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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28165, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess sleep problems (prevalence and predictors) in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after the most intensive phase of therapy (induction). METHODS: Patients (≥2 years) treated according to the Dutch ALL-11 protocol were included. Sleep was measured using parent-reports and self-reports (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire; CSHQ) and actigraphy. Parental sleep (Medical Outcome Study Sleep Scale) and distress and parenting problems (Distress Thermometer for Parents) were assessed with questionnaires. Z-scores were calculated for total CSHQ scores using age-appropriate scores of healthy Dutch children. The prevalence of sleep problems (defined as a Z-score > 1) in patients with ALL was compared to healthy children (chi-square tests). Actigraphic sleep estimates were collected in healthy Dutch children (n = 86, 2-18 years) for comparison with patients (linear regression). Determinants of parent-reported child sleep (total CSHQ Z-score) were identified with regression models. RESULTS: Responses were collected for 124 patients (response rate 67%), comprising 123 parent-reports, 34 self-reports, and 69 actigraphy assessments. Parents reported sleep problems in 38.0% of the patients compared to 15.2% in healthy children (P < .001). Patients reported fewer sleep problems themselves: 12.1% compared to 15.8% in healthy children (P = .33). Total time in bed (B (95% CI): 22.89 (9.55-36.22)) and total sleep time (B (95% CI):16.30 (1.40-31.19)), as derived from actigraphy, were significantly longer in patients. More parent-reported child sleep problems were predicted by parenting problems, more parental sleep problems, bedroom sharing, and child's sleep medication use (explained variance: 27.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Systematic monitoring of child and parental sleep and implementation of effective interventions may be a gateway to improve quality of survival in pediatric ALL.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1902292, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922920

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the DCOG ALL-11 protocol, polyethylene glycol-conjugated Escherichia coli asparaginase (PEGasparaginase) and Erwinia asparaginase treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia are individualized with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The efficacy of TDM and its effect on asparaginase-associated toxicity are reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After induction with 3 fixed intravenous doses of 1,500 IU/m2 PEGasparaginase, medium-risk patients (n = 243) received 14 individualized doses that targeted trough levels of 100-250 IU/L, standard-risk patients (n = 108) received 1 individualized dose, and high-risk patients (n = 18) received 2-5 fixed administrations (1,500 IU/m2). After a neutralizing hypersensitivity reaction, patients were started with 20,000 IU/m2 Erwinia asparaginase 3 times per week, and l-asparagine was measured to monitor asparaginase efficacy. Several asparaginase-associated toxicities were studied. RESULTS: The final median PEGasparaginase dose was lowered to 450 IU/m2. Overall, 97% of all trough levels of nonallergic patients were > 100 IU/L. Asparagine was < 0.5 µM in 96% and 67% of the PEGasparaginase and Erwinia asparaginase levels > 100 IU/L, respectively. Ten percent developed a neutralizing hypersensitivity reaction to PEGasparaginase, of which 40% were silent inactivations. The cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 pancreatitis, central neurotoxicity, and thromboses was 12%, 4%, and 6%, respectively, and not associated with asparaginase activity levels. During medium-risk intensification, 50% had increased ALT and 3% hyperbilirubinemia (both grade 3/4 and correlated with asparaginase activity levels), and 37% had grade 3/4 hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia occurred less in intensification compared with ALL-10 (37% v 47%), which is similar to ALL-11 but with higher asparaginase levels during intensification. CONCLUSION: TDM of asparaginase results in a significant reduction of the PEGasparaginase dose with adequate asparaginase activity levels and sufficient asparagine depletion. In addition, with TDM, silent inactivation and allergic-like reactions were identified. However, the effect of reduced asparaginase activity levels on toxicity is limited.

