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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003245

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the use of telehealth as part of specialized care for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the user experiences of patients and healthcare professionals. Methods: Fifty patients with ALS were recruited from a single specialist center and used telehealth, consisting of an ALS-app for self-monitoring and messaging, alerts for symptom-worsening, and nurse practitioner follow-up. Patients self-monitored their well-being (daily report), body weight (weekly) and functional status (monthly). The use of the telehealth service was evaluated through adoption rate, dropout rate and adherence to self-monitoring. User-experiences were collected through online surveys among 23 patients and nine healthcare professionals, and interviews with 12 patients. Results: The adoption rate was 80%, dropout rate 4% and median follow-up was 11 months. Good adherence was seen in 49% of patients for well-being, 83% for body weight and 87% for functional assessment. For patients who discontinued using telehealth due to the end-of-life phase, median time between last measurement and death was 19 days. The majority of patients experienced using telehealth as easy, helpful, not burdensome, and reported satisfaction with flexible clinic visits and the continuity of care. Healthcare professionals reported that telehealth was of added value in ALS-care. Conclusions: ALS-care supplemented by home-monitoring and nurse practitioner follow-up was shown to be suitable and widely accepted by patients and healthcare professionals in our ALS clinic. Success factors were low self-monitoring burden, a user-friendly platform and the provision of personalized feedback. Further research is needed to replicate these findings in other ALS clinics.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) continue to rely on survival or functional scales as endpoints, despite the emergence of quantitative biomarkers. Neuroimaging-based biomarkers in ALS have been shown to detect ALS-associated pathology in vivo, although anatomical patterns of disease spread are poorly characterized. The objective of this study is to simulate disease propagation using network analyses of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to predict disease progression. METHODS: Using brain networks of ALS patients (n = 208) and matched controls across longitudinal time points, network-based statistics unraveled progressive network degeneration originating from the motor cortex and expanding in a spatiotemporal manner. We applied a computational model to the MRI scan of patients to simulate this progressive network degeneration. Simulated aggregation levels at the group and individual level were validated with empirical impairment observed at later time points of white matter and clinical decline using both internal and external datasets. RESULTS: We observe that computer-simulated aggregation levels mimic true disease patterns in ALS patients. Simulated patterns of involvement across cortical areas show significant overlap with the patterns of empirically impaired brain regions on later scans, at both group and individual levels. These findings are validated using an external longitudinal dataset of 30 patients. INTERPRETATION: Our results are in accordance with established pathological staging systems and may have implications for patient stratification in future clinical trials. Our results demonstrate the utility of computational models in ALS to predict disease progression and underscore their potential as a prognostic biomarker. ANN NEUROL 2020.

3.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(4): 373-377, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029539

RESUMO

Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the adult motor system. Characterised by a slowly progressive upper motor neuron syndrome, the diagnosis is clinical, after exclusion of structural, neurodegenerative and metabolic mimics. Differentiation of PLS from upper motor neuron-predominant forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains a significant challenge in the early symptomatic phase of both disorders, with ongoing debate as to whether they form a clinical and histopathological continuum. Current diagnostic criteria for PLS may be a barrier to therapeutic development, requiring long delays between symptom onset and formal diagnosis. While new technologies sensitive to both upper and lower motor neuron involvement may ultimately resolve controversies in the diagnosis of PLS, we present updated consensus diagnostic criteria with the aim of reducing diagnostic delay, optimising therapeutic trial design and catalysing the development of disease-modifying therapy.

