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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency and metabolic syndrome (MetS) may both contribute to increased cardiovascular risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to examine the association of demographic factors, SLE phenotype, therapy and vitamin D levels with MetS and insulin resistance. METHODS: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) enrolled patients recently diagnosed with SLE (<15 months) from 33 centres across 11 countries from 2000. Clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data were collected. Vitamin D level was defined according to tertiles based on distribution across this cohort, which were set at T1 (10-36 nmol/l), T2 (37-60 nmol/l) and T3 (61-174 nmol/l). MetS was defined according to the 2009 consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Insulin resistance was determined using the HOMA-IR model. Linear and logistic regressions were used to assess the association of variables with vitamin D levels. RESULTS: Of the 1847 patients, 1163 (63%) had vitamin D measured and 398 (34.2%) subjects were in the lowest 25(OH)D tertile. MetS was present in 286 of 860 (33%) patients whose status could be determined. Patients with lower 25(OH)D were more likely to have MetS and higher HOMA-IR. The MetS components, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and decreased HDL were all significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D. Increased average glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: MetS and insulin resistance are associated with lower vitamin D in patients with SLE. Further studies could determine whether vitamin D repletion confers better control of these cardiovascular risk factors and improve long-term outcomes in SLE.

2.
BMJ ; 371: m4328, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare benefits and harms of three biological treatments with different modes of action versus active conventional treatment in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Investigator initiated, randomised, open label, blinded assessor, multiarm, phase IV study. SETTING: Twenty nine rheumatology departments in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, the Netherlands, and Iceland between 2012 and 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18 years and older with treatment naive rheumatoid arthritis, symptom duration less than 24 months, moderate to severe disease activity, and rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated protein antibody positivity, or increased C reactive protein. INTERVENTIONS: Randomised 1:1:1:1, stratified by country, sex, and anti-citrullinated protein antibody status. All participants started methotrexate combined with (a) active conventional treatment (either prednisolone tapered to 5 mg/day, or sulfasalazine combined with hydroxychloroquine and intra-articular corticosteroids), (b) certolizumab pegol, (c) abatacept, or (d) tocilizumab. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was adjusted clinical disease activity index remission (CDAI≤2.8) at 24 weeks with active conventional treatment as the reference. Key secondary outcomes and analyses included CDAI remission at 12 weeks and over time, other remission criteria, a non-inferiority analysis, and harms. RESULTS: 812 patients underwent randomisation. The mean age was 54.3 years (standard deviation 14.7) and 68.8% were women. Baseline disease activity score of 28 joints was 5.0 (standard deviation 1.1). Adjusted 24 week CDAI remission rates were 42.7% (95% confidence interval 36.1% to 49.3%) for active conventional treatment, 46.5% (39.9% to 53.1%) for certolizumab pegol, 52.0% (45.5% to 58.6%) for abatacept, and 42.1% (35.3% to 48.8%) for tocilizumab. Corresponding absolute differences were 3.9% (95% confidence interval -5.5% to 13.2%) for certolizumab pegol, 9.4% (0.1% to 18.7%) for abatacept, and -0.6% (-10.1% to 8.9%) for tocilizumab. Key secondary outcomes showed no major differences among the four treatments. Differences in CDAI remission rates for active conventional treatment versus certolizumab pegol and tocilizumab, but not abatacept, remained within the prespecified non-inferiority margin of 15% (per protocol population). The total number of serious adverse events was 13 (percentage of patients who experienced at least one event 5.6%) for active conventional treatment, 20 (8.4%) for certolizumab pegol, 10 (4.9%) for abatacept, and 10 (4.9%) for tocilizumab. Eleven patients treated with abatacept stopped treatment early compared with 20-23 patients in the other arms. CONCLUSIONS: All four treatments achieved high remission rates. Higher CDAI remission rate was observed for abatacept versus active conventional treatment, but not for certolizumab pegol or tocilizumab versus active conventional treatment. Other remission rates were similar across treatments. Non-inferiority analysis indicated that active conventional treatment was non-inferior to certolizumab pegol and tocilizumab, but not to abatacept. The results highlight the efficacy and safety of active conventional treatment based on methotrexate combined with corticosteroids, with nominally better results for abatacept, in treatment naive early rheumatoid arthritis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT2011-004720-35, NCT01491815.