3.
TH Open ; 3(2): e109-e116, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249990

RESUMO

Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. Especially, ALL treatment, with therapeutics such as asparaginase and steroids, increases the thrombotic risk by reduction in procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins. Replacement of deficient natural anticoagulants by administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) may have a preventive effect on the occurrence of VTE. Methods We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive children (≤18 years) with ALL, treated on the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) ALL-9 and ALL-10 protocols at the Emma Children's Hospital Academic Medical Center between February 1997 and January 2012, to study the effect of FFP on VTE incidence, antithrombin and fibrinogen plasma levels, and VTE risk factors. Results In total, 18/205 patients developed VTE (8.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9-12.7%). In all patients, VTE occurred after asparaginase administration. In total, 82/205 patients (40%) received FFP. FFP supplementation did not prevent VTE or alter plasma levels of antithrombin or fibrinogen. In the multivariate analysis, VTE occurred significantly more frequently in children ≥12 years (odds ratio [OR]: 3.89; 95% CI: 1.29-11.73) and treated according to the ALL-10 protocol (OR: 3.71; 95% CI: 1.13-12.17). Conclusion FFP supplementation does not seem to be beneficial in the prevention of VTE in pediatric ALL patients. In addition, age ≥12 years and treatment according to the DCOG ALL-10 protocol with intensive and prolonged administration of asparaginase in combination with prednisone are risk factors. There is a need for effective preventive strategies in ALL patients at high risk for VTE.

4.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(12): 3002-3010, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120351

RESUMO

Asparaginase and methotrexate (MTX), both essential for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy, are often used concomitantly. Depending on the sequence, in vitro, asparaginase inhibits MTX-polyglutamate (MTXPG) formation, and side effects overlap. MTX toxicity and efficacy, reflected by intracellular erythrocyte MTXPG's, were compared between children treated with and without asparaginase during high dose MTX (HD-MTX) courses of the DCOG ALL-11 protocol (NL50250.078.14). Seventy-three patients, of whom 23 received asparaginase during the HD-MTX courses, were included. Grade 3-4 leukopenia and neutropenia occurred more often (59% and 86% vs. 30% and 62%). The number of infections, grade 3-4 hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neurotoxicity did not differ. Patients with asparaginase had lower MTXPG levels, although to a lesser extent than in vitro studies. Although patients with asparaginase during HD-MTX courses showed more myelosuppression, this had no (serious) clinical consequences. Regarding the MTX efficacy, the schedule-related antagonism seen in in vitro seems less important in vivo.

5.
Cancer ; 125(8): 1373-1383, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in childhood have an increased risk of subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs). Herein, the authors extended the follow-up of a previously reported Late Effects Study Group cohort and identified patients at highest risk for SMNs to create evidence for risk-based screening recommendations. METHODS: The standardized incidence ratio was calculated using rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program as a reference. The risk of SMN was estimated using proportional subdistribution hazards regression. The cohort included 1136 patients who were diagnosed with HL before age 17 years between 1955 and 1986. The median length of follow-up was 26.6 years. RESULTS: In 162 patients, a total of 196 solid SMNs (sSMNs) were identified. Compared with the general population, the cohort was found to be at a 14-fold increased risk of developing an sSMN (95% confidence interval, 12.0-fold to 16.3-fold). The cumulative incidence of any sSMN was 26.4% at 40 years after a diagnosis of HL. Risk factors for breast cancer among females were an HL diagnosis between ages 10 years and 16 years and receipt of chest radiotherapy. Males treated with chest radiotherapy at age <10 years were found to be at highest risk of developing lung cancer. Survivors of HL who were treated with abdominal/pelvic radiotherapy and high-dose alkylating agents were found to be at highest risk of developing colorectal cancer and females exposed to neck radiotherapy at age <10 years were at highest risk of thyroid cancer. By age 50 years, the cumulative incidence of breast, lung, colorectal, and thyroid cancer was 45.3%, 4.2%, 9.5%, and 17.3%, respectively, among those at highest risk. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of childhood HL remain at an increased risk of developing sSMNs. In the current study, subgroups of survivors of HL at highest risk of specific sSMNs were identified, and evidence for screening provided.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tratamento Farmacológico , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/complicações , Doença de Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Radioterapia , Medição de Risco
6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(3): 1012-1021, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314967

