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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442599


BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopy is used to measure activity of Crohn's disease (CD) and determine eligibility and outcomes of participants in randomized controlled trials of therapeutic agents. We aimed to estimate the rate of response to placebo in trials, based on endoscopic evaluation of CD activity, and identify factors that affect this response. METHODS: We collected patient-level data from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of therapeutic agents for CD that included centrally-read endoscopic assessments with validated scoring indices. We analyzed data from induction trials of eldelumab, filgotinib, risankizumab, and ustekinumab (from 188 patients given placebo). The primary outcome was the rate of response to placebo, based on endoscopic assessment of CD activity (>50% reduction in the simple endoscopic score for CD). Rate of remission rate, based on endoscopic score, was a secondary outcome. Overall rates of response to placebo were calculated using the inverse variance-weighted average method and presented with 95% CIs. We performed a multi-variable meta-regression analysis to identify determinants of response to placebo, determined endoscopically, using patient-level data from the filgotinib and ustekinumab trials. RESULTS: The pooled rate of response among patients given placebo was 16.2% (95% CI, 10.5%-22.0%) and the rate of remission in this group was 5.2% (95% CI, 1.7%-8.8%). Prior exposure to tumor necrosis factor antagonists (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.93; P=.036) and increased concentration of C-reactive protein at baseline (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98; P=.014 per 10 mg/L increase) were independently associated with lower rates of response to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of response and remission to placebo, determined by centrally-read endoscopy, in induction trials of therapies for CD are low. These estimates are important for sample size calculations for randomized placebo-controlled trials that use the Simple Endoscopic Score for CD as an endpoint. They also provide a benchmark to interpret findings from non-placebo controlled, prospective, randomized, unblinded trials.

Gastroenterology ; 157(5): 1233-1244.e5, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336124


BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is no validated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) index for assessment of perianal fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). We developed and internally validated a new instrument. METHODS: We used paired baseline and week-24 MRI scans from 160 participants in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of stem cell therapy for patients with perianal fistulizing CD. Four radiologists scored disease activity using index items identified during previous studies and exploratory items. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. We developed an index using backward elimination linear regression analysis, in which potential independent variables were items having intraclass correlation coefficients of at least 0.4 and the dependent variable was perianal fistulizing disease activity, measured on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. The final model was internally validated using the .632 bootstrap method to correct model optimism and quantify calibration accuracy. We evaluated responsiveness of the index by assessing longitudinal validity and estimating standardized effect sizes. RESULTS: We developed the magnetic resonance novel index for fistula imaging in CD (MAGNIFI-CD) using 6 items. The optimism-corrected R2 of the model was 0.71, which was comparable to R2 for the original sample (0.74). The calibration slope for the model was 0.98. Compared with the original and modified versions of the Van Assche Index, the MAGNIFI-CD had improved operating characteristics. Estimates of intraclass correlation coefficients for MAGNIFI-CD, the modified Van Assche Index, and Van Assche Index were 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.90), 0.81 (95% CI, 0.74-0.86), and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.71-0.86) for intra-rater reliability, and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63-0.80), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.55-0.75) and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.56-0.77) for inter-rater reliability. Corresponding standardized effect size estimates were 1.02 (95% CI, 0.65-1.39), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.48-1.21), and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.33-1.03). CONCLUSIONS: We developed an index called the MAGNIFI-CD, which is based on 6 items. It assesses MRI data and determines perianal fistulizing CD activity with improved operating characteristics compared to previous indices. This index may be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials comparing treatment effects in patients with perianal fistulizing CD. Although the performance of the MAGNIFI-CD indicates its stability and reasonable external validity, external validation is needed.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 49(11): 1401-1409, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983024


