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1.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl ; 41(6): 7-12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890313

RESUMO

The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies across application domains has prompted our society to pay closer attention to AI's trustworthiness, fairness, interpretability, and accountability. In order to foster trust in AI, it is important to consider the potential of interactive visualization, and how such visualizations help build trust in AI systems. This manifesto discusses the relevance of interactive visualizations and makes the following four claims: i) trust is not a technical problem, ii) trust is dynamic, iii) visualization cannot address all aspects of trust, and iv) visualization is crucial for human agency in AI.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Confiança , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
2.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 422-431, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074815

RESUMO

In this paper, we introduce 11-20 (Image Insight 2020), a multimedia analytics approach for analytic categorization of image collections. Advanced visualizations for image collections exist, but they need tight integration with a machine model to support the task of analytic categorization. Directly employing computer vision and interactive learning techniques gravitates towards search. Analytic categorization, however, is not machine classification (the difference between the two is called the pragmatic gap): a human adds/redefines/deletes categories of relevance on the fly to build insight, whereas the machine classifier is rigid and non-adaptive. Analytic categorization that truly brings the user to insight requires a flexible machine model that allows dynamic sliding on the exploration-search axis, as well as semantic interactions: a human thinks about image data mostly in semantic terms. 11-20 brings three major contributions to multimedia analytics on image collections and towards closing the pragmatic gap. Firstly, a new machine model that closely follows the user's interactions and dynamically models her categories of relevance. II-20's machine model, in addition to matching and exceeding the state of the art's ability to produce relevant suggestions, allows the user to dynamically slide on the exploration-search axis without any additional input from her side. Secondly, the dynamic, 1-image-at-a-time Tetris metaphor that synergizes with the model. It allows a well-trained model to analyze the collection by itself with minimal interaction from the user and complements the classic grid metaphor. Thirdly, the fast-forward interaction, allowing the user to harness the model to quickly expand ("fast-forward") the categories of relevance, expands the multimedia analytics semantic interaction dictionary. Automated experiments show that II-20's machine model outperforms the existing state of the art and also demonstrate the Tetris metaphor's analytic quality. User studies further confirm that II-20 is an intuitive, efficient, and effective multimedia analytics tool.

3.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(1): 532-541, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866582

RESUMO

Multivariate event sequences are ubiquitous: travel history, telecommunication conversations, and server logs are some examples. Besides standard properties such as type and timestamp, events often have other associated multivariate data. Current exploration and analysis methods either focus on the temporal analysis of a single attribute or the structural analysis of the multivariate data only. We present an approach where users can explore event sequences at multivariate and sequential level simultaneously by interactively defining a set of rewrite rules using multivariate regular expressions. Users can store resulting patterns as new types of events or attributes to interactively enrich or simplify event sequences for further investigation. In Eventpad we provide a bottom-up glyph-oriented approach for multivariate event sequence analysis by searching, clustering, and aligning them according to newly defined domain specific properties. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach with real-world data sets including telecommunication traffic and hospital treatments.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Gráficos por Computador , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Informática/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Humanos
4.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 22(1): 1-10, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26529683

RESUMO

We propose a visual analytics approach for the exploration and analysis of dynamic networks. We consider snapshots of the network as points in high-dimensional space and project these to two dimensions for visualization and interaction using two juxtaposed views: one for showing a snapshot and one for showing the evolution of the network. With this approach users are enabled to detect stable states, recurring states, outlier topologies, and gain knowledge about the transitions between states and the network evolution in general. The components of our approach are discretization, vectorization and normalization, dimensionality reduction, and visualization and interaction, which are discussed in detail. The effectiveness of the approach is shown by applying it to artificial and real-world dynamic networks.

5.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 22(1): 379-88, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26390467

RESUMO

Visualization of the trajectories of moving objects leads to dense and cluttered images, which hinders exploration and understanding. It also hinders adding additional visual information, such as direction, and makes it difficult to interactively extract traffic flows, i.e., subsets of trajectories. In this paper we present our approach to visualize traffic flows and provide interaction tools to support their exploration. We show an overview of the traffic using a density map. The directions of traffic flows are visualized using a particle system on top of the density map. The user can extract traffic flows using a novel selection widget that allows for the intuitive selection of an area, and filtering on a range of directions and any additional attributes. Using simple, visual set expressions, the user can construct more complicated selections. The dynamic behaviors of selected flows may then be shown in annotation windows in which they can be interactively explored and compared. We validate our approach through use cases where we explore and analyze the temporal behavior of aircraft and vessel trajectories, e.g., landing and takeoff sequences, or the evolution of flight route density. The aircraft use cases have been developed and validated in collaboration with domain experts.

