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1.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 38, 2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) is complex and cumbersome yet important for the clinical management of the disease. Exome sequencing may provide a genetic diagnosis in a significant number of patients in a single genetic test. METHODS: In May 2013, we implemented exome sequencing in routine diagnostics for patients suffering from PIDs. This study reports the clinical utility and diagnostic yield for a heterogeneous group of 254 consecutively referred PID patients from 249 families. For the majority of patients, the clinical diagnosis was based on clinical criteria including rare and/or unusual severe bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, sometimes accompanied by autoimmune manifestations. Functional immune defects were interpreted in the context of aberrant immune cell populations, aberrant antibody levels, or combinations of these factors. RESULTS: For 62 patients (24%), exome sequencing identified pathogenic variants in well-established PID genes. An exome-wide analysis diagnosed 10 additional patients (4%), providing diagnoses for 72 patients (28%) from 68 families altogether. The genetic diagnosis directly indicated novel treatment options for 25 patients that received a diagnosis (34%). CONCLUSION: Exome sequencing as a first-tier test for PIDs granted a diagnosis for 28% of patients. Importantly, molecularly defined diagnoses indicated altered therapeutic options in 34% of cases. In addition, exome sequencing harbors advantages over gene panels as a truly generic test for all genetic diseases, including in silico extension of existing gene lists and re-analysis of existing data.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 220(5): 862-872, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candidemia, one of the most common causes of fungal bloodstream infection, leads to mortality rates up to 40% in affected patients. Understanding genetic mechanisms for differential susceptibility to candidemia may aid in designing host-directed therapies. METHODS: We performed the first genome-wide association study on candidemia, and we integrated these data with variants that affect cytokines in different cellular systems stimulated with Candida albicans. RESULTS: We observed strong association between candidemia and a variant, rs8028958, that significantly affects the expression levels of PLA2G4B in blood. We found that up to 35% of the susceptibility loci affect in vitro cytokine production in response to Candida. Furthermore, potential causal genes located within these loci are enriched for lipid and arachidonic acid metabolism. Using an independent cohort, we also showed that the numbers of risk alleles at these loci are negatively correlated with reactive oxygen species and interleukin-6 levels in response to Candida. Finally, there was a significant correlation between susceptibility and allelic scores based on 16 independent candidemia-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms that affect monocyte-derived cytokines, but not with T cell-derived cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Our results prioritize the disturbed lipid homeostasis and oxidative stress as potential mechanisms that affect monocyte-derived cytokines to influence susceptibility to candidemia.

4.
J Immunol ; 202(11): 3256-3266, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010852

RESUMO

Tetraspanins are a family of proteins possessing four transmembrane domains that help in lateral organization of plasma membrane proteins. These proteins interact with each other as well as other receptors and signaling proteins, resulting in functional complexes called "tetraspanin microdomains." Tetraspanins, including CD82, play an essential role in the pathogenesis of fungal infections. Dectin-1, a receptor for the fungal cell wall carbohydrate ß-1,3-glucan, is vital to host defense against fungal infections. The current study identifies a novel association between tetraspanin CD82 and Dectin-1 on the plasma membrane of Candida albicans-containing phagosomes independent of phagocytic ability. Deletion of CD82 in mice resulted in diminished fungicidal activity, increased C. albicans viability within macrophages, and decreased cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1ß) at both mRNA and protein level in macrophages. Additionally, CD82 organized Dectin-1 clustering in the phagocytic cup. Deletion of CD82 modulates Dectin-1 signaling, resulting in a reduction of Src and Syk phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species production. CD82 knockout mice were more susceptible to C. albicans as compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, patient C. albicans-induced cytokine production was influenced by two human CD82 single nucleotide polymorphisms, whereas an additional CD82 single nucleotide polymorphism increased the risk for candidemia independent of cytokine production. Together, these data demonstrate that CD82 organizes the proper assembly of Dectin-1 signaling machinery in response to C. albicans.

