations when dipoles are scattered. SIGNIFICANCE: Kurtosis beamforming should be integrated with existing clinical protocols to assist in localizing the epileptogenic zone.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Convulsões/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 13(9): e1005707, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938009

RESUMO

Neuronal hyperactivity and hyperexcitability of the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region is an increasingly observed phenomenon in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). In later stages, oscillatory slowing and loss of functional connectivity are ubiquitous. Recent evidence suggests that neuronal dynamics have a prominent role in AD pathophysiology, making it a potentially interesting therapeutic target. However, although neuronal activity can be manipulated by various (non-)pharmacological means, intervening in a highly integrated system that depends on complex dynamics can produce counterintuitive and adverse effects. Computational dynamic network modeling may serve as a virtual test ground for developing effective interventions. To explore this approach, a previously introduced large-scale neural mass network with human brain topology was used to simulate the temporal evolution of AD-like, activity-dependent network degeneration. In addition, six defense strategies that either enhanced or diminished neuronal excitability were tested against the degeneration process, targeting excitatory and inhibitory neurons combined or separately. Outcome measures described oscillatory, connectivity and topological features of the damaged networks. Over time, the various interventions produced diverse large-scale network effects. Contrary to our hypothesis, the most successful strategy was a selective stimulation of all excitatory neurons in the network; it substantially prolonged the preservation of network integrity. The results of this study imply that functional network damage due to pathological neuronal activity can be opposed by targeted adjustment of neuronal excitability levels. The present approach may help to explore therapeutic effects aimed at preserving or restoring neuronal network integrity and contribute to better-informed intervention choices in future clinical trials in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Biologia Computacional , Conectoma , Humanos , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia
10.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 9: 107, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487647

RESUMO

Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), and their functional brain networks are presumably already altered. To test this hypothesis, we compared magnetoencephalography (MEG) eyes-closed resting-state recordings from 29 MCI subjects and 29 healthy elderly subjects in the present exploratory study. Functional connectivity in different frequency bands was assessed with the phase lag index (PLI) in source space. Normalized weighted clustering coefficient (normalized Cw) and path length (normalized Lw), as well as network measures derived from the minimum spanning tree [MST; i.e., betweenness centrality (BC) and node degree], were calculated. First, we found altered PLI values in the lower and upper alpha bands in MCI patients compared to controls. Thereafter, we explored network differences in these frequency bands. Normalized Cw and Lw did not differ between the groups, whereas BC and node degree of the MST differed, although these differences did not survive correction for multiple testing using the False Discovery Rate (FDR). As an exploratory study, we may conclude that: (1) the increases and decreases observed in PLI values in lower and upper alpha bands in MCI patients may be interpreted as a dual pattern of disconnection and aberrant functioning; (2) network measures are in line with connectivity findings, indicating a lower efficiency of the brain networks in MCI patients; (3) the MST centrality measures are more sensitive to detect subtle differences in the functional brain networks in MCI than traditional graph theoretical metrics.

11.
Brain ; 140(5): 1466-1485, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28334883

RESUMO

Although frequency-specific network analyses have shown that functional brain networks are altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease, the relationships between these frequency-specific network alterations remain largely unknown. Multiplex network analysis is a novel network approach to study complex systems consisting of subsystems with different types of connectivity patterns. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography to integrate five frequency-band specific brain networks in a multiplex framework. Previous structural and functional brain network studies have consistently shown that hub brain areas are selectively disrupted in Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, we hypothesized that hub regions in the multiplex brain networks are selectively targeted in patients with Alzheimer's disease in comparison to healthy control subjects. Eyes-closed resting-state magnetoencephalography recordings from 27 patients with Alzheimer's disease (60.6 ± 5.4 years, 12 females) and 26 controls (61.8 ± 5.5 years, 14 females) were projected onto atlas-based regions of interest using beamforming. Subsequently, source-space time series for both 78 cortical and 12 subcortical regions were reconstructed in five frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha 1, alpha 2 and beta band). Multiplex brain networks were constructed by integrating frequency-specific magnetoencephalography networks. Functional connections between all pairs of regions of interests were quantified using a phase-based coupling metric, the phase lag index. Several multiplex hub and heterogeneity metrics were computed to capture both overall importance of each brain area and heterogeneity of the connectivity patterns across frequency-specific layers. Different nodal centrality metrics showed consistently that several hub regions, particularly left hippocampus, posterior parts of the default mode network and occipital regions, were vulnerable in patients with Alzheimer's disease compared to control subjects. Of note, these detected vulnerable hubs in Alzheimer's disease were absent in each individual frequency-specific network, thus showing the value of integrating the networks. The connectivity patterns of these vulnerable hub regions in the patients were heterogeneously distributed across layers. Perturbed cognitive function and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-ß42 levels correlated positively with the vulnerability of the hub regions in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Our analysis therefore demonstrates that the magnetoencephalography-based multiplex brain networks contain important information that cannot be revealed by frequency-specific brain networks. Furthermore, this indicates that functional networks obtained in different frequency bands do not act as independent entities. Overall, our multiplex network study provides an effective framework to integrate the frequency-specific networks with different frequency patterns and reveal neuropathological mechanism of hub disruption in Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano
12.
Front Neurol ; 7: 161, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27799918