6.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(12): 2301-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26356944

RESUMO

A common task in visualization is to quickly find interesting items in large sets. When appropriate metadata is missing, automatic queries are impossible and users have to inspect all elements visually. We compared two fundamentally different, but obvious display modes for this task and investigated the difference with respect to effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. The static mode is based on the page metaphor and presents successive pages with a static grid of items. The moving mode is based on the conveyor belt metaphor and lets a grid of items slide though the screen in a continuous flow. In our evaluation, we applied both modes to the common task of browsing images. We performed two experiments where 18 participants had to search for certain target images in a large image collection. The number of shown images per second (pace) was predefined in the first experiment, and under user control in the second one. We conclude that at a fixed pace, the mode has no significant impact on the recall. The perceived pace is generally slower for moving mode, which causes users to systematically choose for a faster real pace than in static mode at the cost of recall, keeping the average number of target images found per second equal for both modes.

7.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(12): 2310-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26356945

RESUMO

Network data is ubiquitous; e-mail traffic between persons, telecommunication, transport and financial networks are some examples. Often these networks are large and multivariate, besides the topological structure of the network, multivariate data on the nodes and links is available. Currently, exploration and analysis methods are focused on a single aspect; the network topology or the multivariate data. In addition, tools and techniques are highly domain specific and require expert knowledge. We focus on the non-expert user and propose a novel solution for multivariate network exploration and analysis that tightly couples structural and multivariate analysis. In short, we go from Detail to Overview via Selections and Aggregations (DOSA): users are enabled to gain insights through the creation of selections of interest (manually or automatically), and producing high-level, infographic-style overviews simultaneously. Finally, we present example explorations on real-world datasets that demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for the exploration and understanding of multivariate networks where presentation of findings comes for free.

8.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(12): 2614-23, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26356975

RESUMO

A regular map is a symmetric tiling of a closed surface, in the sense that all faces, vertices, and edges are topologically indistinguishable. Platonic solids are prime examples, but also for surfaces with higher genus such regular maps exist. We present a new method to visualize regular maps. Space models are produced by matching regular maps with target shapes in the hyperbolic plane. The approach is an extension of our earlier work. Here a wider variety of target shapes is considered, obtained by duplicating spherical and toroidal regular maps, merging triangles, punching holes, and gluing the edges. The method produces about 45 new examples, including the genus 7 Hurwitz surface.

9.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(8): 1087-99, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26357363

RESUMO

Networks are present in many fields such as finance, sociology, and transportation. Often these networks are dynamic: they have a structural as well as a temporal aspect. In addition to relations occurring over time, node information is frequently present such as hierarchical structure or time-series data. We present a technique that extends the Massive Sequence View ( msv) for the analysis of temporal and structural aspects of dynamic networks. Using features in the data as well as Gestalt principles in the visualization such as closure, proximity, and similarity, we developed node reordering strategies for the msv to make these features stand out that optionally take the hierarchical node structure into account. This enables users to find temporal properties such as trends, counter trends, periodicity, temporal shifts, and anomalies in the network as well as structural properties such as communities and stars. We introduce the circular msv that further reduces visual clutter. In addition, the (circular) msv is extended to also convey time-series data associated with the nodes. This enables users to analyze complex correlations between edge occurrence and node attribute changes. We show the effectiveness of the reordering methods on both synthetic and a rich real-world dynamic network data set.

10.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 17(12): 2310-6, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22034351

RESUMO

Multivariate data visualization is a classic topic, for which many solutions have been proposed, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. In standard solutions the structure of the visualization is fixed, we explore how to give the user more freedom to define visualizations. Our new approach is based on the usage of Flexible Linked Axes: The user is enabled to define a visualization by drawing and linking axes on a canvas. Each axis has an associated attribute and range, which can be adapted. Links between pairs of axes are used to show data in either scatter plot- or Parallel Coordinates Plot-style. Flexible Linked Axes enable users to define a wide variety of different visualizations. These include standard methods, such as scatter plot matrices, radar charts, and PCPs [11]; less well known approaches, such as Hyperboxes [1], TimeWheels [17], and many-to-many relational parallel coordinate displays [14]; and also custom visualizations, consisting of combinations of scatter plots and PCPs. Furthermore, our method allows users to define composite visualizations that automatically support brushing and linking. We have discussed our approach with ten prospective users, who found the concept easy to understand and highly promising.