6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(10): 782-792, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis typically occurs in an immunocompromised host. For almost a century, influenza has been known to set up for bacterial superinfections, but recently patients with severe influenza were also reported to develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to measure the incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis over several seasons in patients with influenza pneumonia in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to assess whether influenza was an independent risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. METHODS: We did a retrospective multicentre cohort study. Data were collected from adult patients with severe influenza admitted to seven ICUs across Belgium and The Netherlands during seven influenza seasons. Patients were older than 18 years, were admitted to the ICU for more than 24 h with acute respiratory failure, had pulmonary infiltrates on imaging, and a confirmed influenza infection based on a positive airway PCR test (influenza cohort). We used logistic regression analyses to determine if influenza was independently associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in non-immunocompromised (ie, no European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group [EORTC/MSG] host factor) influenza-positive patients (influenza case group) compared with non-immunocompromised patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia who had a negative airway influenza PCR test (control group). FINDINGS: Data were collected from patients admitted to the ICU between Jan 1, 2009, and June 30, 2016. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed in 83 (19%) of 432 patients admitted with influenza (influenza cohort), a median of 3 days after admission to the ICU. The incidence was similar for influenza A and B. For patients with influenza who were immunocompromised, incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was as high as 32% (38 of 117 patients), whereas in the non-immunocompromised influenza case group, incidence was 14% (45 of 315 patients). Conversely, only 16 (5%) of 315 patients in the control group developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The 90-day mortality was 51% in patients in the influenza cohort with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and 28% in the influenza cohort without invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (p=0·0001). In this study, influenza was found to be independently associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (adjusted odds ratio 5·19; 95% CI 2·63-10·26; p<0·0001), along with a higher APACHE II score, male sex, and use of corticosteroids. INTERPRETATION: Influenza was identified as an independent risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and is associated with high mortality. Future studies should assess whether a faster diagnosis or antifungal prophylaxis could improve the outcome of influenza-associated aspergillosis. FUNDING: None.

7.
Med Mycol Case Rep ; 21: 4-7, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984147

RESUMO

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is increasingly described in non-neutropenic patients, such as patients with COPD receiving corticosteroids and the critically ill. Here, we present a case of a lethal pulmonary Aspergillus niger infection in a COPD patient. Immunological tests showed an impaired innate and adaptive immune response to Aspergillus. A history of COPD, unresponsiveness to antibiotics and especially a suggestive CT-scan should trigger the clinician to consider diseases caused by Aspergillus.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2636, 2018 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980664

RESUMO

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a severe infection that can occur in severely immunocompromised patients. Efficient immune recognition of Aspergillus is crucial to protect against infection, and previous studies suggested a role for NOD2 in this process. However, thorough investigation of the impact of NOD2 on susceptibility to aspergillosis is lacking. Common genetic variations in NOD2 has been associated with Crohn's disease and here we investigated the influence of these  genetic variations on the anti-Aspergillus host response. A NOD2 polymorphism reduced the risk of IA after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Mechanistically, absence of NOD2 in monocytes and macrophages increases phagocytosis leading to enhanced fungal killing, conversely, NOD2 activation reduces the antifungal potential of these cells. Crucially, Nod2 deficiency results in resistance to Aspergillus infection in an in vivo model of pulmonary aspergillosis. Collectively, our data demonstrate that genetic deficiency of NOD2 plays a protective role during Aspergillus infection.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043341

RESUMO

Our relative inability to predict the development of fungal disease and its clinical outcome raises fundamental questions about its actual pathogenesis. Several clinical risk factors are described to predispose to fungal disease, particularly in immunocompromised and severely ill patients. However, these alone do not entirely explain why, under comparable clinical conditions, only some patients develop infection. Recent clinical and epidemiological studies have reported an expanding number of monogenic defects and common polymorphisms associated with fungal disease. By directly implicating genetic variation in the functional regulation of immune mediators and interacting pathways, these studies have provided critical insights into the human immunobiology of fungal disease. Most of the common genetic defects reported were described or suggested to impair fungal recognition by the innate immune system. Here, we review common genetic variation in pattern recognition receptors and its impact on the immune response against the two major fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. In addition, we discuss potential strategies and opportunities for the clinical translation of genetic information in the field of medical mycology. These approaches are expected to transfigure current clinical practice by unleashing an unprecedented ability to personalize prophylaxis, therapy and monitoring for fungal disease.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative immune regulator. Heterozygous CTLA4 germline mutations can cause a complex immune dysregulation syndrome in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the penetrance, clinical features, and best treatment options in 133 CTLA4 mutation carriers. METHODS: Genetics, clinical features, laboratory values, and outcomes of treatment options were assessed in a worldwide cohort of CTLA4 mutation carriers. RESULTS: We identified 133 subjects from 54 unrelated families carrying 45 different heterozygous CTLA4 mutations, including 28 previously undescribed mutations. Ninety mutation carriers were considered affected, suggesting a clinical penetrance of at least 67%; median age of onset was 11 years, and the mortality rate within affected mutation carriers was 16% (n = 15). Main clinical manifestations included hypogammaglobulinemia (84%), lymphoproliferation (73%), autoimmune cytopenia (62%), and respiratory (68%), gastrointestinal (59%), or neurological features (29%). Eight affected mutation carriers had lymphoma, and 3 had gastric cancer. An EBV association was found in 6 patients with malignancies. CTLA4 mutations were associated with lymphopenia and decreased T-, B-, and natural killer (NK) cell counts. Successful targeted therapies included application of CTLA-4 fusion proteins, mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. EBV reactivation occurred in 2 affected mutation carriers after immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: Affected mutation carriers with CTLA-4 insufficiency can present in any medical specialty. Family members should be counseled because disease manifestation can occur as late as 50 years of age. EBV- and cytomegalovirus-associated complications must be closely monitored. Treatment interventions should be coordinated in clinical trials.