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between neutrophil activation and cardiovascular risk in gout patients. We hypothesize that neutrophil activation mediates inflammation and therefore takes part in atherogenesis in gout patients. METHOD: Patient data were collected from 75 consecutive gout patients participating in the Reade gout cohort Amsterdam. Levels of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and neutrophil activation (calprotectin and peroxidase activity) were analysed by ELISA and fluorimetry in plasma and compared with healthy controls. Markers of neutrophil activation were related to clinical markers of cardiovascular risk, including BMI, smoking, blood pressure, lipid profile and 10 year risk of cardiovascular mortality (EU-SCORE). RESULTS: Increased levels of NETs were found in gout patients, although increased levels were not associated with cardiovascular risk. However, markers of neutrophil activation, including peroxidase activity correlated with waist:hip ratio (ß = 0.33, P < 0.001), cholesterol ratio (ß = 0.46, P < 0.005) and triglycerides (ß = 0.60, P < 0.001) as well as the 10 year risk of cardiovascular mortality (ß = 0.44, P = 0.001). Calprotectin levels were elevated in hypertension (P = 0.005) and diabetes (P = 0.02). Finally, gout patients with high levels of both peroxidase and calprotectin ('neutrophil activation signature') had a markedly elevated cardiovascular risk score (P = 0.001), with 68% of the patients having high cardiovascular risk (odds ratio 2.9, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated elevated levels of neutrophil activation markers, MPO and calprotectin in gout patients as compared with healthy controls. Of note, neutrophil activation markers were associated with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and diabetes. Finally, the presence of a neutrophil activation signature was strongly associated with an increased 10 year risk of cardiovascular mortality. Further studies are needed to determine whether gout-specific factors and/or cardiovascular risk factors contribute to the elevated neutrophil activation observed in these patients.

4.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-22, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess upadacitinib monotherapy versus methotrexate (MTX) in MTX-naïve Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the Phase 3 SELECT-EARLY study. METHODS: Japanese patients were randomized 2:1:1:1 to upadacitinib 7.5, 15, or 30 mg daily or MTX 7.5 mg/week (titrated to ≤15 mg/week). Efficacy endpoints included the proportion of patients reporting 20% improvement in American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR20) at week 12 and change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS) at week 24. Other efficacy outcomes were also assessed at weeks 12 and/or 24. Safety was assessed over 24 weeks. RESULTS: Of 138 Japanese patients enrolled, significantly more patients treated with upadacitinib 7.5 and 15 mg, but not 30 mg, reported ACR20 responses versus MTX at week 12. Significantly smaller changes from baseline in mTSS were observed with upadacitinib 15 and 30 mg, but not 7.5 mg, versus MTX at week 24. Upadacitinib demonstrated an acceptable safety profile; herpes zoster occurred in 3.6%, 7.4%, and 7.1% of patients treated with upadacitinib 7.5, 15, and 30 mg, respectively. CONCLUSION: Similar to the global study population, upadacitinib demonstrated clinical efficacy superior to placebo in the Japanese subpopulation. Among upadacitinib-treated patients, herpes zoster was least common with 7.5 mg.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare mortality risk over up to 14 years of follow-up in methotrexate-refractory patients with early RA randomized to a strategy starting with addition of infliximab vs addition of SSZ and HCQ. METHODS: Data was from the two-arm, parallel, randomized, active-controlled, open-label Swefot trial in which patients with early RA (symptom duration <1 y) were recruited from 15 rheumatology clinics in Sweden (2002-2005). Patients who did not achieve low disease activity after 3-4 months of MTX were randomized to addition of infliximab (n = 128) or SSZ and HCQ (n = 130). Participants were followed until death, emigration, or end of follow-up, whichever came first. Analyses were by intention-to-treat. RESULTS: Over an average follow-up of 13 years, there were 13 and 16 deaths, respectively [8.8 vs 10.6 deaths per 1000 person-years; mortality hazard ratio 1.2 (95% CI: 0.6, 2.5); P =0.62]. The 1-year mortality was 0.8% in both treatment arms, the 5-year mortality was 2.3% for the infliximab arm compared with 1.5% for the conventional combination treatment arm, while the 10-year mortality was 7.8% and 7.7%, respectively. After 5 years, ∼50% of patients in the conventional combination therapy arm had switched to biologic treatment, and 50% in the biologic arm had discontinued treatment with a biologic DMARD. CONCLUSION: No difference in mortality risk could be observed over up to 14 years of follow-up between treatment strategy groups. At 5 years (3 years after trial cessation), 50% of patients remained on their assigned therapy, reflecting that DMARD combination is an adequate treatment strategy in 50% of patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00764725.