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2.
Eur Respir J ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537701

RESUMO

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are widely prescribed for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), yet with variable outcomes and adverse reactions which may be genetically determined. The primary aim of the study was to identify the genetic determinants for FEV1 changes related to ICS therapy. In the Lung Health Study 2 (LHS-2), 1116 COPD patients were randomised to the ICS, triamcinolone acetonide (n=559), or placebo (n=557) with spirometry performed every 6 months for 3 years. We performed a pharmacogenomic genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the genotype-by-ICS treatment effect on 3 years of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) changes (estimated as slope) in 802 genotyped LHS-2 participants. Replication was performed in 199 COPD patients randomised to the ICS, fluticasone or placebo. A total of five loci showed genotype-by-ICS interaction at p<5×10-6; of these, SNP rs111720447 on chromosome 7 was replicated (discovery p=4.8×10-6, replication p=5.9×10-5) with the same direction of interaction effect. ENCODE data revealed that in glucocorticoid treated (dexamethasone) A549 alveolar cell line, glucocorticoid receptor binding sites were located near SNP rs111720447. In stratified analyses of LHS-2, genotype at SNP rs111720447 was significantly associated with rate of FEV1 decline in patients taking ICS (C allele beta=56.35 mL·year-1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=29.96, 82.76 mL·yr-1) and also in patients who were assigned to placebo, though the relationship was weaker and in the opposite direction than that in the ICS group (C allele beta=-27.57 mL·year-1, 95% CI=-53.27, -1.87 mL·yr-1). The study uncovered genetic factors associated with FEV1 changes related to ICS in COPD patients, which may provide new insight on the potential biology of steroid responsiveness in COPD.

3.
Allergy ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the clinical or pathophysiologic significance of the "treatable trait" high blood eosinophil count in COPD is the same as for asthma remains controversial. We sought to determine the relationship between the blood eosinophil count, clinical characteristics and gene expression from bronchial brushings in COPD and asthma. METHODS: Subjects were recruited into a COPD (emphysema versus airway disease [EvA]) or asthma cohort (Unbiased BIOmarkers in PREDiction of respiratory disease outcomes, U-BIOPRED). We determined gene expression using RNAseq in EvA (n = 283) and Affymetrix microarrays in U-BIOPRED (n = 85). We ran linear regression analysis of the bronchial brushings transcriptional signal versus blood eosinophil counts as well as differential expression using a blood eosinophil > 200 cells/µL as a cut-off. The false discovery rate was controlled at 1% (with continuous values) and 5% (with dichotomized values). RESULTS: There were no differences in age, gender, lung function, exercise capacity and quantitative computed tomography between eosinophilic versus noneosinophilic COPD cases. Total serum IgE was increased in eosinophilic asthma and COPD. In EvA, there were 12 genes with a statistically significant positive association with the linear blood eosinophil count, whereas in U-BIOPRED, 1197 genes showed significant associations (266 positive and 931 negative). The transcriptome showed little overlap between genes and pathways associated with blood eosinophil counts in asthma versus COPD. Only CST1 was common to eosinophilic asthma and COPD and was replicated in independent cohorts. CONCLUSION: Despite shared "treatable traits" between asthma and COPD, the molecular mechanisms underlying these clinical entities are predominately different.

5.
Nat Med ; 25(7): 1153-1163, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209336

RESUMO

Human lungs enable efficient gas exchange and form an interface with the environment, which depends on mucosal immunity for protection against infectious agents. Tightly controlled interactions between structural and immune cells are required to maintain lung homeostasis. Here, we use single-cell transcriptomics to chart the cellular landscape of upper and lower airways and lung parenchyma in healthy lungs, and lower airways in asthmatic lungs. We report location-dependent airway epithelial cell states and a novel subset of tissue-resident memory T cells. In the lower airways of patients with asthma, mucous cell hyperplasia is shown to stem from a novel mucous ciliated cell state, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia. We report the presence of pathogenic effector type 2 helper T cells (TH2) in asthmatic lungs and find evidence for type 2 cytokines in maintaining the altered epithelial cell states. Unbiased analysis of cell-cell interactions identifies a shift from airway structural cell communication in healthy lungs to a TH2-dominated interactome in asthmatic lungs.