RESUMO

Synaptic loss is an early pathological finding in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlates with memory impairment. Changes in macroscopic brain activity measured with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG and MEG) in AD indicate synaptic changes and may therefore serve as markers of intervention effects in clinical trials. EEG peak frequency and functional networks have shown, in addition to improved memory performance, to be sensitive to detect an intervention effect in mild AD patients of the medical food Souvenaid containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn® Connect, which is designed to enhance synapse formation and function. Here, we explore the value of MEG, with higher spatial resolution than EEG, in identifying intervention effects of the nutrient combination by comparing MEG spectral measures, functional connectivity, and networks between an intervention and a control group. Quantitative markers describing spectral properties, functional connectivity, and graph theoretical aspects of MEG from the exploratory 24-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled Souvenir II MEG sub-study (NTR1975, http://www.trialregister.nl) in drug naïve patients with mild AD were compared between a test group (n = 27), receiving Souvenaid, and a control group (n = 28), receiving an isocaloric control product. The groups were unbalanced at screening with respect to Mini-Mental State Examination. Peak frequencies of MEG were compared with EEG peak frequencies, recorded in the same patients at similar time points, were compared with respect to sensitivity to intervention effects. No consistent statistically significant intervention effects were detected. In addition, we found no difference in sensitivity between MEG and EEG peak frequency. This exploratory study could not unequivocally establish the value of MEG in detecting interventional effects on brain activity, possibly due to small sample size and unbalanced study groups. We found no indication that the difference could be attributed to a lack of sensitivity of MEG compared with EEG. MEG in randomized controlled trials is feasible but its value to disclose intervention effects of Souvenaid in mild AD patients needs to be studied further.

13.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 10: 238, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27242496

RESUMO

Pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) starts in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Because of their deep location, activity from these areas is difficult to record with conventional electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG). The purpose of this study was to explore hippocampal activity in AD patients and healthy controls using "virtual MEG electrodes". We used resting-state MEG recordings from 27 early onset AD patients [age 60.6 ± 5.4, 12 females, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) range: 19-28] and 26 cognitively healthy age- and gender-matched controls (age 61.8 ± 5.5, 14 females). Activity was reconstructed using beamformer-based virtual electrodes for 78 cortical regions and 6 hippocampal regions. Group differences in peak frequency and relative power in six frequency bands were identified using permutation testing. For the patients, spearman correlations between the MMSE scores and peak frequency or relative power were calculated. Moreover, receiver operator characteristic curves were plotted to estimate the diagnostic accuracy. We found a lower hippocampal peak frequency in AD compared to controls, which, in the patients, correlated positively with MMSE [r(25) = 0.61; p < 0.01] whereas hippocampal relative theta power correlated negatively with MMSE [r(25) = -0.54; p < 0.01]. Cortical peak frequency was also lower in AD in association areas. Furthermore, cortical peak frequency correlated positively with MMSE [r(25) = 0.43; p < 0.05]. In line with this finding, relative theta power was higher in AD across the cortex, and relative alpha and beta power was lower in more circumscribed areas. The average cortical relative theta power was the best discriminator between AD and controls (sensitivity 82%; specificity 81%). Using beamformer-based virtual electrodes, we were able to detect hippocampal activity in AD. In AD, this hippocampal activity is slowed, and correlates better with cognition than the (slowed) activity in cortical areas. On the other hand, the average cortical relative power in the theta band was shown to be the best diagnostic discriminator. We postulate that this novel approach using virtual electrodes can be used in future research to quantify functional interactions between the hippocampi and cortical areas.

