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1.
J Pathol ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565124

RESUMO

Deep learning can detect microsatellite instability (MSI) from routine histology images in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, ethical and legal barriers impede sharing of images and genetic data, hampering development of new algorithms for detection of MSI and other biomarkers. We hypothesized that histology images synthesized by conditional generative adversarial networks (CGANs) retain information about genetic alterations. To test this, we developed a "histology CGAN" which was trained on 256 patients (training cohort 1) and 1457 patients (training cohort 2). The CGAN synthesized 10,000 synthetic MSI and non-MSI images which contained a range of tissue types and were deemed realistic by trained observers in a blinded study. Subsequently, we trained a Deep Learning detector of MSI on real or synthetic images and evaluated the performance of MSI detection in a held-out set of 142 patients. When trained on real images from training cohort 1, this system achieved an area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) of 0.742 [0.681, 0.854]. Training on the larger cohort 2 only marginally improved the AUROC to 0.757 [0.707, 0.869]. Training on purely synthetic data resulted in an AUROC of 0.743 [0.658, 0.801]. Training on both real and synthetic data further increased AUROC to 0.777 [0.715, 0.821]. We conclude that synthetic histology images retain information reflecting underlying genetic alterations in colorectal cancer. Using synthetic instead of real images to train deep learning systems yields non-inferior classifiers. This approach can be used to create large shareable data sets or to augment small data sets with rare molecular features. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(2): 215-221, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368897

RESUMO

AIM: Growing evidence suggests an association between parental longevity and lifespan of subsequent generations. We aimed to reproduce earlier findings, showing a positive association between parental longevity and offspring's longevity. Additionally, we investigated whether this is mainly driven by the maternal or paternal germline in male and female offspring. METHODS: For these analyses, data from the oldest birth cohort (1916-17) of the Netherlands Cohort Study was used. Participants filled in a baseline questionnaire in 1986 (at age 68-70 years). Follow up for vital status information until the age of 90 years (2006-07) was >99.9% complete. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses with a fixed follow-up time were based on 2368 men and 2657 women with complete parental survival data and relevant confounders to calculate risk ratios (RR) of reaching longevity. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, paternal and maternal age at death were significantly positively associated with reaching 90 years in both male and female offspring. In male offspring, paternal age at death (≥90 years vs <80 years) showed the strongest association with survival to 90 years (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.07-1.89), after confounder correction. In female offspring, maternal age at death (≥90 years vs <80 years) showed the strongest association with survival to 90 years (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04-1.40). DISCUSSION: After confounder adjustment, stronger and significant associations were observed between paternal lifespan and male offspring longevity, and maternal lifespan and female offspring longevity. Future research should investigate through which pathways a longer lifespan of parents is transmitted to their offspring. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 215-221.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 67-76, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638386

RESUMO

At present, mostly case-control and retrospective studies have investigated the association between etiologic risk factors and the development of histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, we assessed the heterogeneity between body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and hypertension across clear-cell RCC (ccRCC) and papillary RCC (pRCC) risk in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. In 1986, 120 852 participants aged 55 to 69 completed a self-administered questionnaire on diet and other risk factors for cancer. Participants were followed up for cancer through record linkage. Tumor histology was assessed through centralized revision by two experienced uropathologists. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 384 histologically verified RCC cases, including 315 ccRCC and 46 pRCC cases and 4144 subcohort members were eligible for case-cohort analysis. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models. Overall, BMI was associated positively with ccRCC risk, but inversely with pRCC risk. Cigarette smoking was associated with an increased ccRCC, but a decreased pRCC risk. Alcohol consumption was inversely associated with both ccRCC and pRCC risk. Hypertension was associated with an increased risk of both ccRCC and pRCC. Statistically significant etiologic heterogeneity was observed for BMI, BMI change since age 20, and smoking duration in current smokers across ccRCC and pRCC risk. In conclusion, we observed potential heterogeneity for BMI, BMI change and smoking duration across ccRCC and pRCC risk.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 69: 101836, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer of Unknown Primary (CUP) is a metastatic disease for which the primary tumour origin could not be identified during life. Few studies have investigated the risk factors associated with this disease. This study investigates anthropometry, physical activity and CUP risk. METHODS: Data is used from the Netherlands Cohort Study, which includes 120,852 participants aged 55-69 years. All cohort members completed a self-administered questionnaire on cancer risk factors at baseline in 1986. Cancer follow-up was established through record linkage to the Netherlands Cancer Registry and the Dutch Pathology Registry. After a follow-up of 20.3 years, 926 incident CUP cases and 4099 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analyses. Proportional hazards models were used to compute multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: We found no associations between height, body mass index (BMI) at baseline, BMI at age 20 years, change in BMI since age 20 years, clothing size (trouser/skirt size), or non-occupational physical activity and CUP risk. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that neither anthropometry nor physical activity are associated with the development of CUP.