9.
Pharmacol Ther ; 201: 8-24, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075356

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition, which is highly prevalent worldwide. Although no cure is currently available, it is well recognized that some asthma patients can spontaneously enter remission of the disease later in life. Asthma remission is characterized by absence of symptoms and lack of asthma-medication use. Subjects in asthma remission can be divided into two groups: those in clinical remission and those in complete remission. In clinical asthma remission, subjects still have a degree of lung functional impairment or bronchial hyperresponsiveness, while in complete asthma remission, these features are no longer present. Over longer periods, the latter group is less likely to relapse. This remission group is of great scientific interest due to the higher potential to find biomarkers or biological pathways that elicit or are associated with asthma remission. Despite the fact that the definition of asthma remission varies between studies, some factors are reproducibly observed to be associated with remitted asthma. Among these are lower levels of inflammatory markers, which are lowest in complete remission. Additionally, in both groups some degree of airway remodeling is present. Still, the pathological disease state of asthma remission has been poorly investigated. Future research should focus on at least two aspects: further characterisation of the small airways and airway walls in order to determine histologically true remission, and more thorough biological pathway analyses to explore triggers that elicit this phenomenon. Ultimately, this will result in pharmacological targets that provide the potential to steer the course of asthma towards remission.

11.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 70, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971245

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Evidence is accumulating that Receptor for Advanced Glycation-End products (RAGE)-signaling is a key pathway in the pathophysiology of COPD. To date, it is unknown how smoking affects RAGE expression. In the current study, we investigated the effect of smoking on AGER, the gene encoding RAGE, expression and on alternative splicing of AGER. To this end, we conducted RNA-Seq on bronchial biopsies for asymptomatic smokers (n = 36) and never smokers (n = 40). Total AGER gene expression was accessed using DESeq2, while alternative splicing was investigated by measuring the number of specific split reads spanning exon-exon junctions and the total split reads. One of the major isoforms of RAGE is endogenous soluble (es) RAGE, an anti-inflammatory decoy receptor, making up for approximately 10% of the total amount of soluble (s)RAGE. We found that smokers show decreased total gene expression of AGER in bronchial biopsies, while the relative abundance of the esRAGE isoform is increased. Furthermore, no difference in the serum levels of total sRAGE were observed between smokers and non-smokers. Our data indicates that smoking initiates a protective anti-inflammatory mechanism with decreased expression of the pro-inflammatory gene AGER and increased relative abundance of the anti-inflammatory isoform esRAGE.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/fisiologia , Fumar Cigarros/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/biossíntese , Fumantes , Adulto , Biópsia , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Fumar Cigarros/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/genética
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016436

RESUMO

Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and coronary artery disease (CAD) are expected to cause most deaths by 2050. State-of-the-art computed tomography (CT) allows early detection of lung cancer and simultaneous evaluation of imaging biomarkers for the early stages of COPD, based on pulmonary density and bronchial wall thickness, and of CAD, based on the coronary artery calcium score (CACS), at low radiation dose. To determine cut-off values for positive tests for elevated risk and presence of disease is one of the major tasks before considering implementation of CT screening in a general population. The ImaLife (Imaging in Lifelines) study, embedded in the Lifelines study, is designed to establish the reference values of the imaging biomarkers for the big three diseases in a well-defined general population aged 45 years and older. In total, 12,000 participants will undergo CACS and chest acquisitions with latest CT technology. The estimated percentage of individuals with lung nodules needing further workup is around 1-2%. Given the around 10% prevalence of COPD and CAD in the general population, the expected number of COPD and CAD is around 1000 each. So far, nearly 4000 participants have been included. The ImaLife study will allow differentiation between normal aging of the pulmonary and cardiovascular system and early stages of the big three diseases based on low-dose CT imaging. This information can be finally integrated into personalized precision health strategies in the general population.

13.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 61(1): 31-41, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995076

RESUMO

Lung disease accounts for every sixth death globally. Profiling the molecular state of all lung cell types in health and disease is currently revolutionizing the identification of disease mechanisms and will aid the design of novel diagnostic and personalized therapeutic regimens. Recent progress in high-throughput techniques for single-cell genomic and transcriptomic analyses has opened up new possibilities to study individual cells within a tissue, classify these into cell types, and characterize variations in their molecular profiles as a function of genetics, environment, cell-cell interactions, developmental processes, aging, or disease. Integration of these cell state definitions with spatial information allows the in-depth molecular description of cellular neighborhoods and tissue microenvironments, including the tissue resident structural and immune cells, the tissue matrix, and the microbiome. The Human Cell Atlas consortium aims to characterize all cells in the healthy human body and has prioritized lung tissue as one of the flagship projects. Here, we present the rationale, the approach, and the expected impact of a Human Lung Cell Atlas.