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) predicts mortality and damage accrual in SLE, but its association with hospitalizations has not been described. We estimated the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with future hospitalizations in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. The number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations during follow-up were recorded. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of hospitalizations per patient-year of follow-up. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of baseline SLICC-FI scores with the proportion of follow-up time spent in hospital. Multivariable models were adjusted for relevant baseline characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (IQR) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08). During mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 614 patients (39.6%) experienced 1570 hospitalizations. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with more frequent hospitalizations during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio 1.21; 95%CI 1.13-1.30), adjusting for baseline age, sex, corticosteroid use, immunosuppressive use, ethnicity/location, SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), and disease duration. Among patients with ≥1 hospitalization, higher baseline SLICC-FI values predicted a greater proportion of follow-up time spent hospitalized (Relative Rate 1.09; 95%CI 1.02-1.16). CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts future hospitalizations among incident SLE patients, further supporting the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This integrated analysis presents the safety profile of upadacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, at 15 mg and 30 mg once daily in patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and laboratory data from five randomised, placebo- or active-controlled phase III trials of upadacitinib for patients with RA were analysed and summarised. Exposure-adjusted event rates are shown for placebo (three trials; 12/14 weeks), methotrexate (two trials; mean exposure: 36 weeks), adalimumab (one trial; mean exposure: 42 weeks), upadacitinib 15 mg (five trials; mean exposure: 53 weeks) and upadacitinib 30 mg (four trials; mean exposure: 59 weeks). RESULTS: 3834 patients received one or more doses of upadacitinib 15 mg (n=2630) or 30 mg (n=1204), for a total of 4020.1 patient-years of exposure. Upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis and urinary tract infection were the most commonly reported TEAEs with upadacitinib. Rates of serious infection were similar between upadacitinib 15 mg and adalimumab but higher compared with methotrexate. Rates of herpes zoster and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevations were higher in both upadacitinib groups versus methotrexate and adalimumab, and rates of gastrointestinal perforations were higher with upadacitinib 30 mg. Rates of deaths, malignancies, adjudicated major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) were similar across treatment groups. CONCLUSION: In the phase III clinical programme for RA, patients receiving upadacitinib had an increased risk of herpes zoster and CPK elevation versus adalimumab. Rates of malignancies, MACEs and VTEs were similar among patients receiving upadacitinib, methotrexate or adalimumab. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: SELECT-EARLY: NCT02706873; SELECT-NEXT: NCT02675426; SELECT-COMPARE: NCT02629159; SELECT-MONOTHERAPY: NCT02706951; SELECT-BEYOND: NCT02706847.

9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We previously reported that treatment with ustekinumab, an anti-interleukin (IL)-12/23 p40 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, improved global and organ-specific measures of disease activity in a randomized, placebo-controlled study of patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we utilized biomarker data from this clinical study to determine whether modulation of IL-12, IL-23, or both were associated with clinical efficacy. METHODS: A Phase 2, placebo-controlled study enrolled 102 patients with autoantibody positive SLE and active disease despite standard-of-care therapy. Patients were randomized (3:2) to receive intravenous ustekinumab ~6 mg/kg or placebo at week 0, then subcutaneous injections of 90 mg ustekinumab or placebo every 8 weeks. SLE Responder Index 4 at week 24 was used to determine which patients were ustekinumab responders and non-responders. In addition to measuring p40 and IL-23, serum interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 levels were quantified by immunoassay as a proxy for the IL-12 and IL-23 pathways. RESULTS: Changes in serum IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 levels did not associate consistently with ustekinumab response. In contrast, response to ustekinumab was associated with a durable reduction in IFN-γ serum protein levels relative to baseline, which was not observed in ustekinumab non-responders or placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate an important role of IL-12 blockade in the mechanism of action of ustekinumab in SLE.

10.
