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1.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126170

RESUMO

As malnutrition is common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we evaluated nutritional status and body composition of patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and controls, and studied associations of AD biomarkers and cognitive performance with nutritional status and body composition. We included 552 participants, of which 198 patients had AD, 135 patients had MCI and 219 controls. We assessed nutritional status (mini nutritional assessment (MNA)) and body composition (body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist circumference). Linear regression analyses (adjusted for age, gender and education where appropriate) were applied to test associations of AD biomarkers and cognitive performance on five domains with nutritional parameters (dependent). Patients with MCI and AD had a lower BMI and MNA score than controls. Worse performance in all cognitive domains was associated with lower MNA score, but not with body composition. AD biomarkers were associated with MNA score, BMI and waist circumference, and associations with MNA score remained after adjustment for cognitive performance. Both AD biomarkers and cognitive performance were associated with nutritional status, associations with AD biomarkers remained after adjustment for cognition. Our data suggest that malnutrition is not only related to impaired cognition but also to AD pathology.

2.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823595

RESUMO

The triage theory posits that modest micronutrient deficiencies may induce reallocation of nutrients to processes necessary for immediate survival at the expense of long-term health. Neglected processes could in time contribute to the onset of age-related diseases, in which oxidative stress is believed to be a major factor. Vitamin B12 (B12) appears to possess antioxidant properties. This review aims to summarise the potential antioxidant mechanisms of B12 and investigate B12 status in relation to oxidative stress markers. A systematic query-based search of PubMed was performed to identify eligible publications. The potential antioxidant properties of B12 include: (1) direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide; (2) indirect stimulation of ROS scavenging by preservation of glutathione; (3) modulation of cytokine and growth factor production to offer protection from immune response-induced oxidative stress; (4) reduction of homocysteine-induced oxidative stress; and (5) reduction of oxidative stress caused by advanced glycation end products. Some evidence appears to suggest that lower B12 status is related to increased pro-oxidant and decreased antioxidant status, both overall and for subclinically deficient individuals compared to those with normal B12 status. However, there is a lack of randomised controlled trials and prospective studies focusing specifically on the relation between B12 and oxidative stress in humans, resulting in a low strength of evidence. Further work is warranted.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Vitamina B 12/farmacologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem
3.
Eur J Nutr ; 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242468

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Observational studies showed inverse associations between milk consumption and knee osteoarthritis (knee OA). There is lack of information on the role of specific dairy product categories. We explored the association between dairy consumption and the presence of knee osteoarthritis in 3010 individuals aged 40-75 years participating in The Maastricht Study. METHODS: The presence of knee OA was defined according to a slightly modified version of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) clinical classification criteria. Data on dairy consumption were appraised by a 253-item FFQ covering 47 dairy products with categorization on fat content, fermentation or dairy type. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), while correcting for relevant factors. RESULTS: 427 (14%) participants were classified as having knee OA. Significant inverse associations were observed between the presence of knee OA and intake of full-fat dairy and Dutch, primarily semi-hard, cheese, with OR for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of intake of 0.68 (95%CI 0.50-0.92) for full-fat dairy, and 0.75 (95%CI 0.56-0.99) for Dutch cheese. No significant associations were found for other dairy product categories. CONCLUSION: In this Dutch population, higher intake of full-fat dairy and Dutch cheese, but not milk, was cross-sectionally associated with the lower presence of knee OA. Prospective studies need to assess the relationship between dairy consumption, and in particular semi-hard cheeses, with incident knee OA.