11.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 39, 2018 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801518

RESUMO

Understanding the complex and highly dynamic interactions between fungi and host cells in a tissue-specific manner is crucial to facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches to infections. Here, we discuss recent studies that are revealing the mechanisms underlying this context-dependent interplay.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Micobioma/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 84(9): 1980-1988, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744898

RESUMO

AIMS: Voriconazole (VCZ) exhibits wide intrapatient pharmacokinetic variability, which is disadvantageous because of its narrow therapeutic range. A considerable part of this variation remains unexplainable, despite extensive knowledge of this drug. It is hypothesized that inflammation has an impact on VCZ pharmacokinetics. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between VCZ trough concentrations and various cytokines. METHODS: A prospective single-centre analysis was performed in adult haematology patients receiving VCZ for possible, probable or proven invasive fungal disease. A linear mixed model was built to explore the contribution of each of the seven pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to VCZ trough levels. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to determine the model that fitted the best. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients, with a total of 143 combined samples of VCZ trough levels and cytokines, were included. A significant correlation (P < 0.005) was found between VCZ trough concentrations and interleukin (IL) 6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP). IL-6 showed the lowest AIC, although differences with the other mediators were marginal. CONCLUSION: VCZ trough concentrations correlate with IL-6, IL-8 and CRP levels but only moderately explain the variability in VCZ pharmacokinetics. Future prospective studies should be undertaken to confirm these findings, and incorporate the data obtained into pharmacokinetic models, to refine the predictive behaviour.

13.
Nature ; 555(7696): 382-386, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489751

RESUMO

Resistance to infection is critically dependent on the ability of pattern recognition receptors to recognize microbial invasion and induce protective immune responses. One such family of receptors are the C-type lectins, which are central to antifungal immunity. These receptors activate key effector mechanisms upon recognition of conserved fungal cell-wall carbohydrates. However, several other immunologically active fungal ligands have been described; these include melanin, for which the mechanism of recognition is hitherto undefined. Here we identify a C-type lectin receptor, melanin-sensing C-type lectin receptor (MelLec), that has an essential role in antifungal immunity through recognition of the naphthalene-diol unit of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin. MelLec recognizes melanin in conidial spores of Aspergillus fumigatus as well as in other DHN-melanized fungi. MelLec is ubiquitously expressed by CD31+ endothelial cells in mice, and is also expressed by a sub-population of these cells that co-express epithelial cell adhesion molecule and are detected only in the lung and the liver. In mouse models, MelLec was required for protection against disseminated infection with A. fumigatus. In humans, MelLec is also expressed by myeloid cells, and we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism of this receptor that negatively affected myeloid inflammatory responses and significantly increased the susceptibility of stem-cell transplant recipients to disseminated Aspergillus infections. MelLec therefore recognizes an immunologically active component commonly found on fungi and has an essential role in protective antifungal immunity in both mice and humans.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Melaninas/imunologia , Naftóis/imunologia , Animais , Aspergilose/imunologia , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergilose/prevenção & controle , Aspergillus fumigatus/química , Aspergillus fumigatus/patogenicidade , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Melaninas/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Naftóis/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esporos Fúngicos/química , Esporos Fúngicos/imunologia , Especificidade por Substrato
14.
Cell ; 172(1-2): 135-146.e9, 2018 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29328908

RESUMO

Innate immune cells can develop long-term memory after stimulation by microbial products during infections or vaccinations. Here, we report that metabolic signals can induce trained immunity. Pharmacological and genetic experiments reveal that activation of the cholesterol synthesis pathway, but not the synthesis of cholesterol itself, is essential for training of myeloid cells. Rather, the metabolite mevalonate is the mediator of training via activation of IGF1-R and mTOR and subsequent histone modifications in inflammatory pathways. Statins, which block mevalonate generation, prevent trained immunity induction. Furthermore, monocytes of patients with hyper immunoglobulin D syndrome (HIDS), who are mevalonate kinase deficient and accumulate mevalonate, have a constitutive trained immunity phenotype at both immunological and epigenetic levels, which could explain the attacks of sterile inflammation that these patients experience. Unraveling the role of mevalonate in trained immunity contributes to our understanding of the pathophysiology of HIDS and identifies novel therapeutic targets for clinical conditions with excessive activation of trained immunity.