11.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 17(12): 2518-27, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22034373

RESUMO

We consider moving objects as multivariate time-series. By visually analyzing the attributes, patterns may appear that explain why certain movements have occurred. Density maps as proposed by Scheepens et al. [25] are a way to reveal these patterns by means of aggregations of filtered subsets of trajectories. Since filtering is often not sufficient for analysts to express their domain knowledge, we propose to use expressions instead. We present a flexible architecture for density maps to enable custom, versatile exploration using multiple density fields. The flexibility comes from a script, depicted in this paper as a block diagram, which defines an advanced computation of a density field. We define six different types of blocks to create, compose, and enhance trajectories or density fields. Blocks are customized by means of expressions that allow the analyst to model domain knowledge. The versatility of our architecture is demonstrated with several maritime use cases developed with domain experts. Our approach is expected to be useful for the analysis of objects in other domains.

16.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 12(5): 685-92, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17080788

RESUMO

We present a new approach for the visual analysis of state transition graphs. We deal with multivariate graphs where a number of attributes are associated with every node. Our method provides an interactive attribute-based clustering facility. Clustering results in metric, hierarchical and relational data, represented in a single visualization. To visualize hierarchically structured quantitative data, we introduce a novel technique: the bar tree. We combine this with a node-link diagram to visualize the hierarchy and an arc diagram to visualize relational data. Our method enables the user to gain significant insight into large state transition graphs containing tens of thousands of nodes. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach by applying it to a real-world use case. The graph we consider models the behavior of an industrial wafer stepper and contains 55 043 nodes and 289 443 edges.

17.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 12(5): 789-96, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17080801

RESUMO

Business data is often presented using simple business graphics. These familiar visualizations are effective for providing overviews, but fall short for the presentation of large amounts of detailed information. Treemaps can provide such detail, but are often not easy to understand. We present how standard treemap algorithms can be adapted such that the results mimic familiar business graphics. Specifically, we present the use of different layout algorithms per level, a number of variations of the squarified algorithm, the use of variable borders, and the use of non-rectangular shapes. The combined use of these leads to histograms, pie charts and a variety of other styles.

19.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 12(4): 421-32, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16805253

RESUMO

The field of visualization is maturing. Many problems have been solved and new directions are sought. In order to make good choices, an understanding of the purpose and meaning of visualization is needed. In this paper, visualization is considered from multiple points of view. First, a technological viewpoint is adopted, where the value of visualization is measured based on effectiveness and efficiency. An economic model of visualization is presented and benefits and costs are established. Next, consequences and limitations of visualization are discussed (including the use of alternative methods, high initial costs, subjectiveness, and the role of interaction). Example uses of the model for the judgment of existing classes of methods are given to understand why they are or are not used in practice. However, such an economic view is too restrictive. Alternative views on visualization are presented and discussed: visualization as an art, visualization as design and, finally, visualization as a scientific discipline.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Simulação por Computador , Apresentação de Dados , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Modelos Teóricos , Interface Usuário-Computador
20.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 12(4): 485-96, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16805258

RESUMO

The genus of a knot or link can be defined via Seifert surfaces. A Seifert surface of a knot or link is an oriented surface whose boundary coincides with that knot or link. Schematic images of these surfaces are shown in every text book on knot theory, but from these it is hard to understand their shape and structure. In this paper, the visualization of such surfaces is discussed. A method is presented to produce different styles of surface for knots and links, starting from the so-called braid representation. Application of Seifert's algorithm leads to depictions that show the structure of the knot and the surface, while successive relaxation via a physically based model gives shapes that are natural and resemble the familiar representations of knots. Also, we present how to generate closed oriented surfaces in which the knot is embedded, such that the knot subdivides the surface into two parts. These closed surfaces provide a direct visualization of the genus of a knot. All methods have been integrated in a freely available tool, called SeifertView, which can be used for educational and presentation purposes.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Teóricos , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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