6.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022785

RESUMO

Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a metastasised malignancy with no identifiable primary tumour origin. Despite the frequent occurrence and bleak prognosis of CUP, research into its aetiology is scarce. Our study investigates alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking and CUP risk. We used data from the Netherlands Cohort Study, a cohort that includes 120 852 participants aged 55 to 69 years, who completed a self-administered questionnaire on cancer risk factors at baseline. Cancer follow-up was established through record linkage to the Netherlands Cancer Registry and Dutch Pathology Registry. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 963 CUP cases and 4288 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analyses. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using proportional hazard models. In general, CUP risk increased with higher levels of alcohol intake (Ptrend = .02). The association was more pronounced in participants who drank ≥30 g of ethanol per day (HR: 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-2.05) compared to abstainers. Current smokers were at an increased CUP risk (HR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.29-1.97) compared to never smokers. We observed that the more the cigarettes or the longer a participant smoked, the higher the CUP risk was (Ptrend = .003 and Ptrend = .02, respectively). Interaction on additive scale was found for participants with the highest exposure categories of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking frequency and CUP risk. Our findings demonstrate that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are associated with increased CUP risk. Lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention regarding not drinking alcohol and avoiding exposure to smoking are therefore also valid for CUP.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is an increasing research interest in factors that characterize those who reach exceptionally old ages. Although loneliness is often associated with an increased risk for premature mortality, its relationship with reaching longevity is still unclear. We aimed to quantify the association between (social/emotional) loneliness and the likelihood of reaching the age of 90 years in men and women separately. METHODS: For these analyses, data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) was used. Loneliness, social loneliness and emotional loneliness were assessed at baseline using the 11-item De Jong-Gierveld scale in 1992-93 (at age 64-85 years). Follow-up for vital status information until the age of 90 years was 99.5% complete. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses with a fixed follow-up time were based on 1,032 men and 1,078 women to calculate Risk Ratios (RR) of reaching 90 years. RESULTS: No significant associations were observed between loneliness and reaching 90 years in both men (RR,0.90; 95%CI,0.70-1.14) and women (RR,0.98; 95%CI,0.83-1.14). Social loneliness was significantly associated with a reduced chance of reaching 90 years in women (RR,0.82; 95%CI,0.67-0.99). DISCUSSION: The current analyses, did not show support for the existence of a meaningful effect of loneliness on reaching longevity in both sexes. When investigating specific dimensions of loneliness, we observed that reporting social loneliness was associated with reaching 90 years in women. This indicates that, for women, a large and diverse personal network at an older age could increase the probability of reaching longevity. However, replication of our findings in other cohorts is needed.

9.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mediterranean diet adherence has been associated with reduced risks of various cancer types. However, prospective findings for overall cancer risk are inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine sex-specific relations of Mediterranean diet adherence with overall cancer risk. DESIGN: This analysis was conducted as part of the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study. Baseline data on diet and other cancer risk factors were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were followed up for cancer incidence for 20.3 years through record linkages with the Netherlands Cancer Registry and the Dutch Pathology Registry. The alternate Mediterranean diet score without alcohol was the principal measure of Mediterranean diet adherence. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The study population consisted of 120,852 inhabitants of the Netherlands, who were aged 55 to 69 years in September 1986. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was overall cancer incidence. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Cox regression analyses (case-cohort design) were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of Mediterranean diet adherence with incidence of cancer (subgroups). In total, 12,184 male and 7,071 female subjects with cancer had complete data on potential confounders and were eligible for inclusion in the Cox models. RESULTS: Middle compared with low Mediterranean diet adherence (alternate Mediterranean diet score without alcohol) was significantly associated with a reduced overall cancer risk in women (HR [95% CI]: 0.85 [0.75-0.97]). Decreased HR estimates for the highest Mediterranean diet adherence category and per 2-point increase in score were also observed, but did not reach statistical significance in multivariable-adjusted analyses. In men, there was no evidence of an association for overall cancer risk (HRper 2-point increment [95% CI]: 1.02 [0.95-1.10]). Results for cancer subgroups, defined by relations with tobacco smoking, obesity, and alcohol consumption, were largely similar to the overall findings. Model fits diminished when alcohol was included in the Mediterranean diet score. CONCLUSIONS: Mediterranean diet adherence was not associated with overall cancer risk in male participants of the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study. HR estimates in women pointed in the inverse direction, but lost statistical significance after full adjustment for confounding in most cases.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