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Targeted radiotherapy with 131iodine-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) is effective for neuroblastoma (NBL), although optimal scheduling during high-risk (HR) treatment is being investigated. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of stem cell apheresis and study hematologic reconstitution after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with HR-NBL treated with upfront 131I-MIBG-therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In two prospective multicenter cohort studies, newly diagnosed patients with HR-NBL were treated with two courses of 131I-MIBG-therapy, followed by an HR-induction protocol. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (e.g., CD34+ cell) harvest yield, required number of apheresis sessions, and time to neutrophil (>0.5 × 109/L) and platelet (>20 × 109/L) reconstitution after ASCT were analyzed and compared with "chemotherapy-only"-treated patients. Moreover, harvested CD34+ cells were functionally (viability and clonogenic capacity) and phenotypically (CD33, CD41, and CD62L) tested before cryopreservation (n = 44) and/or after thawing (n = 19). RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients (47%) were treated with 131I-MIBG-therapy, 43 (53%) only with chemotherapy. Median cumulative 131I-MIBG dose/kg was 0.81 GBq (22.1 mCi). Median CD34+ cell harvest yield and apheresis days were comparable in both groups. Post ASCT, neutrophil recovery was similar (11 days vs. 10 days), whereas platelet recovery was delayed in 131I-MIBG- compared with chemotherapy-only-treated patients (29 days vs. 15 days, P = 0.037). Testing of harvested CD34+ cells revealed a reduced post-thaw viability in the 131I-MIBG-group. Moreover, the viable CD34+ population contained fewer cells expressing CD62L (L-selectin), a marker associated with rapid platelet recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Harvesting of CD34+ cells is feasible after 131I-MIBG. Platelet recovery after ASCT was delayed in 131I-MIBG-treated patients, possibly due to reinfusion of less viable and CD62L-expressing CD34+ cells, but without clinical complications. We provide evidence that peripheral stem cell apheresis is feasible after upfront 131I-MIBG-therapy in newly diagnosed patients with NBL. However, as the harvest of 131I-MIBG-treated patients contained lower viable CD34+ cell counts after thawing and platelet recovery after reinfusion was delayed, administration of 131I-MIBG after apheresis is preferred.

7.
Cancer ; 125(6): 963-971, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the presence of abnormal CD1a-positive (CD1a+ )/CD207+ histiocytes. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) represents a spectrum of hyperinflammatory syndromes typified by the dysregulated activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Patients with LCH, particularly those with multisystem (MS) involvement, can develop severe hyperinflammation mimicking that observed in HLH. Nevertheless, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding the prevalence, timing, risk factors for development, and outcomes of children and young adults who develop HLH within the context of MS-LCH (hereafter referred to LCH-associated HLH). METHODS: To gain further insights, the authors conducted a retrospective, multicenter study and collected data regarding all patients diagnosed with MS-LCH between 2000 and 2015. RESULTS: Of 384 patients with MS-LCH, 32 were reported by their primary providers to have met the diagnostic criteria for HLH, yielding an estimated 2-year cumulative incidence of 9.3% ± 1.6%. The majority of patients developed HLH at or after the diagnosis of MS-LCH, and nearly one-third (31%) had evidence of an intercurrent infection. Patient age <2 years at the time of diagnosis of LCH; female sex; LCH involvement of the liver, spleen, and hematopoietic system; and a lack of bone involvement each were found to be independently associated with an increased risk of LCH-associated HLH. Patients with MS-LCH who met the criteria for HLH had significantly poorer 5-year survival compared with patients with MS-LCH who did not meet the criteria for HLH (69% vs 97%; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Given its inferior prognosis, further efforts are warranted to enhance the recognition and optimize the treatment of patients with LCH-associated HLH.