4.
Nutr Res Rev ; 31(2): 164-178, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29560832

RESUMO

The relevance of dairy produce for the diminishment of osteoporotic risk is still a matter of scientific debate due to the outcome of a few single observational studies. This review will address the most robust point estimate on the role of dairy products, as reported in systematic reviews and meta-analyses on randomised controlled trials in the case of bone mineralisation or prospective studies in the case of fracture risk. Plain dairy products or those fortified with Ca and/or vitamin D improve total body bone mineral content (BMC) by 45-50 g over 1 year when the daily baseline Ca intake is lower than 750 mg in Caucasians and Chinese girls. In Caucasian and Chinese women, Ca from (fortified) dairy products increases bone mineral density (BMD) by 0·7-1·8 % over 2 years dependent on the site of measurement. Despite the results on BMC, there are currently no studies that have investigated the potential of dairy products to reduce fracture risk in children. In adult Caucasian women, daily intake of 200-250 ml of milk is associated with a reduction in fracture risk of 5 % or higher. In conclusion, the role of dairy products for BMC or BMD has been sufficiently established in Chinese and Caucasian girls and women. In Caucasian women, drinking milk also reduces fracture risk. More research on the role of dairy products within the context of bone health-promoting diets is needed in specific ethnicities, other than Chinese and Caucasians, and in men.

5.
Nutr Res ; 49: 1-22, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420989

RESUMO

The purpose of these systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of dairy components on nutritional status and physical fitness in older adults, as evidence for efficacy of the supplementation of these components is inconclusive. Scopus and MEDLINE were searched. Main inclusion criteria for articles were as follows: double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials including participants aged ≥55 years who received dairy components or a placebo. Outcome measures were nutrient status (body weight and body mass index) and physical fitness (body composition, muscle strength, and physical performance). Thirty-six trials with 4947participants were included. Most trials investigated protein and vitamin D supplementation and showed no effect on the outcomes. Meta-analysis on the effect of protein on body weight showed a significant increase in mean difference of 1.13 kg (95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.67). This effect increased by selecting trials with study a duration of 6 months in which less nourished and physically fit participants were included. Trials where the participants were (pre-)frail, inactive older adults or when supplementing ≥20 g of protein per day tended to increase lean body mass. Only small significant effects of vitamin D supplementation on Timed Up and Go (mean difference -0.75 seconds; 95% confidence interval -1.44 to -0.07) were determined. This effect increased when vitamin D doses ranged between 400 and 1000 IU. Additional large randomized controlled trials of ≥6 months are needed regarding the effect of dairy components containing an adequate amount of vitamin D (400-1000 IU) and/or protein (≥20 g) on nutritional status and physical fitness in malnourished or frail older adults.

6.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 15(6): 555-563, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098573

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple dietary components have the potential to positively affect bone mineral density in early life and reduce loss of bone mass with aging. In addition, regular weight-bearing physical activity has a strong positive effect on bone through activation of osteocyte signaling. We will explore possible synergistic effects of dietary components and mechanical stimuli for bone health by identifying dietary components that have the potential to alter the response of osteocytes to mechanical loading. RECENT FINDINGS: Several (sub)cellular aspects of osteocytes determine their signaling towards osteoblasts and osteoclasts in response to mechanical stimuli, such as the osteocyte cytoskeleton, estrogen receptor α, the vitamin D receptor, and the architecture of the lacunocanalicular system. Potential modulators of these features include 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, several forms of vitamin K, and the phytoestrogen genistein. Multiple dietary components potentially affect osteocyte function and therefore may have a synergistic effect on bone health when combined with a regime of physical activity.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Dieta , Exercício/fisiologia , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Osteócitos/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Calcitriol , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Genisteína , Humanos , Mecanotransdução Celular , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Vitamina K
7.
Nutrients ; 8(10)2016 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27754376

RESUMO

The benefits of dairy consumption seem to extend beyond its significant contribution to ensuring nutrient intake adequacy as indicated by the favourable associations with several health outcomes reported by different studies. The aims of the present study were to examine the associations of milk consumption with fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices in children and further explore whether the observed associations are attributed to vitamins B2 and B12 derived from milk. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years participating in the Healthy Growth Study was examined. Data were collected on children's dietary intake, using 24 h recalls, as well as on fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices. Regression analyses were performed for investigating the research hypothesis, adjusting for potential confounders and for B-vitamin status indices (i.e., plasma riboflavin, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine concentrations), dietary calcium intake and plasma zinc concentrations that could possibly act as effect modifiers. Milk consumption was positively associated with the number of stages performed in the endurance run test (ERT) (ß = 0.10; p = 0.017) and negatively with body mass index (BMI) (ß = -0.10; p = 0.014), after adjusting for several potential confounders and effect modifiers. Dietary intakes of vitamin B2 and B12 derived from milk were also positively associated with the number of ERT stages (ß = 0.10; p = 0.015 and ß = 0.10; p = 0.014 respectively). In conclusion, higher intake of milk as well as vitamin B2 and B12 derived from milk were independently associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in Greek preadolescents. The key roles of these B-vitamins in substrate oxidation, energy production, haemoglobin synthesis and erythropoiesis could provide a basis for interpreting these associations. However, further research is needed to confirm this potential interpretation.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Dieta , Leite/química , Aptidão Física , Riboflavina/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grécia , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Ácido Metilmalônico/sangue , Resistência Física , Análise de Regressão , Riboflavina/sangue , Zinco/sangue
8.
Nutr Res ; 36(10): 1171-1181, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27422456