11.
Carcinogenesis ; 41(10): 1368-1384, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726404

RESUMO

Nut intake has been associated with reduced total cancer-related mortality, but evidence for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is inconclusive. We investigated the associations between nut and peanut butter intake and anatomical CRC subtypes. To account for molecular heterogeneity, associations between nut and peanut butter intake and colorectal tumors harboring APC, KRAS or BRAF mutations, p53 overexpression or microsatellite instability were examined in secondary analyses. In the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120 852), lifestyle habits were measured with a questionnaire in 1986. After 20.3 years follow-up, 3567 CRC cases were included in case-cohort analyses. For the analyses of molecular CRC subtypes, 574 cases were included after 7.3 years follow-up. In categorical analyses, total nut intake was not significantly associated with CRC [HR (95% CI) 10+ g/day versus non-consumers = 0.94(0.78-1.15) in men; 0.96(0.75-1.22) in women]. In restricted cubic spline analyses, significant non-linear inverse associations with rectal cancer were observed for total nut, peanut and peanut butter intake in women, and borderline significant non-linear inverse associations for total nut and peanut intake in men. Regarding the molecular CRC subtypes, peanut butter intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of colorectal tumors that did not develop through the serrated neoplasia pathway in men [HR (95% CI) per 5 g/day increment = 1.22(1.07-1.38)]. Nut and peanut butter intake are non-linearly inversely associated with rectal cancer risk in women. In men, nut intake is borderline significantly non-linearly associated with a reduced rectal cancer risk. Peanut butter is associated with an increased risk of colorectal tumors that do not develop through the serrated neoplasia pathway in men.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2100-2104, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nut intake has been associated with reduced cancer-related mortality, but there is very limited evidence on total cancer risk. We investigated the associations of nut and peanut butter intake with the risk of total cancer and smoking- and alcohol-related cancer subgroups. METHODS: In the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study, 120,852 men and women aged 55 to 69 years provided information on lifestyle and dietary habits at baseline in 1986. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 19,255 total cancer cases and 3,499 subcohort members were included in multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses, using a case-cohort approach. RESULTS: No significant associations were found between total nut, tree nut, peanut, and peanut butter intake and total cancer risk in men and women. There were also no significant associations with smoking-(un)related and alcohol-(un)related cancers in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that nut and peanut butter intake are not associated with a reduced risk of total cancer in men or women. IMPACT: Nut and peanut butter consumption are not related to the risk of total cancer.

13.
Gastroenterology ; 159(4): 1406-1416.e11, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microsatellite instability (MSI) and mismatch-repair deficiency (dMMR) in colorectal tumors are used to select treatment for patients. Deep learning can detect MSI and dMMR in tumor samples on routine histology slides faster and less expensively than molecular assays. However, clinical application of this technology requires high performance and multisite validation, which have not yet been performed. METHODS: We collected H&E-stained slides and findings from molecular analyses for MSI and dMMR from 8836 colorectal tumors (of all stages) included in the MSIDETECT consortium study, from Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Specimens with dMMR were identified by immunohistochemistry analyses of tissue microarrays for loss of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and/or PMS2. Specimens with MSI were identified by genetic analyses. We trained a deep-learning detector to identify samples with MSI from these slides; performance was assessed by cross-validation (N = 6406 specimens) and validated in an external cohort (n = 771 specimens). Prespecified endpoints were area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC). RESULTS: The deep-learning detector identified specimens with dMMR or MSI with a mean AUROC curve of 0.92 (lower bound, 0.91; upper bound, 0.93) and an AUPRC of 0.63 (range, 0.59-0.65), or 67% specificity and 95% sensitivity, in the cross-validation development cohort. In the validation cohort, the classifier identified samples with dMMR with an AUROC of 0.95 (range, 0.92-0.96) without image preprocessing and an AUROC of 0.96 (range, 0.93-0.98) after color normalization. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a deep-learning system that detects colorectal cancer specimens with dMMR or MSI using H&E-stained slides; it detected tissues with dMMR with an AUROC of 0.96 in a large, international validation cohort. This system might be used for high-throughput, low-cost evaluation of colorectal tissue specimens.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 147(8): 2091-2100, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285440