Assuntos
Sistema Hematopoético/imunologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/complicações , Fígado/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/epidemiologia , Baço/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sistema Hematopoético/patologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fígado/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Baço/patologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Immunol ; 10: 3045, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998317

RESUMO

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is a neoplastic disorder of hematopoietic origin characterized by inflammatory lesions containing clonal histiocytes (LCH-cells) intermixed with various immune cells, including T cells. In 50-60% of LCH-patients, the somatic BRAF V600E driver mutation, which is common in many cancers, is detected in these LCH-cells in an otherwise quiet genomic landscape. Non-synonymous mutations like BRAF V600E can be a source of neoantigens capable of eliciting effective antitumor CD8+ T cell responses. This requires neopeptides to be stably presented by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I molecules and sufficient numbers of CD8+ T cells at tumor sites. Here, we demonstrate substantial heterogeneity in CD8+ T cell density in n = 101 LCH-lesions, with BRAF V600E mutated lesions displaying significantly lower CD8+ T cell:CD1a+ LCH-cell ratios (p = 0.01) than BRAF wildtype lesions. Because LCH-lesional CD8+ T cell density had no significant impact on event-free survival, we investigated whether the intracellularly expressed BRAF V600E protein is degraded into neopeptides that are naturally processed and presented by cell surface HLA class I molecules. Epitope prediction tools revealed a single HLA class I binding BRAF V600E derived neopeptide (KIGDFGLATEK), which indeed displayed strong to intermediate binding capacity to HLA-A*03:01 and HLA-A*11:01 in an in vitro peptide-HLA binding assay. Mass spectrometry-based targeted peptidomics was used to investigate the presence of this neopeptide in HLA class I presented peptides isolated from several BRAF V600E expressing cell lines with various HLA genotypes. While the HLA-A*02:01 binding BRAF wildtype peptide KIGDFGLATV was traced in peptides isolated from all five cell lines expressing this HLA subtype, KIGDFGLATEK was not detected in the HLA class I peptidomes of two distinct BRAF V600E transduced cell lines with confirmed expression of HLA-A*03:01 or HLA-A*11:01. These data indicate that the in silico predicted HLA class I binding and proteasome-generated neopeptides derived from the BRAF V600E protein are not presented by HLA class I molecules. Given that the BRAF V600E mutation is highly prevalent in chemotherapy refractory LCH-patients who may qualify for immunotherapy, this study therefore questions the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in LCH.