14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(5): 402-416, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small airways dysfunction (SAD) is well recognised in asthma, yet its role in the severity and control of asthma is unclear. This study aimed to assess which combination of biomarkers, physiological tests, and imaging markers best measure the presence and extent of SAD in patients with asthma. METHODS: In this baseline assessment of a multinational prospective cohort study (the Assessment of Small Airways Involvement in Asthma [ATLANTIS] study), we recruited participants with and without asthma (defined as Global Initiative for Asthma severity stages 1-5) from general practices, the databases of chest physicians, and advertisements at 29 centres across nine countries (Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, the UK, the USA, and Canada). All participants were aged 18-65 years, and participants with asthma had received a clinical diagnosis of asthma more than 6 months ago that had been confirmed by a chest physician. This diagnosis required support by objective evidence at baseline or during the past 5 years, which could be: positive airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, positive reversibility (a change in FEV1 ≥12% and ≥200 mL within 30 min) after treatment with 400 µg of salbutamol in a metered-dose inhaler with or without a spacer, variability in peak expiratory flow of more than 20% (measured over 7 days), or documented reversibility after a cycle (eg, 4 weeks) of maintenance anti-asthma treatment. The inclusion criteria also required that patients had stable asthma on any previous regular asthma treatment (including so-called rescue ß2-agonists alone) at a stable dose for more than 8 weeks before baseline and had smoked for a maximum of 10 pack-years in their lifetime. Control group participants were recruited by advertisements; these participants were aged 18-65 years, had no respiratory symptoms compatible with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, normal spirometry, and normal airways responsiveness, and had smoked for a maximum of 10 pack-years. We assessed all participants with spirometry, body plethysmography, impulse oscillometry, multiple breath nitrogen washout, CT (in selected participants), and questionnaires about asthma control, asthma-related quality of life (both in participants with asthma only), and health status. We applied structural equation modelling in participants with asthma to assess the contribution of all physiological and CT variables to SAD, from which we defined clinical SAD and CT SAD scores. We then classified patients with asthma into SAD groups with model-based clustering, and we compared asthma severity, control, and health-care use during the past year by SAD score and by SAD group. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02123667. FINDINGS: Between June 30, 2014, and March 3, 2017, we recruited and evaluated 773 participants with asthma and 99 control participants. All physiological measures contributed to the clinical SAD model with the structural equation modelling analysis. The prevalence of SAD in asthma was dependent on the measure used; we found the lowest prevalence of SAD associated with acinar airway ventilation heterogeneity (Sacin), an outcome determined by multiple breath nitrogen washout that reflects ventilation heterogeneity in the most peripheral, pre-acinar or acinar airways. Impulse oscillometry and spirometry results, which were used to assess dysfunction of small-sized to mid-sized airways, contributed most to the clinical SAD score and differed between the two SAD groups. Participants in clinical SAD group 1 (n=452) had milder SAD than group 2 and comparable multiple breath nitrogen washout Sacin to control participants. Participants in clinical SAD group 2 (n=312) had abnormal physiological SAD results relative to group 1, particularly their impulse oscillometry and spirometry measurements, and group 2 participants also had more severe asthma (with regard to asthma control, treatments, exacerbations, and quality of life) than group 1. Clinical SAD scores were higher (indicating more severe SAD) in group 2 than group 1, and we found that these scores were related to asthma control, severity, and exacerbations. We found no correlation between clinical SAD and CT SAD scores. INTERPRETATION: SAD is a complex and silent signature of asthma that is likely to be directly or indirectly captured by combinations of physiological tests, such as spirometry, body plethysmography, impulse oscillometry, and multiple breath nitrogen washout. SAD is present across patients with all severities of asthma, but it is particularly prevalent in severe disease. The clinical classification of SAD into two groups (a milder and a more severe group) by use of impulse oscillometry and spirometry, which are easy to use, is meaningful given its association with GINA severity stages, asthma control, quality of life, and exacerbations. FUNDING: Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA.

16.
Eur Respir J ; 53(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846474

RESUMO

The aim was to investigate whether microRNA (miRNA) expression is modulated by inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatmentWe performed genome-wide miRNA analysis on bronchial biopsies of 69 moderate/severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients at baseline and after 6- and 30-month treatment with the ICS fluticasone propionate or placebo. The effect of ICS on miRNA expression was validated in differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cultures, and functional studies were conducted in BEAS-2B cells. MiRNAs affected by ICS and their predicted targets were compared to an independent miRNA dataset of bronchial brushings from COPD patients and healthy controls.Treatment with ICS for both 6 and 30 months significantly altered the expression of four miRNAs, including miR-320d, which was increased during ICS treatment compared with placebo. The ICS-induced increase of miR-320d was confirmed in primary airway epithelial cells. MiR-320d negatively correlated targets were enriched for pro-inflammatory genes and were increased in the bronchial brushes of patients with lower lung function in the independent dataset. Overexpression of miR-320d in BEAS-2B cells dampened cigarette smoke extract-induced pro-inflammatory activity via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB.Collectively, we identified miR-320d as a novel mediator of ICS, regulating the pro-inflammatory response of the airway epithelium.