4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD006282, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by a homozygous deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene on chromosome 5, or a heterozygous deletion in combination with a (point) mutation in the second SMN1 allele. This results in degeneration of anterior horn cells, which leads to progressive muscle weakness. Children with SMA type II do not develop the ability to walk without support and have a shortened life expectancy, whereas children with SMA type III develop the ability to walk and have a normal life expectancy. This is an update of a review first published in 2009 and previously updated in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if drug treatment is able to slow or arrest the disease progression of SMA types II and III, and to assess if such therapy can be given safely. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and ISI Web of Science conference proceedings in October 2018. In October 2018, we also searched two trials registries to identify unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We sought all randomised or quasi-randomised trials that examined the efficacy of drug treatment for SMA types II and III. Participants had to fulfil the clinical criteria and have a homozygous deletion or hemizygous deletion in combination with a point mutation in the second allele of the SMN1 gene (5q11.2-13.2) confirmed by genetic analysis. The primary outcome measure was change in disability score within one year after the onset of treatment. Secondary outcome measures within one year after the onset of treatment were change in muscle strength, ability to stand or walk, change in quality of life, time from the start of treatment until death or full-time ventilation and adverse events attributable to treatment during the trial period. Treatment strategies involving SMN1-replacement with viral vectors are out of the scope of this review, but a summary is given in Appendix 1. Drug treatment for SMA type I is the topic of a separate Cochrane Review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: The review authors found 10 randomised, placebo-controlled trials of treatments for SMA types II and III for inclusion in this review, with 717 participants. We added four of the trials at this update. The trials investigated creatine (55 participants), gabapentin (84 participants), hydroxyurea (57 participants), nusinersen (126 participants), olesoxime (165 participants), phenylbutyrate (107 participants), somatotropin (20 participants), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) (nine participants), valproic acid (33 participants), and combination therapy with valproic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) (61 participants). Treatment duration was from three to 24 months. None of the studies investigated the same treatment and none was completely free of bias. All studies had adequate blinding, sequence generation and reporting of primary outcomes. Based on moderate-certainty evidence, intrathecal nusinersen improved motor function (disability) in children with SMA type II, with a 3.7-point improvement in the nusinersen group on the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded (HFMSE; range of possible scores 0 to 66), compared to a 1.9-point decline on the HFMSE in the sham procedure group (P < 0.01; n = 126). On all motor function scales used, higher scores indicate better function. Based on moderate-certainty evidence from two studies, the following interventions had no clinically important effect on motor function scores in SMA types II or III (or both) in comparison to placebo: creatine (median change 1 higher, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1 to 2; on the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), scale 0 to 264; n = 40); and combination therapy with valproic acid and carnitine (mean difference (MD) 0.64, 95% CI -1.1 to 2.38; on the Modified Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (MHFMS), scale 0 to 40; n = 61). Based on low-certainty evidence from other single studies, the following interventions had no clinically important effect on motor function scores in SMA types II or III (or both) in comparison to placebo: gabapentin (median change 0 in the gabapentin group and -2 in the placebo group on the SMA Functional Rating Scale (SMAFRS), scale 0 to 50; n = 66); hydroxyurea (MD -1.88, 95% CI -3.89 to 0.13 on the GMFM, scale 0 to 264; n = 57), phenylbutyrate (MD -0.13, 95% CI -0.84 to 0.58 on the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMS) scale 0 to 40; n = 90) and monotherapy of valproic acid (MD 0.06, 95% CI -1.32 to 1.44 on SMAFRS, scale 0 to 50; n = 31). Very low-certainty evidence suggested that the following interventions had little or no effect on motor function: olesoxime (MD 2, 95% -0.25 to 4.25 on the Motor Function Measure (MFM) D1 + D2, scale 0 to 75; n = 160) and somatotropin (median change at 3 months 0.25 higher, 95% CI -1 to 2.5 on the HFMSE, scale 0 to 66; n = 19). One small TRH trial did not report effects on motor function and the certainty of evidence for other outcomes from this trial were low or very low. Results of nine completed trials investigating 4-aminopyridine, acetyl-L-carnitine, CK-2127107, hydroxyurea, pyridostigmine, riluzole, RO6885247/RG7800, salbutamol and valproic acid were awaited and not available for analysis at the time of writing. Various trials and studies investigating treatment strategies other than nusinersen (e.g. SMN2-augmentation by small molecules), are currently ongoing. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Nusinersen improves motor function in SMA type II, based on moderate-certainty evidence. Creatine, gabapentin, hydroxyurea, phenylbutyrate, valproic acid and the combination of valproic acid and ALC probably have no clinically important effect on motor function in SMA types II or III (or both) based on low-certainty evidence, and olesoxime and somatropin may also have little to no clinically important effect but evidence was of very low-certainty. One trial of TRH did not measure motor function.