RESUMO

While the association between fruit consumption and bladder cancer risk has been extensively reported, studies have had inadequate statistical power to investigate associations between types of fruit and bladder cancer risk satisfactorily. Fruit consumption in relation to bladder cancer risk was investigated by pooling individual data from 13 cohort studies. Cox regression models with attained age as time scale were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for intakes of total fruit and citrus fruits, soft fruits, stone fruits, tropical fruits, pome fruits and fruit products. Analyses were stratified by sex, smoking status and bladder cancer subtype. During on average 11.2 years of follow-up, 2836 individuals developed incident bladder cancer. Increasing fruit consumption (by 100 g/day) was inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer in women (HR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.85-0.99). Although in women the association with fruit consumption was most evident for higher-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC; HR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.56-0.92), the test for heterogeneity by bladder cancer subtype was nonsignificant (P-heterogeneity = .14). Increasing fruit consumption (by 100 g/day) was not associated with bladder cancer risk in men (HR = 0.99; 95% CI 0.94-1.03), never smokers (HR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.88-1.05), former smokers (HR = 0.98; 95% CI 0.92-1.05) or current smokers (HR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.89-1.01). The consumption of any type of fruit was not found to be associated with bladder cancer risk (P values > .05). Our study supports no evidence that the consumption of specific types of fruit reduces the risk of bladder cancer. However, increasing total fruit consumption may reduce bladder cancer risk in women.

15.
Tob Control ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123139

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to secondhand aerosol from e-cigarette (SHA) may pose harmful effects to bystanders. This study aims to investigate the prevalence, duration and determinants of SHA exposure in various indoor settings in 12 European countries. METHODS: In 2017-2018, we conducted a cross-sectional study, the TackSHS survey, on a representative sample of the population aged ≥15 years in 12 European countries (Bulgaria, England, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania and Spain). We described the prevalence and duration of exposure to SHA in several indoor settings among 11 604 e-cigarette non-users. Individual-level and country-level characteristics associated with SHA exposure were also explored using multilevel logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 16.0% of e-cigarette non-users were exposed to SHA in any indoor setting at least weekly, ranging from 4.3% in Spain to 29.6% in England. The median duration of SHA exposure among those who were exposed was 43 min/day. 'Other indoor settings' (eg, bar and restaurant) was reported as the place where most of e-cigarette non-users were exposed (8.3%), followed by workplace/educational venues (6.4%), home (5.8%), public transportation (3.5%) and private transportation (2.7%). SHA exposure was more likely to occur in certain groups of non-users: men, younger age groups, those with higher level of education, e-cigarette past users, current smokers, those perceiving SHA harmless and living in countries with a higher e-cigarette use prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: We found inequalities of SHA exposure across and within European countries. Governments should consider extending their tobacco smoke-free legislation to e-cigarettes to protect bystanders, particularly vulnerable populations such as young people. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02928536.

16.
Age Ageing ; 49(3): 395-402, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: whether light-to-moderate alcohol intake is related to reduced mortality remains a subject of intense research and controversy. There are very few studies available on alcohol and reaching longevity. METHODS: we investigated the relationship of alcohol drinking characteristics with the probability to reach 90 years of age. Analyses were conducted using data from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Participants born in 1916-1917 (n = 7,807) completed a questionnaire in 1986 (age 68-70 years) and were followed up for vital status until the age of 90 years (2006-07). Multivariable Cox regression analyses with fixed follow-up time were based on 5,479 participants with complete data to calculate risk ratios (RRs) of reaching longevity (age 90 years). RESULTS: we found statistically significant positive associations between baseline alcohol intake and the probability of reaching 90 years in both men and women. Overall, the highest probability of reaching 90 was found in those consuming 5- < 15 g/d alcohol, with RR = 1.36 (95% CI, 1.20-1.55) when compared with abstainers. The exposure-response relationship was significantly non-linear in women, but not in men. Wine intake was positively associated with longevity (notably in women), whereas liquor was positively associated with longevity in men and inversely in women. Binge drinking pointed towards an inverse relationship with longevity. Alcohol intake was associated with longevity in those without and with a history of selected diseases. CONCLUSIONS: the highest probability of reaching 90 years was found for those drinking 5- < 15 g alcohol/day. Although not significant, the risk estimates also indicate to avoid binge drinking.