RMD Open ; 6(3)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise changes in selected haematological parameters following once-daily oral baricitinib dosing. METHODS: Data were pooled from eight randomised clinical trials (four phase 3, three phase 2, one phase 1b) and one long-term extension. Changes in haematological parameters were evaluated up to 128 weeks (N=2387); overall safety of baricitinib was assessed up to 6 years (N=3492). RESULTS: Mean absolute neutrophil counts decreased (-1.36×109/L) within 1 month, followed by stabilisation within the normal reference range through week 128. The incidence of serious infections was not elevated in patients with neutropenia during the 24-week placebo-controlled period. Mean lymphocyte counts increased (+0.30×109/L) within 1 month, then decreased to baseline (weeks 12-24). Mean platelet counts increased at week 2 (+51×109/L), then decreased towards baseline. Overall, mean haemoglobin concentrations decreased (-0.12 mmol/L), then returned to baseline; however, reduced baseline haemoglobin concentrations observed in the highest baseline high-sensitivity C reactive protein quartile increased over time. Permanent drug discontinuation occurred due to laboratory abnormalities related to neutrophil count in 8 (0.2%), lymphocyte counts in 6 (0.2%), platelet counts in 8 (0.2%), and haemoglobin levels in 16 (0.5%) of all baricitinib-treated patients (N=3492 with 7993 total person-years of exposure). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate decreases in neutrophils were seen during baricitinib treatment; however, serious infection was uncommon in patients with neutropenia. Transient increases were observed in lymphocytes and platelets, which returned to baseline over time. Changes in haemoglobin concentration were generally small. Haematological abnormalities seldom led to drug discontinuation.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: RF and ACPA are used as diagnostic tools and their presence has been associated with clinical response to some biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) in RA. This study compared the impact of seropositivity on drug discontinuation and effectiveness of bDMARDs in patients with RA, using head-to-head comparisons in a real-world setting. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of 16 observational RA registries. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of RA, initiation of treatment with rituximab (RTX), abatacept (ABA), tocilizumab (TCZ) or TNF inhibitors (TNFis) and available information on RF and/or ACPA status. Drug discontinuation was analysed using Cox regression, including drug, seropositivity, their interaction, adjusting for concomitant and past treatments and patient and disease characteristics and accounting for country and calendar year of bDMARD initiation. Effectiveness was analysed using the Clinical Disease Activity Index evolution over time. RESULTS: Among the 27 583 eligible patients, the association of seropositivity with drug discontinuation differed across bDMARDs (P for interaction <0.001). The adjusted hazard ratios for seropositive compared with seronegative patients were 1.01 (95% CI 0.95, 1.07) for TNFis, 0.89 (0.78, 1.02)] for TCZ, 0.80 (0.72, 0.88) for ABA and 0.70 (0.59, 0.84) for RTX. Adjusted differences in remission and low disease activity rates between seropositive and seronegative patients followed the same pattern, with no difference in TNFis, a small difference in TCZ, a larger difference in ABA and the largest difference in RTX (Lundex remission difference +5.9%, low disease activity difference +11.6%). CONCLUSION: Seropositivity was associated with increased effectiveness of non-TNFi bDMARDs, especially RTX and ABA, but not TNFis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess cancer risk factors in incident SLE. METHODS: Clinical variables and cancer outcomes were assessed annually among incident SLE patients. Multivariate hazard regression models (over-all risk, and most common cancers) included demographics and time-dependent medications (corticosteroids, antimalarial drugs, immunosuppressants), smoking, and adjusted mean SLE Disease Activity Index-2K. RESULTS: Among 1668 patients (average 9 years follow-up), 65 cancers occurred: 15 breast, 10 non-melanoma skin, seven lung, six hematological, six prostate, five melanoma, three cervical, three renal, two each gastric, head and neck, and thyroid, and one each rectal, sarcoma, thymoma, and uterine cancers. Half of cancers (including all lung cancers) occurred in past/current smokers, versus one-third of patients without cancer. Multivariate analyses indicated over-all cancer risk was related primarily to male sex and older age at SLE diagnosis. In addition, smoking was associated with lung cancer. For breast cancer risk, age was positively