9.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(8): e27083, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of recombinant Escherichia coli-asparaginase (rASNase) was compared to native E.coli asparaginase (Asparaginase medac). METHODS: One hundred and ninety-nine children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia were randomized to receive one of both agents at a dose of 5,000 U/m² during induction (eight doses) and 10,000 U/m² during the postinduction phase (only high-risk patients; standard- and medium-risk patients received pegaspargase). RESULTS: Median trough serum asparaginase activity levels were comparable between both groups; they ranged from 143 to 182 U/l during induction and were above the target value of 100 U/l. Complete asparagine depletion in serum was achieved in 97.9% of patients, with no significant differences between both groups. On day 33 (end of induction), only two (2%) evaluable patients in each group had measurable asparagine serum levels, and complete asparagine depletion in the cerebrospinal fluid was achieved in 98.8% and 93.6% of the patients with rASNase and Asparaginase medac, respectively. During induction, 2.1% and 5% of patients developed an allergic reaction to rASNase or Asparaginase medac, respectively. Approximately 41% of the patients in both groups had a clinical allergy or enzyme inactivation to the first dose of any asparaginase preparation in postinduction. A comparable proportion of patients in both groups developed anti-asparaginase antibodies (57%) during repeated administration of asparaginase. Minimal residual disease levels at the end of induction, 5-year event-free survival, and 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse did not differ between both groups. CONCLUSION: The efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of both asparaginase preparations are comparable. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00784017; EudraCT number 2006-003180-31.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Asparaginase/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escherichia coli , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 64(12)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Large prospective studies on dexamethasone-induced changes in eating behavior, energy, and nutrient intake are lacking in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We prospectively studied eating behavior, energy, nutrient intake, and the effect on leptin and adiponectin levels during dexamethasone administration in children with ALL. PATIENTS: Parents of patients with ALL (3-16 years) completed a dietary diary for their child during 4 days of dexamethasone (6 mg/m2 ) administration. Energy intake and nutrient intake (energy percentage = E%) were assessed and compared with the recommended intake. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire for Children was completed before start and after 4 days of dexamethasone administration by patients of 7-12 years of age. Fasting leptin and adiponectin levels were also measured before start and after 4 days of dexamethasone administration. RESULTS: Energy intake per day(kcal) (N = 44) increased significantly during dexamethasone (median day 1: 1,103 (717-1,572) versus day 4: 1,482 (1,176-1,822), P < 0.01), including an increase in total protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, and sodium intake. Intake of saturated fat (median day 4: 12 E%) and salt (median day 4: 1.9 g/day) exceeded the healthy range for age and gender. With respect to eating behavior, dexamethasone significantly decreased restrained eating (P = 0.04). Leptin levels as well as adiponectin levels increased significantly during the dexamethasone course. CONCLUSIONS: Four days of dexamethasone treatment significantly increased energy intake, including excessive saturated fat and salt intake, and changed eating behavior in children with ALL. Nutritional and behavioral interventions during dexamethasone treatment are recommended to stimulate a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adiponectina/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Haematologica ; 102(3): 552-561, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28250007

RESUMO

Erwinia asparaginase is an important component in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A large variability in serum concentrations has been observed after intravenous Erwinia asparaginase. Currently, Dutch Childhood Oncology Group protocols dose alterations are based on trough concentrations to ensure adequate asparaginase activity (≥100 IU/L). The aim of this study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics of intravenous Erwinia asparaginase to quantify and gather insight into inter-individual and inter-occasion variability. The starting dose was evaluated on the basis of the derived population pharmacokinetic parameters. In a multicenter prospective observational study, a total of 714 blood samples were collected from 51 children (age 1-17 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The starting dose was 20,000 IU/m2 three times a week and adjusted according to trough levels from week three onwards. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed using NONMEM® A 2-compartment linear model with allometric scaling best described the data. Inter-individual and inter-occasion variability of clearance were 33% and 13%, respectively. Clearance in the first month of treatment was 14% higher (P<0.01). Monte Carlo simulations with our pharmacokinetic model demonstrated that patients with a low weight might require higher doses to achieve similar concentrations compared to patients with high weight. The current starting dose of 20,000 IU/m2 might result in inadequate concentrations, especially for smaller, lower weight patients, hence dose adjustments based on individual clearance are recommended. The protocols were approved by the institutional review boards. (Registered at NTR 3379 Dutch Trial Register; www.trialregister.nl).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Asparaginase/administração & dosagem , Asparaginase/farmacocinética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Vigilância da População , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0158225, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27362350