RESUMO

With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered.


Assuntos
Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimentos Fortificados , Valor Nutritivo , Selênio , Vitamina B 6 , Vitamina D , Idoso , Registros de Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Minerais , Países Baixos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Necessidades Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Oligoelementos , Vitaminas
9.
Nutrients ; 7(3): 1841-58, 2015 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25768954

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.


Assuntos
Dieta , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Política Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Criança , Laticínios , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Frutas , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Verduras
10.
Anaerobe ; 28: 137-48, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24880006

RESUMO

The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to biogas. Model calibration was conducted using data from in vitro fermentation of the proximal colon (TIM-2), and, amongst others, supplemented with the bio kinetics of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) fermentation. The impact of water and solutes absorption by the host was also included. Hydrolysis constants of carbohydrates and proteins were estimated based on total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia production in vitro. Model validation was established using an independent dataset of a different in vitro model: an in vitro three-stage continuous culture system. The in silico model was shown to provide quantitative insight in the microbial community structure in terms of functional groups, and the substrate and product fluxes between these groups as well as the host, as a function of the substrate composition, pH and the solids residence time (SRT). The model confirms the experimental observation that methanogens are washed out at low pH or low SRT-values. The in silico model is proposed as useful tool in the design of experimental setups for in vitro experiments by giving insight in fermentation processes in the proximal human colon.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Digestão , Modelos Teóricos , Amônia/análise , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Humanos , Hidrólise , Proteínas/metabolismo
11.
Maturitas ; 77(2): 137-41, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24210635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin K plays a pivotal role in the synthesis of Matrix Gla protein (MGP), a calcification inhibitor in vascular tissue. Vascular calcification has become an important predictor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current study was to examine the potential association of circulating desphospho-carboxylated and -uncarboxylated MGP (dp-cMGP and dp-ucMGP), reflecting vitamin K status, with the incidence of cardiovascular events and disease (CVD) in older individuals. STUDY DESIGN: The study was conducted in 577 community-dwelling older men and women of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), aged >55 year, who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of CVD. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 5.6±1.2 year, we identified 40 incident cases of CVD. After adjustment for classical confounders and vitamin D status, we observed a more than 2-fold significantly higher risk of CVD for the highest tertile of dp-ucMGP with a HR of 2.69 (95% CI, 1.09-6.62) as compared with the lowest tertile. Plasma dp-cMGP was not associated with the risk of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin K insufficiency, as assessed by high plasma dp-ucMGP concentrations is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease independent of classical risk factors and vitamin D status. Larger epidemiological studies on dp-ucMGP and CVD incidence are needed followed by clinical trials to test whether vitamin K-rich diets will lead to a decreased risk for cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina K/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Deficiência de Vitamina K/complicações
12.
Br J Nutr ; 110 Suppl 3: S2-10, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24016763