and anti-malarial drugs were negatively associated. Anti-malarial drugs and higher disease activity were also negatively associated with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) risk, whereas age and cyclophosphamide were positively associated. Disease activity was associated positively with hematologic and negatively with NMSC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a key modifiable risk factor, especially for lung cancer, in SLE. Immunosuppressive medications were not clearly associated with higher risk except for cyclophosphamide and NMSC. Antimalarials were negatively associated with breast cancer and NMSC risk. SLE activity was associated positively with hematologic cancer and negatively with NMSC. Since the absolute number of cancers was small, additional follow-up will help consolidate these findings.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(10): 1607-1620, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The SELECT-EARLY trial was undertaken to study the effect of upadacitinib, an oral, reversible Janus kinase 1-selective inhibitor, as monotherapy in patients with predominantly early rheumatoid arthritis who were naive for or had limited exposure to methotrexate (MTX). METHODS: Patients (n = 947) were randomized 1:1:1 to receive once-daily doses of upadacitinib 15 mg or 30 mg or weekly MTX (7.5-20 mg/week) for 24 weeks. The primary end points were the proportion of patients who met the American College of Rheumatology 50% (ACR50) improvement criteria at week 12, and the proportion in whom a Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the C-reactive protein level (DAS28-CRP) of <2.6 was achieved at week 24. Data are presented through week 24. RESULTS: At baseline, the median disease duration was 0.5 years (range 0-44 years). A total of 840 patients (89%) completed 24 weeks of treatment. The study met both primary end points for upadacitinib 15 mg and 30 mg versus MTX (ACR50 was achieved at week 12 in 52% and 56% of patients, respectively, versus 28% [P < 0.001], and DAS28-CRP <2.6 was achieved at week 24 in 48% and 50% of patients, respectively, versus 19% [P < 0.001]). Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in multiple patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were recorded for both upadacitinib doses versus MTX. Overall, 88% of patients receiving upadacitinib 15 mg and 89% of patients receiving 30 mg, respectively, had no radiographic progression (modified total Sharp score ≤0) compared to 78% of those receiving MTX (P < 0.01). Through week 24, the frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between the MTX arm (65%) and upadacitinib 15 mg arm (64%), but was slightly higher in the upadacitinib 30 mg arm (71%). Six deaths were reported (2 in the upadacitinib 15 mg arm, 3 in the upadacitinib 30 mg arm, and 1 in the MTX arm). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that patients receiving either dose of upadacitinib monotherapy experienced significant improvements in clinical, radiographic, and PROs compared to patients receiving MTX.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We wanted to estimate the magnitude of the risk from all-cause, cause-specific and sex-specific mortality in patients with SLE and relative risks compared with matched controls and to evaluate the influence of exposure to medication on risk of mortality in SLE. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Hospital Episode Statistics and national death certificates (from 1987 to 2012). Each SLE patient (n = 4343) was matched with up to six controls (n = 21 780) by age and sex. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate overall and cause-specific mortality rate ratios. RESULTS: Patients with SLE had a 1.8-fold increased mortality rate for all-cause mortality compared with age- and sex-matched subjects [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.57, 2.08]. The HR was highest in patients aged 18-39 years (adjusted HR = 4.87, 95% CI: 1.93, 12.3). Mortality rates were not significantly different between male and female patients. Cumulative glucocorticoid use raised the mortality rate, whereas the HR was reduced by 45% with cumulative low-dose HCQ use. Patients with SLE had increased cause-specific mortality rates for cardiovascular disease, infections, non-infectious respiratory disease and for death attributable to accidents or suicide, whereas the mortality rate for cancer was reduced in comparison to controls. CONCLUSION: British patients with SLE had a 1.8-fold increased mortality rate compared with the general population. Glucocorticoid use and being diagnosed at a younger age were associated with an increased risk of mortality. HCQ use significantly reduced the mortality rate, but this association was found only in the lowest cumulative dosage exposure group.