RESUMO

Although dexamethasone is highly effective in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can cause serious metabolic side effects. Because studies regarding the effects of dexamethasone are limited by their small scale, we prospectively studied the direct effects of treating pediatric ALL with dexamethasone administration with respect to activation of components of metabolic syndrome (MetS); in addition, we investigated whether these side effects were correlated with the level of dexamethasone. Fifty pediatric patients (3-16 years of age) with ALL were studied during a 5-day dexamethasone course during the maintenance phase of the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group ALL-10 and ALL-11 protocols. Fasting insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides levels were measured at baseline (before the start of dexamethasone; T1) and on the fifth day of treatment (T2). Dexamethasone trough levels were measured at T2. We found that dexamethasone treatment significantly increased the following fasting serum levels (P<0.05): HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin. In addition, dexamethasone increased insulin resistance (HOMA-IR>3.4) from 8% to 85% (P<0.01). Dexamethasone treatment also significantly increased the diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Lastly, dexamethasone trough levels (N = 24) were directly correlated with high glucose levels at T2, but not with other parameters. These results indicate that dexamethasone treatment acutely induces three components of the MetS. Together with the weight gain typically associated with dexamethasone treatment, these factors may contribute to the higher prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular risk among survivors of childhood leukemia who received dexamethasone treatment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Ganho de Peso
13.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 72: 190-5, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448086

RESUMO

Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied whether we could predict the occurrence of these side effects using the very low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) or by measuring trough levels of dexamethasone. Fifty pediatric patients (3-16 years of age) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were initially included during the maintenance phase (with dexamethasone) of the Dutch ALL treatment protocol. As a marker of glucocorticoid sensitivity, the salivary very low-dose DST was used. A post-dexamethasone cortisol level <2.0nmol/L was considered a hypersensitive response. The neurobehavioral endpoints consisted of questionnaires regarding psychosocial and sleeping problems administered before and during the course of dexamethasone (6mg/m(2)), and dexamethasone trough levels were measured during dexamethasone treatment. Patients with a hypersensitive response to dexamethasone had more behavioral problems (N=11), sleeping problems, and/or somnolence (N=12) (P<0.05 for all three endpoints). The positive predictive values of the DST for psychosocial problems and sleeping problems were 50% and 30%, respectively. Dexamethasone levels were not associated with neurobehavioral side effects. We conclude that neither the very low-dose DST nor measuring dexamethasone trough levels can accurately predict dexamethasone-induced neurobehavioral side effects. However, patients with glucocorticoid hypersensitivity experienced significantly more symptoms associated with dexamethasone-induced depression. Future studies should elucidate further the mechanisms by which neurobehavioral side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Problema , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
14.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 8(1): e2016033, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27413525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone is the most common organ of involvement in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), which is often painful and associated with significant morbidity from pathological fractures. Current first-line treatments include chemotherapy and steroids that are effective but often associated with adverse effects, whereas the disease may reactivate despite an initial response to first-line agents. Bisphosphonates are osteoclast inhibitors that have shown to be helpful in treating bone lesions of LCH. To date, there are no large international studies to describe their role in treating bone lesions of LCH. METHOD: We conducted a multicenter retrospective review of 13 patients with histologically proven LCH, who had received bisphosphonates either at diagnosis or at disease reactivation. RESULTS: Ten patients (77%) had a single system bone disease, and 3 (23%) had bone lesions as part of multisystem disease. Median follow-up time post-bisphosphonate therapy was 4.6 years (range, 0.8 to 8.2 years). Treatment with bisphosphonates was associated with significant pain relief in almost all patients. Twelve (92%) achieved resolution of active bone lesions, and 10 out of them had no active disease for a median of 3.5 years (range, 0.8 to 5 years). One patient did not respond. No major adverse effects were reported in this series. CONCLUSION: Bisphosphonates are well-tolerated drugs that can significantly improve bone pain and induce remission in active bone LCH. Future prospective studies evaluating the role of bisphosphonates in LCH are warranted.