5.
Neurology ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the diagnostic accuracy of nerve ultrasound in a prospective cohort of consecutive patients with a clinical suspicion of chronic inflammatory neuropathies, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Lewis Sumner syndrome, and multifocal motor neuropathy, and to determine the added value in the detection of treatment-responsive patients. METHODS: Between February 2015 and July 2018, we included 100 consecutive incident patients with a clinical suspicion of chronic inflammatory neuropathy. All patients underwent nerve ultrasound, extensive standardized nerve conduction studies (NCS), and other relevant diagnostic investigations. We evaluated treatment response using predefined criteria. A diagnosis of chronic inflammatory neuropathy was established when NCS were abnormal (fulfilling criteria of demyelination of the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society) or when the degree of nerve enlargement detected by sonography was compatible with chronic inflammatory neuropathy and there was response to treatment. RESULTS: A diagnosis of chronic inflammatory neuropathy was established in 38 patients. Sensitivity and specificity of nerve ultrasound and NCS were 97.4% and 69.4% and 78.9% and 93.5%, respectively. The added value of nerve ultrasound in detection of treatment-responsive chronic inflammatory neuropathy was 21.1% compared to NCS alone. CONCLUSIONS: Nerve ultrasound and NCS are complementary techniques with superior sensitivity in the former and specificity in the latter. Addition of nerve ultrasound significantly improves the detection of chronic inflammatory neuropathies. Therefore, it deserves a prominent place in the diagnostic workup of chronic inflammatory neuropathies. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that nerve ultrasound is an accurate diagnostic tool to detect chronic inflammatory neuropathies.

6.
Muscle Nerve ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899540

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder with complex biology and significant clinical heterogeneity. Many preclinical and early phase ALS clinical trials have yielded promising results that could not be replicated in larger phase 3 confirmatory trials. One reason for the lack of reproducibility may be ALS biological and clinical heterogeneity. Therefore, in this review, we explore sources of ALS heterogeneity that may reduce statistical power to evaluate efficacy in ALS trials. We also review efforts to manage clinical heterogeneity, including use of validated disease outcome measures, predictive biomarkers of disease progression, and individual clinical risk stratification. We propose that personalized prognostic models with use of predictive biomarkers may identify patients with ALS for whom a specific therapeutic strategy may be expected to be more successful. Finally, the rapid application of emerging clinical and biomarker strategies may reduce heterogeneity, increase trial efficiency, and, in turn, accelerate ALS drug development.

7.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(2): 140-148, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511307

RESUMO

Despite 30 years of research there are still significant unknowns and controversies associated with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) including disease pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria and treatment. Foremost relates to the underlying pathophysiology, specifically whether MMN represents an axonal or demyelinating neuropathy and whether the underlying pathophysiology is focused at the node of Ranvier. In turn, this discussion promotes consideration of therapeutic approaches, an issue that becomes more directed in this evolving era of precision medicine. It is generally accepted that MMN represents a chronic progressive immune-mediated motor neuropathy clinically characterised by progressive asymmetric weakness and electrophysiologically by partial motor conduction block. Anti-GM1 IgM antibodies are identified in at least 40% of patients. There have been recent developments in the use of neuromuscular ultrasound and MRI to aid in diagnosing MMN and in further elucidation of its pathophysiological mechanisms. The present Review will critically analyse the knowledge accumulated about MMN over the past 30 years, culminating in a state-of-the-art approach to therapy.