18.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 25(3): 317-322, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762612

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the movement towards genetic profiling with a push towards 'personalized medicine' has been hindered by complex environment--gene interactions and lack of tools to identify clear causal genetic traits. In this review, we will discuss the need for genetic profiling in asthma and COPD, what methods are currently used in the clinics and the recent finding using new sequencing methods. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past 10-15 years, genome-wide association studies analysis of common variants has provide little in the way of new genetic profiling markers for asthma and COPD. Whole exome/genome sequencing has provided a new method to identify lowly abundant alleles, which might have a much higher impact. Although, low population numbers due to high costs has hindered early studies, recent studies have reached genome wide significance. SUMMARY: The use of genetic profiling of COPD in the clinic is current limited to the identification of Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, while being absent in asthma. Advances in sequencing technology provide new avenues to identify disease causes or therapy response altering variants that in the short-term will allow for the development of screening procedures for disease to identify patients at risk of developing asthma or COPD.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 83-93, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a disease characterized by ventilation heterogeneity (VH). A number of studies have demonstrated that VH markers derived by using impulse oscillometry (IOS) or multiple-breath washout (MBW) are associated with key asthmatic patient-related outcome measures and airways hyperresponsiveness. However, the topographical mechanisms of VH in the lung remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that specific regionalization of topographical small-airway disease would best account for IOS- and MBW-measured indices in patients. METHODS: We evaluated the results of paired expiratory/inspiratory computed tomography in a cohort of asthmatic (n = 41) and healthy (n = 11) volunteers to understand the determinants of clinical VH indices commonly reported by using IOS and MBW. Parametric response mapping (PRM) was used to calculate the functional small-airways disease marker PRMfSAD and Hounsfield unit (HU)-based density changes from total lung capacity to functional residual capacity (ΔHU); gradients of ΔHU in gravitationally perpendicular (parallel) inferior-superior (anterior-posterior) axes were quantified. RESULTS: The ΔHU gradient in the inferior-superior axis provided the highest level of discrimination of both acinar VH (measured by using phase 3 slope analysis of multiple-breath washout data) and resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz measured by using impulse oscillometry (R5-R20) values. Patients with a high inferior-superior ΔHU gradient demonstrated evidence of reduced specific ventilation in the lower lobes of the lungs and high levels of PRMfSAD. A computational small-airway tree model confirmed that constriction of gravitationally dependent, lower-zone, small-airway branches would promote the largest increases in R5-R20 values. Ventilation gradients correlated with asthma control and quality of life but not with exacerbation frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Lower lobe-predominant small-airways disease is a major driver of clinically measured VH in adults with asthma.

20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 23, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchial provocation is often used to confirm asthma. Dyspnea sensation, however, associates poorly with the evoked drop in FEV1. Provocation tests only use the large airways parameter FEV1, although dyspnea is associated with both large- and small airways dysfunction. Aim of this study was to explore if adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine evoke an equal dyspnea sensation and if dyspnea associates better with large or small airways dysfunction. METHODS: We targeted large airways with AMP and small airways with dry powder adenosine in 59 asthmatic (ex)-smokers with ≥5 packyears, 14 ± 7 days apart. All subjects performed spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), and Borg dyspnea score. In 36 subjects multiple breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) was additionally performed. We analyzed the association of the change (Δ) in Borg score with the change in large and small airways parameters, using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. MBNW was analyzed separately. RESULTS: Provocation with AMP and adenosine evoked similar levels of dyspnea. ΔFEV1 was not significantly associated with ΔBorg after either AMP or adenosine provocation, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. In multivariate linear regression, a decrease in FEF25-75 during adenosine provocation was independently associated with an increase in Borg. In the multivariate analyses for AMP provocation, no significant associations were found between ΔBorg and any large or small airways parameters. CONCLUSION: AMP and adenosine induce equally severe dyspnea sensations. Our results suggest that dyspnea induced with dry powder adenosine is related to small airways involvement, while neither large nor small airways dysfunction was associated with AMP-induced dyspnea. TRAIL REGISTRATION: NCT01741285 at www.clinicaltrials.gov , first registered Dec 4th, 2012.


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Broncoconstritores , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Adenosina , Monofosfato de Adenosina , Adulto , Testes de Provocação Brônquica , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Espirometria
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