17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 5, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several dietary factors have been reported to be associated with risk of breast cancer, but to date, unequivocal evidence only exists for alcohol consumption. We sought to systematically assess the association between intake of 92 foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study. METHODS: Using data from 272,098 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we assessed dietary intake of 92 foods and nutrients estimated by dietary questionnaires. Cox regression was used to quantify the association between each food/nutrient and risk of breast cancer. A false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05 was used to select the set of foods and nutrients to be replicated in the independent Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). RESULTS: Six foods and nutrients were identified as associated with risk of breast cancer in the EPIC study (10,979 cases). Higher intake of alcohol overall was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) for a 1 SD increment in intake = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07), as was beer/cider intake and wine intake (HRs per 1 SD increment = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.06 and 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06, respectively), whereas higher intakes of fibre, apple/pear, and carbohydrates were associated with a lower risk of breast cancer (HRs per 1 SD increment = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98; 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99; and 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, respectively). When evaluated in the NLCS (2368 cases), estimates for each of these foods and nutrients were similar in magnitude and direction, with the exception of beer/cider intake, which was not associated with risk in the NLCS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association of alcohol consumption and suggest an inverse association of dietary fibre and possibly fruit intake with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/dietoterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/normas , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Nutrientes , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 137, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924838

RESUMO

We investigated the relationship between germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1A), and their gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, and clear-cell RCC (ccRCC) risk. Furthermore, we assessed the relationship between VHL SNPs and VHL promoter methylation. Three VHL polymorphisms and one HIF1A polymorphism were genotyped in the Netherlands Cohort Study. In 1986, 120,852 participants aged 55-69 completed a self-administered questionnaire on diet and lifestyle and toenail clippings were collected. Toenail DNA was genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. After 20.3 years, 3004 subcohort members and 406 RCC cases, of which 263 ccRCC cases, were eligible for multivariate case-cohort analyses. VHL_rs779805 was associated with RCC (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.53; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.07-2.17) and ccRCC risk (HR 1.88; 95% CI 1.25-2.81). No associations were found for other SNPs. Potential gene-environment interactions were found between alcohol consumption and selected SNPs. However, none remained statistically significant after multiple comparison correction. No gene-gene interactions were observed between VHL and HIF1A. VHL promoter methylation was not associated with VHL SNPs. VHL SNPs may increase (cc)RCC susceptibility. No associations were found between gene-environment and gene-gene interactions and (cc)RCC risk and between VHL promoter methylation and VHL SNPs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Epistasia Genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
19.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(1): 25-35, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494792

RESUMO

Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence has been associated with a large variety of health benefits. However, prospective studies investigating the relation between MD adherence and colorectal cancer risk had inconsistent results. In this analysis of the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS), we evaluated sex- and subsite-specific associations of MD adherence with colorectal cancer risk. In 1986, 120,852 subjects filled out the NLCS baseline questionnaire, which incorporated a 150-item food frequency questionnaire. MD adherence was estimated through alternate Mediterranean diet scores including and excluding alcohol (aMED and aMEDr, respectively). Using 20.3 year follow-up data, 1993 male and 1574 female colorectal cancer cases could be included in multivariable case-cohort analyses. aMEDr was not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk, regardless of sex. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) per two-point increment were 1.04 (0.95-1.13) for men and 0.97 (0.88-1.07) for women. Additionally, there was no evidence of an inverse association with any of the colorectal cancer subsites (colon, proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum). In women, the association between aMEDr and colorectal cancer risk was significantly modified by smoking status (Pinteraction = 0.015). Comparable results were obtained for the original aMED including alcohol. In conclusion, higher MD adherence was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer or anatomical subsites in the context of a Dutch population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
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