8.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(1): 75-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) is widely applied to assess disease severity and progression in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The objective of the study is to assess the inter-rater and intra-rater reproducibility, i.e., the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and agreement, of a self-administration version of the ALSFRS-R for use in apps, online platforms, clinical care and trials. METHODS: The self-administration version of the ALSFRS-R was developed based on both patient and expert feedback. To assess the inter-rater reproducibility, 59 patients with MND filled out the ALSFRS-R online and were subsequently assessed on the ALSFRS-R by three raters. To assess the intra-rater reproducibility, patients were invited on two occasions to complete the ALSFRS-R online. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients, agreement was assessed with Bland-Altman plots and paired samples t-tests, and internal consistency was examined with Cronbach's coefficient alpha. RESULTS: The self-administration version of the ALSFRS-R demonstrated excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. The assessment of inter-rater agreement demonstrated small systematic differences between patients and raters and acceptable limits of agreement. The assessment of intra-rater agreement demonstrated no systematic changes between time points; limits of agreement were 4.3 points for the total score and ranged from 1.6 to 2.4 points for the domain scores. Coefficient alpha values were acceptable. DISCUSSION: The self-administration version of the ALSFRS-R demonstrates high reproducibility and can be used in apps and online portals for both individual comparisons, facilitating the management of clinical care and group comparisons in clinical trials.

9.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(1): 33-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between cigarette smoking and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a pooled analysis of population-based case-control studies and explored the independent effects of intensity, duration and time-since-quitting. METHODS: ALS cases and controls, matched by age, sex and region, were recruited in the Netherlands, Italy and Ireland (*Euro-MOTOR project). Demographics and detailed lifetime smoking histories were collected through questionnaires. Effects of smoking status, intensity (cigarettes/day), duration (years), pack-years and time-since-quitting (years) on ALS risk were estimated using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, alcohol, education and centre. We further investigated effect modification of the linear effects of pack-years by intensity, duration and time-since-quitting using excess OR (eOR) models. RESULTS: Analyses were performed on 1410 cases and 2616 controls. Pack-years were positively associated with ALS risk; OR=1.26 (95% CI: 1.03 to 1.54) for the highest quartile compared with never smokers. This association appeared to be predominantly driven by smoking duration (ptrend=0.001) rather than intensity (ptrend=0.86), although the trend for duration disappeared after adjustment for time-since-quitting. Time-since-quitting was inversely related to ALS (ptrend<0.0001). The eOR decreased with time-since-quitting smoking, until about 10 years prior to disease onset. High intensity smoking with shorter duration appeared more deleterious than lower intensity for a longer duration. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide further support for the association between smoking and ALS. Pack-years alone may be insufficient to capture effects of different smoking patterns. Time-since-quitting appeared to be an important factor, suggesting that smoking may be an early disease trigger.

10.
Psychol Health Med ; 25(3): 319-330, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747791

RESUMO

Caregivers of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Progressive Muscular Atrophy (PMA) patients often experience psychological distress. Yet, it is unclear which factors explain the variance in psychological distress. This study seeks to evaluate how care demands and perceived control over caregiving influence psychological distress using moderation and mediation analysis. Data were collected as part of a RCT and 148 partners of patients with ALS or PMA were included. Psychological distress was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Care demands were operationalized as physical functioning (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised) and behavioural changes of the patient (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Frontotemporal Dementia-Questionnaire). Perceived control over caregiving was assessed using items adapted from the Job Content Questionnaire. Results showed that more behavioural changes and lower perceived control over caregiving were associated with higher levels of psychological distress in caregivers. Patients' physical functioning was not significantly related to caregivers' psychological distress. No moderation or mediation effects were found of perceived control over caregiving on the relationship between demand and psychological distress. Monitoring, psychoeducation and caregiver support with regard to behavioural changes in patients, seem to be important for the wellbeing of caregivers. Caregivers' perceived control might be a target for future interventions.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(1): 40-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488895