15.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(19): 2287-93, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27161966

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dexamethasone is a key component in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but can induce serious adverse effects. Recent studies have led to the hypothesis that neuropsychological adverse effects may be a result of cortisol depletion of the cerebral mineralocorticoid receptors. We examined whether including a physiologic dose of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone treatment can reduce neuropsychologic and metabolic adverse effects in children with ALL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial with a crossover design. Of 116 potentially eligible patients (age 3 to 16 years), 50 were enrolled and were treated with two consecutive courses of dexamethasone in accordance with Dutch Childhood Oncology Group ALL protocols. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either hydrocortisone or placebo in a circadian rhythm (10 mg/m(2)/d) during both dexamethasone courses. Primary outcome measure was parent-reported Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire in Dutch, which assesses psychosocial problems. Other end points included questionnaires, neuropsychological tests, and metabolic parameters. RESULTS: Of 48 patients who completed both courses, hydrocortisone had no significant effect on outcome; however, a more detailed analysis revealed that in 16 patients who developed clinically relevant psychosocial adverse effects, addition of hydrocortisone substantially reduced their Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire in Dutch scores in the following domains: total difficulties, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and impact of difficulties. Moreover, in nine patients who developed clinically relevant, sleep-related difficulties, addition of hydrocortisone reduced total sleeping problems and disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep. In contrast, hydrocortisone had no effect on metabolic parameters. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that adding a physiologic dose of hydrocortisone to dexamethasone treatment can reduce the occurrence of serious neuropsychological adverse effects and sleep-related difficulties in pediatric patients with ALL.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/psicologia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 160: A9939, 2016.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27050498

RESUMO

A 12-year-old boy presented with an increasing painful swelling of the skull. Physical examination revealed in the left parieto-occipital region a skin-coloured solid mass of 2-3 cm in diameter. The X-ray of the skull was highly suspicious for Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Histopathology of a biopsy of the lesion confirmed the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/diagnóstico , Crânio/patologia , Biópsia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Dor , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Oncoimmunology ; 5(3): e1084463, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28255525

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is a neoplastic disorder characterized by tissue accumulating CD1a+ histiocytes which frequently carry somatic mutations. Irrespective of mutation status, these LCH-cells display constitutively active kinases belonging to the MAPK pathway. We evaluated, in retrospect, the contribution of individual components of the MAPK-activating and chemotaxis-promoting TNF-CXCR4-CXCL12 axis to LCH manifestation and outcome. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CXCR4, CXCL12 and TNF protein expression was immunohistochemically analyzed in 70 LCH-affected biopsies. The presence of CXCR4+CD1a+ cells in peripheral blood (PB) and/or bone marrow (BM) samples was evaluated by flowcytometry in 13 therapy-naive LCH-patients. RESULTS: CXCL12 was detected in 68/70 (97%) biopsies. CXCR4+LCH-cells were present in 50/70 (71%) biopsies; their presence was associated with higher levels of intralesional TNF. Circulating CD1a+CXCR4+ cells were detected in 4/13 (31%) therapy-naïve LCH-patients which displayed BRAFV600E (2/4), MAP2K1 (1/4) or no (1/4) mutations in their tissues. These CD11c co-expressing CD1a+CXCR4+cells migrated to CXCL12 in chemotaxis assays. Lesional CXCR4+LCH-cells were detected in 18/20 cases who presented with LCH manifestation at multiple sites and in 5/23 (22%) patients who developed additional lesions after initially presenting with a single lesion. The CXCR4 status at onset proved to be an independent risk factor for LCH reactivation in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 10.4, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence that CXCR4 is involved in the homing and retention of LCH-cells in CXCL12-expressing tissues and qualifies CXCR4 as a candidate prognostic marker for less favorable disease outcome.

18.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 21(9): 657-69, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26391667