15.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(10): 1734-1740, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In previous studies, atherosclerotic vascular events (AVEs) were shown to occur in ~10% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We undertook this study to investigate the annual occurrence and potential risk factors for AVEs in a multinational, multiethnic inception cohort of patients with SLE. METHODS: A large 33-center cohort of SLE patients was followed up yearly between 1999 and 2017. AVEs were attributed to atherosclerosis based on SLE being inactive at the time of the AVE as well as typical atherosclerotic changes observed on imaging or pathology reports and/or evidence of atherosclerosis elsewhere. Analyses included descriptive statistics, rate of AVEs per 1,000 patient-years, and univariable and multivariable relative risk regression models. RESULTS: Of the 1,848 patients enrolled in the cohort, 1,710 had ≥1 follow-up visit after enrollment, for a total of 13,666 patient-years. Of these 1,710 patients, 3.6% had ≥1 AVEs attributed to atherosclerosis, for an event rate of 4.6 per 1,000 patient-years. In multivariable analyses, lower AVE rates were associated with antimalarial treatment (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.32-0.91]), while higher AVE rates were associated with any prior vascular event (HR 4.00 [95% CI 1.55-10.30]) and a body mass index of >40 kg/m2 (HR 2.74 [95% CI 1.04-7.18]). A prior AVE increased the risk of subsequent AVEs (HR 5.42 [95% CI 3.17-9.27], P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AVEs and the rate of AVE accrual demonstrated in the present study is much lower than that seen in previously published data. This may be related to better control of both the disease activity and classic risk factors.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433827

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the pain course between methotrexate (MTX)-refractory early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients randomised to infliximab (IFX) versus sulfasalazine+hydroxychloroquine (SSZ+HCQ). METHODS: The randomised, controlled, open-label SWEFOT (SWedish FarmacOTherapy) trial enrolled new-onset RA patients Oct 2002-Dec 2005. After 3 months on MTX, patients not reaching low disease activity (28-joint Disease Activity Score; DAS28≤3.2) were randomised to adding IFX (n=128) or SSZ+HCQ (n=130) and followed for 21 months. Here, outcomes included area-under-the-curve (AUC) for Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain, unacceptable pain (VAS pain>40mm [0-100]); and unacceptable pain despite inflammation control (refractory pain; VAS pain>40+C-reactive protein<10mg/L). Between-group differences were analysed with multivariate regression models. RESULTS: Overall, 50% of randomised patients (n=258) in the crude setting, reported unacceptable pain at randomisation, declining to 29% at 21 months (p<0.001), when refractory pain constituted 82% of all unacceptable pain. Comparing randomised arms (intention-to-treat analysis), AUC for VAS pain was lower in the MTX+IFX-group (p=0.01), and at 21 months 32% with MTX+IFX and 45% with MTX+SSZ+HCQ had unacceptable pain (adjusted relative risk 0.68 [95%CI:0.51-0.90]; p=0.008). Regarding refractory pain, no between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSION: Despite active combination treatment, almost 1/3 of new-onset RA patients reported unacceptable pain after 21 months and refractory pain constituted more than 4/5 of this pain load. Adding IFX versus SSZ+HCQ to MTX reduced both cumulative pain and unacceptable pain at 21 months, suggesting less long-term pain for the biological therapy. These results display insufficient effects of current treatment strategies on inflammation-independent pain components, warranting alternative approaches in affected patients.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) 2012 SLE classification criteria and the revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1997 criteria are list-based, counting each SLE manifestation equally. We derived a classification rule based on giving variable weights to the SLICC criteria, and compared its performance to the revised ACR 1997, unweighted SLICC 2012 and the newly reported European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/ACR 2019 criteria. METHODS: The physician-rated patient scenarios used to develop the SLICC 2012 classification criteria were re-employed to devise a new weighted classification rule using multiple linear regression. The performance of the rule was evaluated on an independent set of expert-diagnosed patient scenarios and compared to the performance of the previously reported classification rules. RESULTS: Weighted SLICC criteria and the EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria had less sensitivity but better specificity compared to the list-based revised ACR 1997 and SLICC 2012 classification criteria. There were no statistically significant differences between any pair of rules with respect to overall agreement with the physician diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The two new weighted classification rules did not perform better than the existing list-based rules in terms of overall agreement on a dataset originally generated to assess the SLICC criteria. Given the added complexity of summing weights, researchers may prefer the unweighted SLICC criteria. However, the performance of a classification rule will always depend on the populations from which the cases and non-cases are derived, and whether the goal is to prioritize sensitivity or specificity.