RESUMO

Variants in the KIF1A gene can cause autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia 30, autosomal recessive hereditary sensory neuropathy, or autosomal (de novo) dominant mental retardation type 9. More recently, variants in KIF1A have also been described in a few cases with autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia. Here, we describe 20 KIF1A variants in 24 patients from a clinical exome sequencing cohort of 347 individuals with a mostly 'pure' spastic paraplegia. In these patients, spastic paraplegia was slowly progressive and mostly pure, but with a highly variable disease onset (0-57 years). Segregation analyses showed a de novo occurrence in seven cases, and a dominant inheritance pattern in 11 families. The motor domain of KIF1A is a hotspot for disease causing variants in autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, similar to mental retardation type 9 and recessive spastic paraplegia type 30. However, unlike these allelic disorders, dominant spastic paraplegia was also caused by loss-of-function variants outside this domain in six families. Finally, three missense variants were outside the motor domain and need further characterization. In conclusion, KIF1A variants are a frequent cause of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia in our cohort (6-7%). The identification of KIF1A loss-of-function variants suggests haploinsufficiency as a possible mechanism in autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia.

12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD006281, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by a homozygous deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene on chromosome 5, or a heterozygous deletion in combination with a point mutation in the second SMN1 allele. This results in degeneration of anterior horn cells, which leads to progressive muscle weakness. By definition, children with SMA type I are never able to sit without support and usually die or become ventilator dependent before the age of two years. There have until very recently been no drug treatments to influence the course of SMA. We undertook this updated review to evaluate new evidence on emerging treatments for SMA type I. The review was first published in 2009 and previously updated in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of any drug therapy designed to slow or arrest progression of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type I. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and ISI Web of Science conference proceedings in October 2018. We also searched two trials registries to identify unpublished trials (October 2018). SELECTION CRITERIA: We sought all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that examined the efficacy of drug treatment for SMA type I. Included participants had to fulfil clinical criteria and have a genetically confirmed deletion or mutation of the SMN1 gene (5q11.2-13.2). The primary outcome measure was age at death or full-time ventilation. Secondary outcome measures were acquisition of motor milestones, i.e. head control, rolling, sitting or standing, motor milestone response on disability scores within one year after the onset of treatment, and adverse events and serious adverse events attributable to treatment during the trial period. Treatment strategies involving SMN1 gene replacement with viral vectors are out of the scope of this review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We identified two RCTs: one trial of intrathecal nusinersen in comparison to a sham (control) procedure in 121 randomised infants with SMA type I, which was newly included at this update, and one small trial comparing riluzole treatment to placebo in 10 children with SMA type I. The RCT of intrathecally-injected nusinersen was stopped early for efficacy (based on a predefined Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination-Section 2 (HINE-2) response). At the interim analyses after 183 days of treatment, 41% (21/51) of nusinersen-treated infants showed a predefined improvement on HINE-2, compared to 0% (0/27) of participants in the control group. This trial was largely at low risk of bias. Final analyses (ranging from 6 months to 13 months of treatment), showed that fewer participants died or required full-time ventilation (defined as more than 16 hours daily for 21 days or more) in the nusinersen-treated group than the control group (hazard ratio (HR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 0.89; N = 121; a 47% lower risk; moderate-certainty evidence). A proportion of infants in the nusinersen group and none of 37 infants in the control group achieved motor milestones: 37/73 nusinersen-treated infants (51%) achieved a motor milestone response on HINE-2 (risk ratio (RR) 38.51, 95% CI 2.43 to 610.14; N = 110; moderate-certainty evidence); 16/73 achieved head control (RR 16.95, 95% CI 1.04 to 274.84; moderate-certainty evidence); 6/73 achieved independent sitting (RR 6.68, 95% CI 0.39 to 115.38; moderate-certainty evidence); 7/73 achieved rolling over (RR 7.70, 95% CI 0.45 to 131.29); and 1/73 achieved standing (RR 1.54, 95% CI 0.06 to 36.92; moderate-certainty evidence). Seventy-one per cent of nusinersen-treated infants versus 3% of infants in the control group were responders on the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Infant Test of Neuromuscular Disorders (CHOP INTEND) measure of motor disability (RR 26.36, 95% CI 3.79 to 183.18; N = 110; moderate-certainty evidence). Adverse events and serious adverse events occurred in the majority of infants but were no more frequent in the nusinersen-treated group than the control group (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.05 and RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.89, respectively; N = 121; moderate-certainty evidence). In the riluzole trial, three of seven children treated with riluzole were still alive at the ages of 30, 48, and 64 months, whereas all three children in the placebo group died. None of the children in the riluzole or placebo group developed the ability to sit, which was the only milestone reported. There were no adverse effects. The certainty of the evidence for all measured outcomes from this study was very low, because the study was too small to detect or rule out an effect, and had serious limitations, including baseline differences. This trial was stopped prematurely because the pharmaceutical company withdrew funding. Various trials and studies investigating treatment strategies other than nusinersen, such as SMN2 augmentation by small molecules, are ongoing. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the very limited evidence currently available regarding drug treatments for SMA type 1, intrathecal nusinersen probably prolongs ventilation-free and overall survival in infants with SMA type I. It is also probable that a greater proportion of infants treated with nusinersen than with a sham procedure achieve motor milestones and can be classed as responders to treatment on clinical assessments (HINE-2 and CHOP INTEND). The proportion of children experiencing adverse events and serious adverse events on nusinersen is no higher with nusinersen treatment than with a sham procedure, based on evidence of moderate certainty. It is uncertain whether riluzole has any effect in patients with SMA type I, based on the limited available evidence. Future trials could provide more high-certainty, longer-term evidence to confirm this result, or focus on comparing new treatments to nusinersen or evaluate them as an add-on therapy to nusinersen.