RESUMO

Nutrition is a well-known factor in the growth, health and development of children. It is also acknowledged that worldwide many people have dietary imbalances resulting in over- or undernutrition. In 2009, the multinational food company FrieslandCampina initiated the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a combination of surveys carried out in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, to get a better insight into these imbalances. The present study describes the general study design and methodology, as well as some problems and pitfalls encountered. In each of these countries, participants in the age range of 0·5-12 years were recruited according to a multistage cluster randomised or stratified random sampling methodology. Field teams took care of recruitment and data collection. For the health status of children, growth and body composition, physical activity, bone density, and development and cognition were measured. For nutrition, food intake and food habits were assessed by questionnaires, whereas in subpopulations blood and urine samples were collected to measure the biochemical status parameters of Fe, vitamins A and D, and DHA. In Thailand, the researchers additionally studied the lipid profile in blood, whereas in Indonesia iodine excretion in urine was analysed. Biochemical data were analysed in certified laboratories. Study protocols and methodology were aligned where practically possible. In December 2011, data collection was finalised. In total, 16,744 children participated in the present study. Information that will be very relevant for formulating nutritional health policies, as well as for designing innovative food and nutrition research and development programmes, has become available.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Coleta de Dados , Dieta , Exercício , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia , Crescimento , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia , Lactente , Iodo/urina , Lipídeos/sangue , Malásia , Masculino , Micronutrientes/sangue , Micronutrientes/urina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia , Vietnã
13.
J Nutr ; 143(7): 1184-93, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23700339

RESUMO

Probiotics and milk calcium may increase resistance to intestinal infection, but their effect on growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children is uncertain. We investigated the hypotheses that cow milk with added probiotics would improve growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children, whereas milk calcium alone would improve growth but reduce iron and zinc status. A 6-mo randomized trial was conducted in low-socioeconomic urban communities of Jakarta. Healthy children (n = 494) were randomly assigned to receive low-lactose milk with a low calcium content of ∼50 mg/d (LC; n = 124), a regular calcium content of ∼440 mg/d (RC group; n = 126), regular calcium with 5 × 10(8) CFU/d Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (casei; n = 120), or regular calcium with 5 × 10(8) CFU/d Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (reuteri; n = 124). Growth, anemia, and iron and zinc status were assessed before and after the intervention. Compared with the RC group, the reuteri group had significantly greater weight gain [0.22 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.42) kg], weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) changes [0.09 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.17)], and monthly weight [0.03 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.05) kg/mo] and height [0.03 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.05) cm/mo] velocities. Casei significantly increased monthly weight velocity [0.03 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) kg/mo], but not height. However, the changes in underweight, stunting, anemia prevalence, and iron and zinc status were similar between groups. In conclusion, L. reuteri DSM 17938 modestly improved growth by increasing weight gain, WAZ changes, and weight and height velocity, whereas L. casei CRL 431 modestly improved weight velocity. Independent from probiotics supplementation, regular milk calcium did not affect growth or iron and zinc status.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ferro na Dieta/sangue , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Zinco/sangue , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Determinação de Ponto Final , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Lactobacillus casei , Lactobacillus reuteri , Masculino , Leite/química , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ganho de Peso , Zinco/administração & dosagem
14.
Br J Nutr ; 110(8): 1357-68, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23590754

RESUMO

Recent reports have attributed the potential health benefits of vitamin K beyond its function to activate hepatic coagulation factors. Moreover, several studies have suggested that menaquinones, also known as vitamin K2, may be more effective in activating extra-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins than phylloquinone, also known as vitamin K1. Nevertheless, present dietary reference values (DRV) for vitamin K are exclusively based on phylloquinone, and its function in coagulation. The present review describes the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the following criteria for setting DRV: optimal dietary intake; nutrient amount required to prevent deficiency, maintain optimal body stores and/or prevent chronic disease; factors influencing requirements such as absorption, metabolism, age and sex. Dietary intake of menaquinones accounts for up to 25% of total vitamin K intake and contributes to the biological functions of vitamin K. However, menaquinones are different from phylloquinone with respect to their chemical structure and pharmacokinetics, which affects bioavailability, metabolism and perhaps impact on health outcomes. There are significant gaps in the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the criteria for setting DRV. Therefore, we conclude that further investigations are needed to establish how differences among the vitamin K forms may influence tissue specificities and their role in human health. However, there is merit for considering both menaquinones and phylloquinone when developing future recommendations for vitamin K intake.