14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 42: 150-62, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27143432

RESUMO

We investigated whether the functional connectivity and network topology in 69 Alzheimer's disease (AD), 48 behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients, and 64 individuals with subjective cognitive decline are different using resting-state electroencephalography recordings. Functional connectivity between all pairs of electroencephalography channels was assessed using the phase lag index (PLI). We subsequently calculated PLI-weighted networks, from which minimum spanning trees (MSTs) were constructed. Finally, we investigated the hierarchical clustering organization of the MSTs. Functional connectivity analysis showed frequency-dependent results: in the delta band, bvFTD showed highest whole-brain PLI; in the theta band, the whole-brain PLI in AD was higher than that in bvFTD; in the alpha band, AD showed lower whole-brain PLI compared with bvFTD and subjective cognitive decline. The MST results indicate that frontal networks appear to be selectively involved in bvFTD against the background of preserved global efficiency, whereas parietal and occipital loss of network organization in AD is accompanied by global efficiency loss. Our findings suggest different pathophysiological mechanisms in these 2 separate neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Demência Frontotemporal/fisiopatologia , Demência Frontotemporal/psicologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia
15.
Neurobiol Aging ; 41: 122-129, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27103525

RESUMO

Directed information flow between brain regions might be disrupted in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and relate to the clinical syndrome of DLB. To investigate this hypothesis, resting-state electroencephalography recordings were obtained in patients with probable DLB and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and controls (N = 66 per group, matched for age and gender). Phase transfer entropy was used to measure directed connectivity in the groups for the theta, alpha, and beta frequency band. A posterior-to-anterior phase transfer entropy gradient, with occipital channels driving the frontal channels, was found in controls in all frequency bands. This posterior-to-anterior gradient was largely lost in DLB in the alpha band (p < 0.05). In the beta band, posterior brain regions were less driving in information flow in AD than in DLB and controls. In conclusion, the common posterior-to-anterior pattern of directed connectivity in controls is disturbed in DLB patients in the alpha band, and in AD patients in the beta band. Disrupted alpha band-directed connectivity may underlie the clinical syndrome of DLB and differentiate between DLB and AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Entropia , Feminino , Humanos , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descanso/fisiologia
16.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 127(5): 2228-36, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27072094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine what differences exist in graph theory network measures derived from electroencephalography (EEG), between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are cognitively normal (PD-CN) and matched healthy controls; and between PD-CN and PD dementia (PD-D). METHODS: EEG recordings were analyzed via graph theory network analysis to quantify changes in global efficiency and local integration. This included minimal spanning tree analysis. T-tests and correlations were used to assess differences between groups and assess the relationship with cognitive performance. RESULTS: Network measures showed increased local integration across all frequency bands between control and PD-CN; in contrast, decreased local integration occurred in PD-D when compared to PD-CN in the alpha1 frequency band. Differences found in PD-MCI mirrored PD-D. Correlations were found between network measures and assessments of global cognitive performance in PD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal distinct patterns of band and network measure type alteration and breakdown for PD, as well as with cognitive decline in PD. SIGNIFICANCE: These patterns suggest specific ways that interaction between cortical areas becomes abnormal and contributes to PD symptoms at various stages. Graph theory analysis by EEG suggests that network alteration and breakdown are robust attributes of PD cortical dysfunction pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(14): 3867-72, 2016 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27001844