13.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(523)2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852800

RESUMO

Motor neuron-specific microRNA-218 (miR-218) has recently received attention because of its roles in mouse development. However, miR-218 relevance to human motor neuron disease was not yet explored. Here, we demonstrate by neuropathology that miR-218 is abundant in healthy human motor neurons. However, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) motor neurons, miR-218 is down-regulated and its mRNA targets are reciprocally up-regulated (derepressed). We further identify the potassium channel Kv10.1 as a new miR-218 direct target that controls neuronal activity. In addition, we screened thousands of ALS genomes and identified six rare variants in the human miR-218-2 sequence. miR-218 gene variants fail to regulate neuron activity, suggesting the importance of this small endogenous RNA for neuronal robustness. The underlying mechanisms involve inhibition of miR-218 biogenesis and reduced processing by DICER. Therefore, miR-218 activity in motor neurons may be susceptible to failure in human ALS, suggesting that miR-218 may be a potential therapeutic target in motor neuron disease.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878794

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to provide an overview of telehealth used in the care for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and identify the barriers to and facilitators of its implementation. Methods: We searched Pubmed and Embase to identify relevant articles. Full-text articles with original research reporting on the use of telehealth in ALS care, were included. Data were synthesized using the Consolidation Framework for Implementation Research. Two authors independently screened articles based on the inclusion criteria. Results: Sixteen articles were included that investigated three types of telehealth: Videoconferencing, home-based self-monitoring and remote NIV monitoring. Telehealth was mainly used by patients with respiratory impairment and focused on monitoring respiratory function. Facilitators for telehealth implementation were a positive attitude of patients (and caregivers) toward telehealth and the provision of training and ongoing support. Healthcare professionals were more likely to have a negative attitude toward telehealth, due to the lack of personal evaluation/contact and technical issues; this was a known barrier. Other important barriers to telehealth were lack of reimbursement and cost-effectiveness analyses. Barriers and facilitators identified in this review correspond to known determinants found in other healthcare settings. Conclusions: Our findings show that telehealth in ALS care is well-received by patients and their caregivers. Healthcare professionals, however, show mixed experiences and perceive barriers to telehealth use. Challenges related to finance and legislation may hinder telehealth implementation in ALS care. Future research should report the barriers and facilitators of implementation and determine the cost-effectiveness of telehealth.