18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 713-723, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 2012 EULAR/ERA-EDTA recommendations for the management of lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: Following the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review was performed. Members of a multidisciplinary Task Force voted independently on their level of agreeement with the formed statements. RESULTS: The changes include recommendations for treatment targets, use of glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and management of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The target of therapy is complete response (proteinuria <0.5-0.7 g/24 hours with (near-)normal glomerular filtration rate) by 12 months, but this can be extended in patients with baseline nephrotic-range proteinuria. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended with regular ophthalmological monitoring. In active proliferative LN, initial (induction) treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF 2-3 g/day or mycophenolic acid (MPA) at equivalent dose) or low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (CY; 500 mg × 6 biweekly doses), both combined with glucocorticoids (pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone, then oral prednisone 0.3-0.5 mg/kg/day) is recommended. MMF/CNI (especially tacrolimus) combination and high-dose CY are alternatives, for patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and adverse prognostic factors. Subsequent long-term maintenance treatment with MMF or azathioprine should follow, with no or low-dose (<7.5 mg/day) glucocorticoids. The choice of agent depends on the initial regimen and plans for pregnancy. In non-responding disease, switch of induction regimens or rituximab are recommended. In pure membranous LN with nephrotic-range proteinuria or proteinuria >1 g/24 hours despite renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade, MMF in combination with glucocorticoids is preferred. Assessment for kidney and extra-renal disease activity, and management of comorbidities is lifelong with repeat kidney biopsy in cases of incomplete response or nephritic flares. In ESKD, transplantation is the preferred kidney replacement option with immunosuppression guided by transplant protocols and/or extra-renal manifestations. Treatment of LN in children follows the same principles as adult disease. CONCLUSIONS: We have updated the EULAR recommendations for the management of LN to facilitate homogenization of patient care.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/fisiopatologia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/etiologia , Proteinúria/terapia
19.
Eur J Intern Med ; 74: 29-34, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014364

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the most paradigmatic disorder within systemic autoimmune diseases. The concept and principles of treat-to-target (T2T) in SLE were established half a decade ago and, since then, remarkable advances have been made. An international consensus was organized in order to define and unify the term remission, although plurality, with subtle nuances still exists and has not been overcome. Also, lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS) was coined as an alternative and, perhaps, more realistic target. Both of them have proven to be meaningful in terms of improving several outcomes, and have opened the path for future research in clinical trials. This review arises from the need to summarize the current state of some of the recommendations of the T2T task force.

20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 744-759, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To inform the 2019 update of the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A systematic literature research (SLR) to investigate the efficacy of any disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) (conventional synthetic (cs)DMARD, biological (b) and biosimilar DMARD, targeted synthetic (ts)DMARD) or glucocorticoid (GC) therapy in patients with RA was done by searching MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library for articles published between 2016 and 8 March 2019. RESULTS: 234 abstracts were selected for detailed assessment, with 136 finally included. They comprised the efficacy of bDMARDs versus placebo or other bDMARDs, efficacy of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors (JAKi) across different patient populations and head-to-head of different bDMARDs versus JAKi or other bDMARDs. Switching of bDMARDs to other bDMARDs or tsDMARDs, strategic trials and tapering studies of bDMARDs, csDMARDs and JAKi were assessed. The drugs evaluated included abatacept, adalimumab, ABT-122, baricitinib, certolizumab pegol, SBI-087, CNTO6785, decernotinib, etanercept, filgotinib, golimumab, GCs, GS-9876, guselkumab, hydroxychloroquine, infliximab, leflunomide, mavrilimumab, methotrexate, olokizumab, otilimab, peficitinib, rituximab, sarilumab, salazopyrine, secukinumab, sirukumab, tacrolimus, tocilizumab, tofacitinib, tregalizumab, upadacitinib, ustekinumab and vobarilizumab. The efficacy of many bDMARDs and tsDMARDs was shown. Switching to another tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) or non-TNFi bDMARDs after TNFi treatment failure is efficacious. Tapering of DMARDs is possible in patients achieving long-standing stringent clinical remission; in patients with residual disease activity (including patients in LDA) the risk of flares is increased during the tapering. Biosimilars are non-inferior to their reference products. CONCLUSION: This SLR informed the task force regarding the evidence base of various therapeutic regimen for the development of the update of EULAR's RA management recommendation.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Substituição de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medicamentos Sintéticos/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
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