15.
Platelets ; 29(6): 602-609, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960117

RESUMO

Involvement of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in inflammation is well known. Recently, a role for STAT3 in platelet activation and platelet production has been suggested. Platelets exhibit important immune functions and engagement of STAT3 in platelet physiology may link inflammation and hemostasis. This study investigated the effects of STAT3 loss-of-function mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in STAT3 on glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-mediated platelet activation and platelet numbers in humans. Two cohorts were studied. The first cohort concerned patients with STAT3 loss-of-function mutations. Platelet numbers were investigated in eight patients and GPVI-mediated platelet activation was functionally tested in four patients. Additional experiments were performed to investigate underlying mechanisms. The second cohort concerned 334 healthy volunteers and investigated the consequences of SNPs in STAT3 on GPVI-mediated platelet activation and platelet numbers. Platelet activation was lower in STAT3 loss-of-function patients at baseline and after stimulation of the GPVI receptor, reflected by decreased P-selectin expression. This was independent of gene transcription. Blockade of the adenosine di-phosphate (ADP) pathway resulted in a further decrease of P-selectin expression, particularly in STAT3 loss-of-function patients. In contrast, the SNPs in STAT3 did not influence GPVI-mediated platelet activation. Also, platelet numbers were not affected by STAT3 loss-of-function mutations, nor was there an association with the SNPs. In conclusion, STAT3 signaling does not seem to play a major role in thrombopoiesis. We confirm that STAT3 is involved in GPVI-mediated platelet activation in humans, independent of gene transcription. GPVI-mediated platelet activation is highly dependent on secondary ADP release. Our findings suggest that STAT3 modulation may affect inflammation, hemostasis, and their interaction.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Hemostasia , Humanos , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Immunol Rev ; 281(1): 191-196, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247986

RESUMO

IL-38 belongs to the IL-36 cytokines, which in turn are part of the IL-1 family. The first biological function of IL-38 described was blocking the activation of the IL-36R signaling similar to IL-36Ra. Since IL-36 cytokines require processing in order to become fully active, it is likely that IL-38 also must be processed to become maximally active. However, the protease(s) responsible for this is currently not known. In addition of IL-38 binding IL-36R, it has been proposed it can also interact with the co-receptor TIGIRR2. IL-38 is expressed in several tissues including tonsils, placenta, heart and brain, and IL-38 has been implicated in a wide variety of diseases including cardiovascular and autoimmune disease. Here, we discuss the discovery and biological function of IL-38, and its role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases.


Assuntos
Interleucinas/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais
18.
J Innate Immun ; 10(2): 145-160, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29248928

RESUMO

Invasive aspergillosis mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients and is commonly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, while A.nidulans is rarely the causative agent. However, in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients, A. nidulans is a frequent cause of invasive aspergillosis and is associated with higher mortality. Immune recognition of A. nidulans was compared to A. fumigatus to offer an insight into why A. nidulans infections are prevalent in CGD. Live cell imaging with J774A.1 macrophage-like cells and LC3-GFP-mCherry bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) revealed that phagocytosis of A. nidulans was slower compared to A. fumigatus. This difference could be attributed to slower migration of J774A.1 cells and a lower percentage of migrating BMDMs. In addition, delayed phagosome acidification and LC3-associated phagocytosis was observed with A. nidulans. Cytokine and oxidative burst measurements in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed a lower oxidative burst upon challenge with A. nidulans. In contrast, A. nidulans induced significantly higher concentrations of cytokines. Collectively, our data demonstrate that A. nidulans is phagocytosed and processed at a slower rate compared to A. fumigatus, resulting in reduced fungal killing and increased germination of conidia. This slower rate of A. nidulans clearance may be permissive for overgrowth within certain immune settings.

20.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 4(4): ofx202, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226168

RESUMO

Heterozygous STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations are associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and a broad spectrum of infectious, inflammatory, and vascular manifestations. We describe therapeutic failures with the Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitor ruxolitinib in 2 STAT1 GOF patients with severe invasive or cutaneous fungal infections.

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