RESUMO

Normal brain function requires interactions between spatially separated, and functionally specialized, macroscopic regions, yet the directionality of these interactions in large-scale functional networks is unknown. Magnetoencephalography was used to determine the directionality of these interactions, where directionality was inferred from time series of beamformer-reconstructed estimates of neuronal activation, using a recently proposed measure of phase transfer entropy. We observed well-organized posterior-to-anterior patterns of information flow in the higher-frequency bands (alpha1, alpha2, and beta band), dominated by regions in the visual cortex and posterior default mode network. Opposite patterns of anterior-to-posterior flow were found in the theta band, involving mainly regions in the frontal lobe that were sending information to a more distributed network. Many strong information senders in the theta band were also frequent receivers in the alpha2 band, and vice versa. Our results provide evidence that large-scale resting-state patterns of information flow in the human brain form frequency-dependent reentry loops that are dominated by flow from parieto-occipital cortex to integrative frontal areas in the higher-frequency bands, which is mirrored by a theta band anterior-to-posterior flow.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia
18.
BMC Neurol ; 15: 145, 2015 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26289045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: EEG studies have shown that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have weaker functional connectivity than controls, especially in higher frequency bands. Furthermore, active regions seem more prone to AD pathology. How functional connectivity is affected in AD subgroups of disease severity and how network hubs (highly connected brain areas) change is not known. We compared AD patients with different disease severity and controls in terms of functional connections, hub strength and hub location. METHODS: We studied routine 21-channel resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) of 318 AD patients (divided into tertiles based on disease severity: mild, moderate and severe AD) and 133 age-matched controls. Functional connectivity between EEG channels was estimated with the Phase Lag Index (PLI). From the PLI-based connectivity matrix, the minimum spanning tree (MST) was derived. For each node (EEG channel) in the MST, the betweenness centrality (BC) was computed, a measure to quantify the relative importance of a node within the network. Then we derived color-coded head plots based on BC values and calculated the center of mass (the exact middle had x and y values of 0). A shifting of the hub locations was defined as a shift of the center of mass on the y-axis across groups. Multivariate general linear models with PLI or BC values as dependent variables and the groups as continuous variables were used in the five conventional frequency bands. RESULTS: We found that functional connectivity decreases with increasing disease severity in the alpha band. All, except for posterior, regions showed increasing BC values with increasing disease severity. The center of mass shifted from posterior to more anterior regions with increasing disease severity in the higher frequency bands, indicating a loss of relative functional importance of the posterior brain regions. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we observed decreasing functional connectivity in the posterior regions, together with a shifted hub location from posterior to central regions with increasing AD severity. Relative hub strength decreases in posterior regions while other regions show a relative rise with increasing AD severity, which is in accordance with the activity-dependent degeneration theory. Our results indicate that hubs are disproportionally affected in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Mov Disord ; 30(13): 1785-93, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26179663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test whether disturbed EEG resting-state functional connectivity and network organization are a potential neurophysiological substrate of cognitive impairment in dementia with Lewy bodies. METHODS: EEG recordings were obtained in dementia with Lewy bodies patients, Alzheimer's disease patients and controls, matched for age and sex (N = 66 for each group; 14 [21%] female; mean age: 70 years). We analyzed functional connectivity of band-filtered EEG time series using the phase lag index. Functional brain network topology was analyzed with the minimum spanning tree. Mini-Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test A, and Visual Association Test were used as cognitive measures. RESULTS: Dementia with Lewy bodies patients showed lower connectivity strength in the alpha frequency band, compared to both controls and Alzheimer's disease patients (P < 0.001). Functional network topology in dementia with Lewy bodies patients was less efficient and contained less hubs (P < 0.01). Network characteristics in Alzheimer's disease patients were in between (but did not differ from) those of the other two groups. In dementia with Lewy bodies patients, lower alpha band phase lag index correlated with Visual Association Test scores and Trail Making Test scores (ρ = 0.33 and ρ = 0.31, respectively), whereas leaf fraction (a measure of 'network efficiency') correlated with Visual Association Test scores (ρ = 0.29) and Mini-Mental State Examination scores (ρ = 0.27). CONCLUSION: Functional networks of dementia with Lewy bodies patients are characterized by decreased connectivity strength and a loss of network efficiency and hubs. Severity of these disturbances is related to cognitive impairment, suggesting that network disturbances mediate between neuropathology and the clinical syndrome in dementia with Lewy bodies.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/complicações , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Análise de Fourier , Humanos , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
20.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e86558, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24475144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synaptic loss is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Disturbed organisation of large-scale functional brain networks in AD might reflect synaptic loss and disrupted neuronal communication. The medical food Souvenaid, containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect, is designed to enhance synapse formation and function and has been shown to improve memory performance in patients with mild AD in two randomised controlled trials. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of Souvenaid compared to control product on brain activity-based networks, as a derivative of underlying synaptic function, in patients with mild AD. DESIGN: A 24-week randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multi-country study. PARTICIPANTS: 179 drug-naïve mild AD patients who participated in the Souvenir II study. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomised 1∶1 to receive Souvenaid or an iso-caloric control product once daily for 24 weeks. OUTCOME: In a secondary analysis of the Souvenir II study, electroencephalography (EEG) brain networks were constructed and graph theory was used to quantify complex brain structure. Local brain network connectivity (normalised clustering coefficient gamma) and global network integration (normalised characteristic path length lambda) were compared between study groups, and related to memory performance. RESULTS: THE NETWORK MEASURES IN THE BETA BAND WERE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT BETWEEN GROUPS: they decreased in the control group, but remained relatively unchanged in the active group. No consistent relationship was found between these network measures and memory performance. CONCLUSIONS: The current results suggest that Souvenaid preserves the organisation of brain networks in patients with mild AD within 24 weeks, hypothetically counteracting the progressive network disruption over time in AD. The results strengthen the hypothesis that Souvenaid affects synaptic integrity and function. Secondly, we conclude that advanced EEG analysis, using the mathematical framework of graph theory, is useful and feasible for assessing the effects of interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register NTR1975.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/dietoterapia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Alimentos Formulados/análise , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Colina , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Eletroencefalografia , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfolipídeos , Análise de Regressão , Selênio , Resultado do Tratamento , Uridina Monofosfato , Vitaminas
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