Assuntos
Vitamina K 2/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Absorção , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Coagulação Sanguínea , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Humanos , Recomendações Nutricionais , Valores de Referência , Vitamina K 1/metabolismo , Vitamina K 1/farmacologia , Vitamina K 2/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia
15.
Br J Nutr ; 110(7): 1292-303, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23507173

RESUMO

Adolescence is a time for rapid growth that represents an opportunity to influence peak bone mass. Prebiotic agents, such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), increase Ca absorption in animal models and postmenopausal women. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the dose-response relationship of GOS supplementation on Ca absorption during growth and to assess changes in colonic microbiota to better understand the mechanism by which GOS is acting. A total of thirty-one healthy adolescent girls aged 10-13 years consumed smoothie drinks twice daily with 0, 2·5 or 5 g GOS for three 3-week periods in a random order. Fractional Ca absorption was determined from urinary Ca excretion over 48 h at the end of each 3-week period using a dual stable isotope method. Faecal microbiota and bifidobacteria were assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR. Fractional Ca absorption after the 48 h treatment with control, 5 and 10 g GOS/d was 0·393 (SD 0·092), 0·444 (SD 0·086) and 0·419 (SD 0·099), respectively. Significant improvements in Ca absorption were seen with both low and high doses of GOS compared with the control (P,0·02), but itwas not a dose-response relationship. The increase in absorption was greatest in the urine collected after 24 h, which is consistent with lower gut absorption. Faecal bifidobacteria increased (control 10·89 (SD 13·86), 5 g GOS 22·80 (SD 15·74) and 10 g GOS 11·54 (SD 14·20)) with the GOS treatment (P,0·03). The results suggest that daily consumption of 5 g GOS increases Ca absorption, which may be mediated by the gut microbiota, specifically bifidobacteria.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Galactose/farmacologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Adolescente , Cálcio/urina , Cálcio na Dieta/urina , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal
16.
Pediatrics ; 129(5): e1155-64, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22492764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of calcium and probiotics on the incidence and duration of acute diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in low-socioeconomic communities of Jakarta, Indonesia. METHODS: We conducted a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 494 healthy children aged 1 to 6 years who received low-lactose milk with low calcium content (LC; ∼50 mg/day; n = 124), regular calcium content (RC; ∼440 mg/day; n = 126), RC with 5.10(8) colony-forming units per day of Lactobacillus casei CRL431 (casei; n = 120), or RC with 5.10(8) colony-forming units per day of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17938 (reuteri; n = 124). Number and duration of diarrhea and ARTIs episodes were primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Incidence of World Health Organization-defined diarrhea (≥3 loose/liquid stools in 24 hours) was not significantly different between RC and LC (relative risk [RR]: 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62-1.58]), between casei and RC (RR: 1.21 [95% CI: 0.76-1.92]), or between reuteri and RC (RR: 0.76 [95% CI: 0.46-1.25]) groups. Incidence of all reported diarrhea (≥2 loose/liquid stools in 24 hours) was significantly lower in the reuteri versus RC group (RR: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.99]). Irrespective of the definition used, reuteri significantly reduced diarrhea incidence in children with lower nutritional status (below-median height-and-weight-for-age z score). None of the interventions affected ARTIs. CONCLUSIONS: RC milk, alone or with L casei, did not reduce diarrhea or ARTIs in Indonesian children. L reuteri may prevent diarrhea, especially in children with lower nutritional status.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Leite , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia , Lactente , Lactobacillus casei , Lactobacillus reuteri , Masculino , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
17.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 90(4): 251-62, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22392526

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D(3), and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K(2)) on parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention. Postmenopausal women were divided into three intervention groups and a control group (CG). All three intervention groups attended biweekly sessions and received fortified dairy products providing daily 800 mg of calcium and 10 µg of vitamin D(3) (CaD). Furthermore, in two of the three intervention groups the dairy products were also enriched with vitamin K, providing daily 100 µg of either phylloquinone (CaDK1) or menaquinone-7 (CaDK2). The increase observed for serum 25(OH)D levels in all intervention groups and the increase observed for serum IGF-I levels in the CaDK2 group differed significantly compared to the changes observed in CG (P = 0.010 and P = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, both the CaDK1 and CaDK2 groups had a significantly lower mean serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin to osteocalcin ratio and urine deoxypyridinoline levels at follow-up compared to the CaD and CG groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.047, respectively). Significant increases in total-body BMD were observed in all intervention groups compared to CG (P < 0.05), while significant increases in lumbar spine BMD were observed only for CaDK1 and CaDK2 compared to CG (P < 0.05) after controlling for changes in serum 25(OH)D levels and dietary calcium intake. In conclusion, the present study revealed more favorable changes in bone metabolism and bone mass indices for the two vitamin K-supplemented groups, mainly reflected in the suppression of serum levels of bone remodeling indices and in the more positive changes in lumbar spine BMD for these two study groups.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Laticínios , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Pós-Menopausa , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K 1/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K 2/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
18.
Br J Nutr ; 107(10): 1466-75, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21910949