15.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 1058, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680806

RESUMO

The sensorimotor cortex is a frequently targeted brain area for the development of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) for communication in people with severe paralysis and communication problems (locked-in syndrome; LIS). It is widely acknowledged that this area displays an increase in high-frequency band (HFB) power and a decrease in the power of the low frequency band (LFB) during movement of, for example, the hand. Upon termination of hand movement, activity in the LFB band typically shows a short increase (rebound). The ability to modulate the neural signal in the sensorimotor cortex by imagining or attempting to move is crucial for the implementation of sensorimotor BCI in people who are unable to execute movements. This may not always be self-evident, since the most common causes of LIS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and brain stem stroke, are associated with significant damage to the brain, potentially affecting the generation of baseline neural activity in the sensorimotor cortex and the modulation thereof by imagined or attempted hand movement. In the Utrecht NeuroProsthesis (UNP) study, a participant with LIS caused by ALS and a participant with LIS due to brain stem stroke were implanted with a fully implantable BCI, including subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes over the sensorimotor area, with the purpose of achieving ECoG-BCI-based communication. We noted differences between these participants in the spectral power changes generated by attempted movement of the hand. To better understand the nature and origin of these differences, we compared the baseline spectral features and task-induced modulation of the neural signal of the LIS participants, with those of a group of able-bodied people with epilepsy who received a subchronic implant with ECoG electrodes for diagnostic purposes. Our data show that baseline LFB oscillatory components and changes generated in the LFB power of the sensorimotor cortex by (attempted) hand movement differ between participants, despite consistent HFB responses in this area. We conclude that the etiology of LIS may have significant effects on the LFB spectral components in the sensorimotor cortex, which is relevant for the development of communication-BCIs for this population.

16.
Neurology ; 93(17): e1605-e1617, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the natural history of the C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9ALS) patient population, develop disease biomarkers, and characterize patient pathologies. METHODS: We prospectively collected clinical and demographic data from 116 symptomatic C9ALS and 12 non-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) full expansion carriers across 7 institutions in the United States and the Netherlands. In addition, we collected blood samples for DNA repeat size assessment, CSF samples for biomarker identification, and autopsy samples for dipeptide repeat protein (DPR) size determination. Finally, we collected retrospective clinical data via chart review from 208 individuals with C9ALS and 450 individuals with singleton ALS. RESULTS: The mean age at onset in the symptomatic prospective cohort was 57.9 ± 8.3 years, and median duration of survival after onset was 36.9 months. The monthly change was -1.8 ± 1.7 for ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised and -1.4% ± 3.24% of predicted for slow vital capacity. In blood DNA, we found that G4C2 repeat size correlates positively with age. In CSF, we observed that concentrations of poly(GP) negatively correlate with DNA expansion size but do not correlate with measures of disease progression. Finally, we found that size of poly(GP) dipeptides in the brain can reach large sizes similar to that of their DNA repeat derivatives. CONCLUSIONS: We present a thorough investigation of C9ALS natural history, providing the basis for C9ALS clinical trial design. We found that clinical features of this genetic subset are less variant than in singleton ALS. In addition, we identified important correlations of C9ALS patient pathologies with clinical and demographic data.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Idade de Início , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/urina , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624333

RESUMO

Genetic mutations related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) act through distinct pathophysiological pathways, which may lead to varying treatment responses. Here we assess the genetic interaction between C9orf72, UNC13A, and MOBP with creatine and valproic acid treatment in two clinical trials. Genotypic data was available for 309 of the 338 participants (91.4%). The UNC13A genotype affected mortality (p = 0.012), whereas C9orf72 repeat-expansion carriers exhibited a faster rate of decline in overall (p = 0.051) and bulbar functioning (p = 0.005). A dose-response pharmacogenetic interaction was identified between creatine and the A allele of the MOBP genotype (p = 0.027), suggesting a qualitative interaction in a recessive model (HR 3.96, p = 0.015). Not taking genetic information into account may mask evidence of response to treatment or be an unrecognized source of bias. Incorporating genetic data could help investigators to identify critical treatment clues in patients with ALS.