BACKGROUND: The appropriate location for biopsy procurement relative to an ulcer in active Crohn's disease is unknown. AIM: To explore the relationship between biopsy location, histological disease activity, proinflammatory gene expression and the presence of inflammatory cells. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with Crohn's disease and ulcers >0.5 cm diameter in the colon and/or ileum were prospectively enrolled at three centres. Biopsies were obtained from 0 mm, 7 to 8 mm and 21 to 24 mm from the edge of the largest ulcer. Histological activity was blindly assessed with the Global Histological Disease Activity Score, the Robarts Histopathology and Nancy Histological indices. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels for interleukins-6, -8 and -23 (p19 and p40 subunits), CD31 and S100A9 were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The number of CD3+, CD68+ and myeloperoxidase-positive cells was quantified by immunohistochemistry. Data were analysed using mixed models with location and segment as fixed effects and patients as random effect to account for correlation among segments within a patient. RESULTS: Histological disease activity scores (P < 0.0001), proinflammatory gene expression levels (P < 0.005) and numbers of myeloperoxidase-positive cells (P < 0.0001) were highest in biopsies from the ulcer edge in the colon and ileum, with decreasing gradients observed with distance from the edge (P < 0.05). No differences between colonic and ileal samples were detected for the parameters measured at any location. CONCLUSIONS: Biopsies from the ulcer edge in patients with Crohn's disease yielded the greatest histological disease activity and mRNA levels and had similar readouts in the colon and ileum. Research is needed to confirm this conclusion for other measures.

J Immunol Methods ; 459: 50-54, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29772249


BACKGROUND: Flow cytometric (FC) analysis of intestinal tissue biopsies requires prompt cell isolation and processing to prevent cell death and generate valid data. We examined the effect of storage conditions prior to cell isolation and FC on viable cell yield and the proportions of immune cell phenotypes from intestinal biopsies. METHODS: Biopsies (N = 224) from inflamed or non-inflamed ileal and/or colonic tissue from three patients with Crohn's disease were processed and analyzed immediately in duplicate, or stored under different conditions. Cells were isolated and stained for specific markers, followed by FC. RESULTS: Decreased mean live CD45+ cell counts were observed after storage of biopsies at -80 °C dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/citrate buffer compared with immediate processing (1794.3 vs. 19,672.7; p = 0.006]). A non-significant decrease in CD45+ live cell count occurred after storage at -20 °C in DMSO/citrate buffer and cell yield was adequate for subsequent analysis. CD3+ cell proportions were significantly lower after storage at 4 °C in complete medium for 48 h compared with immediate analysis. Mean CD14+ cell proportions were significantly higher after storage of biopsies at -80 °C in DMSO/citrate buffer compared with immediate analysis (2.61% vs. 1.31%, p = 0.007). CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ cell proportions were unaffected by storage condition. CONCLUSION: Storage of intestinal tissue biopsies at -20 °C in DMSO/citrate buffer for up to 48 h resulted in sufficient viable cell yield for FC analysis without affecting subsequent marker-positive cell proportions. These findings support the potential shipping and storage of intestinal biopsies for centralized FC analysis in multicenter clinical trials.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 8(11): e126, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29095427


OBJECTIVES: Flow cytometry (FC) aids in characterization of cellular and molecular factors involved in pathologic immune responses. Although FC has potential to facilitate early drug development in inflammatory bowel disease, interlaboratory variability limits its use in multicenter trials. Standardization of methods may address this limitation. We compared variability in FC-aided quantitation of T-cell responses across international laboratories using three analytical strategies. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from three healthy donors, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin at a central laboratory, fixed, frozen, and shipped to seven international laboratories. Permeabilization and staining was performed in triplicate at each laboratory using a common protocol and centrally provided reagents. Gating was performed using local gating with a local strategy (LGLS), local gating with a central strategy (LGCS), and central gating (CG). Median cell percentages were calculated across triplicates and donors, and reported for each condition and strategy. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated across laboratories. Between-strategy comparisons were made using a two-way analysis of variance adjusting for donor. RESULTS: Mean interlaboratory CV ranged from 1.8 to 102.1% depending on cell population and gating strategy (LGLS, 4.4-102.1%; LGCS, 10.9-65.6%; CG, 1.8-20.9%). Mean interlaboratory CV differed significantly across strategies and was consistently lower with CG. CONCLUSIONS: Central gating was the only strategy with mean CVs consistently lower than 25%, which is a proposed standard for pharmacodynamic and exploratory biomarker assays.