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Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(9): 397-406, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461301


BACKGROUND: Pediatric cardiomyopathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of heart muscle disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although knowledge of the genetic basis of pediatric cardiomyopathy has improved considerably, the underlying cause remains elusive in a substantial proportion of cases. METHODS: Exome sequencing was used to screen for the causative genetic defect in a pair of siblings with rapidly progressive dilated cardiomyopathy and death in early infancy. Protein expression was assessed in patient samples, followed by an in vitro tail-anchored protein insertion assay and functional analyses in zebrafish. RESULTS: We identified compound heterozygous variants in the highly conserved ASNA1 gene (arsA arsenite transporter, ATP-binding, homolog), which encodes an ATPase required for post-translational membrane insertion of tail-anchored proteins. The c.913C>T variant on the paternal allele is predicted to result in a premature stop codon p.(Gln305*), and likely explains the decreased protein expression observed in myocardial tissue and skin fibroblasts. The c.488T>C variant on the maternal allele results in a valine to alanine substitution at residue 163 (p.Val163Ala). Functional studies showed that this variant leads to protein misfolding as well as less effective tail-anchored protein insertion. Loss of asna1 in zebrafish resulted in reduced cardiac contractility and early lethality. In contrast to wild-type mRNA, injection of either mutant mRNA failed to rescue this phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Biallelic variants in ASNA1 cause severe pediatric cardiomyopathy and early death. Our findings point toward a critical role of the tail-anchored membrane protein insertion pathway in vertebrate cardiac function and disease.

Genet Med ; 21(7): 1667-1671, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783266


The article has been corrected to account for one patient being investigated through genome sequencing rather than exome sequencing as originally published; thus amendments to the Abstract and Methods have been made as well as addition of the relevant authors and acknowledgment.

Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356099


PURPOSE: Germline WWOX pathogenic variants have been associated with disorder of sex differentiation (DSD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and WWOX-related epileptic encephalopathy (WOREE syndrome). We review clinical and molecular data on WWOX-related disorders, further describing WOREE syndrome and phenotype/genotype correlations. METHODS: We report clinical and molecular findings in 20 additional patients from 18 unrelated families with WOREE syndrome and biallelic pathogenic variants in the WWOX gene. Different molecular screening approaches were used (quantitative polymerase chain reaction/multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification [qPCR/MLPA], array comparative genomic hybridization [array-CGH], Sanger sequencing, epilepsy gene panel, exome sequencing). RESULTS: Two copy-number variations (CNVs) or two single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) were found respectively in four and nine families, with compound heterozygosity for one SNV and one CNV in five families. Eight novel missense pathogenic variants have been described. By aggregating our patients with all cases reported in the literature, 37 patients from 27 families with WOREE syndrome are known. This review suggests WOREE syndrome is a very severe epileptic encephalopathy characterized by absence of language development and acquisition of walking, early-onset drug-resistant seizures, ophthalmological involvement, and a high likelihood of premature death. The most severe clinical presentation seems to be associated with null genotypes. CONCLUSION: Germline pathogenic variants in WWOX are clearly associated with a severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. We report here the largest cohort of individuals with WOREE syndrome.

Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15436, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337552


N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency (NAGSD, MIM #237310) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle that results from absent or decreased production of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) due to either decreased NAGS gene expression or defective NAGS enzyme. NAG is essential for the activity of carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the urea cycle. NAGSD is the only urea cycle disorder that can be treated with a single drug, N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), which can activate CPS1 and completely restore ureagenesis in patients with NAGSD. We describe a novel sequence variant NM_153006.2:c.-3026C > T in the NAGS enhancer that was found in three patients from two families with NAGSD; two patients had hyperammonemia that resolved upon treatment with NCG, while the third patient increased dietary protein intake after initiation of NCG therapy. Two patients were homozygous for the variant while the third patient had the c.-3026C > T variant and a partial uniparental disomy that encompassed the NAGS gene on chromosome 17. The c.-3026C > T sequence variant affects a base pair that is highly conserved in vertebrates; the variant is predicted to be deleterious by several bioinformatics tools. Functional assays in cultured HepG2 cells demonstrated that the c.-3026C > T substitution could result in reduced expression of the NAGS gene. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing NAGS gene regulatory regions when looking for molecular causes of NAGSD.

Genome Med ; 10(1): 3, 2018 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310717


BACKGROUND: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defects (GPIBDs) cause a group of phenotypically overlapping recessive syndromes with intellectual disability, for which pathogenic mutations have been described in 16 genes of the corresponding molecular pathway. An elevated serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP), a GPI-linked enzyme, has been used to assign GPIBDs to the phenotypic series of hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS) and to distinguish them from another subset of GPIBDs, termed multiple congenital anomalies hypotonia seizures syndrome (MCAHS). However, the increasing number of individuals with a GPIBD shows that hyperphosphatasia is a variable feature that is not ideal for a clinical classification. METHODS: We studied the discriminatory power of multiple GPI-linked substrates that were assessed by flow cytometry in blood cells and fibroblasts of 39 and 14 individuals with a GPIBD, respectively. On the phenotypic level, we evaluated the frequency of occurrence of clinical symptoms and analyzed the performance of computer-assisted image analysis of the facial gestalt in 91 individuals. RESULTS: We found that certain malformations such as Morbus Hirschsprung and diaphragmatic defects are more likely to be associated with particular gene defects (PIGV, PGAP3, PIGN). However, especially at the severe end of the clinical spectrum of HPMRS, there is a high phenotypic overlap with MCAHS. Elevation of AP has also been documented in some of the individuals with MCAHS, namely those with PIGA mutations. Although the impairment of GPI-linked substrates is supposed to play the key role in the pathophysiology of GPIBDs, we could not observe gene-specific profiles for flow cytometric markers or a correlation between their cell surface levels and the severity of the phenotype. In contrast, it was facial recognition software that achieved the highest accuracy in predicting the disease-causing gene in a GPIBD. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the overlapping clinical spectrum of both HPMRS and MCAHS in the majority of affected individuals, the elevation of AP and the reduced surface levels of GPI-linked markers in both groups, a common classification as GPIBDs is recommended. The effectiveness of computer-assisted gestalt analysis for the correct gene inference in a GPIBD and probably beyond is remarkable and illustrates how the information contained in human faces is pivotal in the delineation of genetic entities.

Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/biossíntese , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo , Automação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Fósforo/metabolismo , Síndrome