19.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 102002, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study we investigated the potential value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in characterizing changes in the cervical spinal cord and peripheral nerve roots in vivo in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). METHODS: We developed an MRI protocol with 4 sequences to investigate the cervical spinal cord and nerve roots on a 3 Tesla MRI system. We used 2 anatomical MRI sequences to investigate cross-sectional area (CSA) at each spinal segment and the diameter of ventral and dorsal nerve roots, and two diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques to estimate the fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) in 10 SMA patients and 20 healthy controls. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in CSA (p > .1), although an 8.5% reduction of CSA in patients compared to healthy controls was apparent at segment C7. DTI data showed a higher AD in grey matter of patients compared to healthy controls (p = .033). Significantly lower MD, AD and RD values were found in rostral nerve roots (C3-C5) in patients (p < .045). CONCLUSIONS: We showed feasibility of an advanced 3 T MRI protocol that allowed differences to be determined between patients and healthy controls, confirming the potential of this technique to assess pathological mechanisms in SMA. After further development and confirmation of findings in a larger sample, these techniques may be used to study disease course of SMA in vivo and evaluate response to survival motor neuron (SMN) augmenting therapy.

20.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 101984, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neuromuscular disease characterized by both upper and lower motor neuron degeneration. While neuroimaging studies of the brain can detect upper motor neuron degeneration, these brain MRI scans also include the upper part of the cervical spinal cord, which offers the possibility to expand the focus also towards lower motor neuron degeneration. Here, we set out to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal disease effects in the upper cervical spinal cord in patients with ALS, progressive muscular atrophy (PMA: primarily lower motor neuron involvement) and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS: primarily upper motor neuron involvement), and their relation to disease severity and grey and white matter brain measurements. METHODS: We enrolled 108 ALS patients without C9orf72 repeat expansion (ALS C9-), 26 ALS patients with C9orf72 repeat expansion (ALS C9+), 28 PLS patients, 56 PMA patients and 114 controls. During up to five visits, longitudinal T1-weighted brain MRI data were acquired and used to segment the upper cervical spinal cord (UCSC, up to C3) and individual cervical segments (C1 to C4) to calculate cross-sectional areas (CSA). Using linear (mixed-effects) models, the CSA differences were assessed between groups and correlated with disease severity. Furthermore, a relationship between CSA and brain measurements was examined in terms of cortical thickness of the precentral gyrus and white matter integrity of the corticospinal tract. RESULTS: Compared to controls, CSAs at baseline showed significantly thinner UCSC in all groups in the MND spectrum. Over time, ALS C9- patients demonstrated significant thinning of the UCSC and, more specifically, of segment C3 compared to controls. Progressive thinning over time was also observed in C1 of PMA patients, while ALS C9+ and PLS patients did not show any longitudinal changes. Longitudinal spinal cord measurements showed a significant relationship with disease severity and we found a significant correlation between spinal cord and motor cortex thickness or corticospinal tract integrity for PLS and PMA, but not for ALS patients. DISCUSSION: Our findings demonstrate atrophy of the upper cervical spinal cord in the motor neuron disease spectrum, which was progressive over time for all but PLS patients. Cervical spinal cord imaging in ALS seems to capture different disease effects than brain neuroimaging. Atrophy of the cervical spinal cord is therefore a promising additional biomarker for both diagnosis and disease progression and could help in the monitoring of treatment effects in future clinical trials.

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