RESUMO

The first cohorts to survive childhood lymphoid malignancies treated with cranial irradiation are now aging into adulthood, and concerns are growing about the development of radiotherapy-induced cognitive deficits in the aging brain. These deficits are hypothesized to increase over time. Their impact on daily functioning of older survivors, and the accompanying need for interventions, should be anticipated. By describing a detailed profile of executive function deficits and their associations with age, specific targets for neuropsychological intervention can be identified. Fifty survivors of childhood lymphoid malignancies and 58 related controls were assessed with the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks program. The survivors were on average 31.1 (4.9) years old, treated with 22.5 (6.8) Gy cranial irradiation, and examined on average 25.5 (3.1) years after diagnosis. The survivors showed significantly decreased response speed, irrespective of the task at hand. Furthermore, we found deficits in working memory capacity, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, executive visuomotor control, attentional fluctuations, and sustained attention. Older age was associated with poorer performance on executive visuomotor control and inhibition. On executive visuomotor control, 50% of female survivors performed more than 1.5 SD below average, versus 15.4% of male survivors. The combination of visuospatial working memory problems and decreasing executive visuomotor control could result in difficulty with learning new motor skills at older ages, like walking with a cane. Deterioration of executive control and inhibition may result in decreased behavioral and emotional regulation in aging survivors. Especially the deficiency in executive visuomotor control in female survivors should be considered for (prophylactic) intervention.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , Função Executiva/efeitos da radiação , Linfoma/radioterapia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/radioterapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos da radiação , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Sobreviventes , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Blood ; 126(12): 1415-23, 2015 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26194764

RESUMO

An international phase 2 study combining cladribine and cytarabine (Ara-C) was initiated for patients with refractory, risk-organ-positive Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in 2005. The protocol, comprising at least two 5-day courses of Ara-C (1 g/m(2) per day) plus cladribine (9 mg/m(2) per day) followed by maintenance therapy, was administered to 27 patients (median age at diagnosis, 0.7 years; median follow-up, 5.3 years). At inclusion, all patients were refractory after at least 1 course of vinblastine (VBL) plus corticosteroid, all had liver and spleen involvement, and 25 patients had hematologic cytopenia. After 2 courses, disease status was nonactive (n = 2), better (n = 23), or stable (n = 2), with an overall response rate of 92%. Median disease activity scores decreased from 12 at the start of therapy to 3 after 2 courses (P < .0001). During maintenance therapy, 4 patients experienced reactivation in risk organs. There were 4 deaths; 2 were related to therapy toxicity and 2 were related to reactivation. All patients experienced severe toxicity, with World Health Organization grade 4 hematologic toxicity and 6 documented severe infections. The overall 5-year survival rate was 85% (95% confidence interval, 65.2%-94.2%). Thus, the combination of cladribine/Ara-C is effective therapy for refractory multisystem LCH but is associated with high toxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cladribina/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Cladribina/efeitos adversos , Citarabina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Células de Langerhans/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Langerhans/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Recidiva , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vimblastina/uso terapêutico
20.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 62(12): 2162-6, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26179251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and single-bone CNS-risk lesions have been reported to be at increased risk of diabetes insipidus (DI), central nervous system neurodegeneration (CNS-ND), and recurrence of disease. However, it is unknown whether the addition of chemotherapy or radiotherapy changes outcomes in these patients. METHODS: Ten pediatric institutions across North America and Europe contributed data of their patients with LCH and single-bone CNS-risk lesions. Clinical information on age, sex, specific craniofacial site involvement, and intracranial extension at diagnosis, therapy, and disease course was collected for all eligible patients. RESULTS: The final analysis included 93 eligible children who were either treated with systemic therapy (chemotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, or radiotherapy) or local therapy (biopsy, curettage, and/or intralesional steroids). Fifty-nine patients had systemic and 34 had local therapy. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 80 ± 5% and 98 ± 2% in the systemic therapy group versus 85 ± 6% and 95 ± 5% in the local therapy group. There was no statistically significant difference between either group with regard to EFS (P = 0.26) and OS (P = 0.78). On multivariable analysis, there was no significant difference among the two treatment groups after adjusting for site and intracranial soft tissue extension, nor any trend favoring systemic therapy (HR = 2.26, 95% CI = 0.77-6.70; P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Systemic therapy may not reduce the risk of recurrence or late sequelae in children with LCH and single-bone CNS-risk lesions as compared to local treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/mortalidade , Doenças Ósseas/terapia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/mortalidade , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/terapia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/mortalidade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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