RESUMO

Faecal microbial changes associated with ageing include reduced bifidobacteria numbers. These changes coincide with an increased risk of disease development. Prebiotics have been observed to increase bifidobacteria numbers within humans. The present study aimed to determine if prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) could benefit a population of men and women of 50 years and above, through modulation of faecal microbiota, fermentation characteristics and faecal water genotoxicity. A total of thirty-seven volunteers completed this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. The treatments - juice containing 4 g GOS and placebo - were consumed twice daily for 3 weeks, preceded by 3-week washout periods. To study the effect of GOS on different large bowel regions, three-stage continuous culture systems were conducted in parallel using faecal inocula from three volunteers. Faecal samples were microbially enumerated by quantitative PCR. In vivo, following GOS intervention, bifidobacteria were significantly more compared to post-placebo (P = 0·02). Accordingly, GOS supplementation had a bifidogenic effect in all in vitro system vessels. Furthermore, in vessel 1 (similar to the proximal colon), GOS fermentation led to more lactobacilli and increased butyrate. No changes in faecal water genotoxicity were observed. To conclude, GOS supplementation significantly increased bifidobacteria numbers in vivo and in vitro. Increased butyrate production and elevated bifidobacteria numbers may constitute beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota in a maturing population.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Galactose/farmacologia , Lactobacillus , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colo/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
19.
Steroids ; 77(1-2): 126-31, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22093484

RESUMO

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) strongly mediates bone mass. Mechanical stimulation also affects bone mass, partly via enhancing nitric oxide (NO) production by osteoblasts. We aimed to determine whether 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) affects NO production by osteoblasts in the presence or absence of mechanical stimulation. We hypothesised that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulates NO production via nuclear actions of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which requires hours of incubation with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) to occur. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and long-bone osteoblasts of adult wildtype and VDR(-/-) mice were pre-incubated for 24h with or without 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (10(-13)-10(-9)M), followed by 30 min pulsating fluid flow (PFF; 0.7±0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) or static culture with or without 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). NO production and NO synthase (NOS) expression were quantified. 10(-11)M 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) for 24h, but not 30 min, stimulated NO production by MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts (eightfold). 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) for 24h increased inducible-NOS gene-expression (twofold), suggesting that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulated NO production via activation of NOS gene transcription. PFF rapidly increased NO production by MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, wildtype osteoblasts, and VDR(-/-) osteoblasts. This PFF effect was abolished after incubation with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) for 24h, or during PFF only. Our results suggest that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulates inducible-NOS expression and NO production by osteoblasts in the absence of mechanical stimulation, likely via genomic VDR action. In contrast, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) may affect mechanical loading-induced NO production independent of genomic VDR action, since 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) diminished PFF-induced NO production in VDR(-/-) bone cells. In conclusion, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and mechanical loading interact at the level of mechanotransduction, whereby 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) seems to act independently of VDR genomic mechanism.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Animais , Osso e Ossos/citologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mecanotransdução Celular , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Fluxo Pulsátil , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Vitamina D/farmacologia
20.
Carbohydr Res ; 346(16): 2540-50, 2011 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21962590

RESUMO

The characterization of oligosaccharides in the feces of breast-fed babies is a valuable tool for monitoring the gastrointestinal fate of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). In the present study we monitored fecal oligosaccharide profiles together with the HMO-profiles of the respective breast milks up to six months postpartum, by means of capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence detection and mass spectrometry. Eleven mother/child pairs were included. Mother's secretor- and Lewis-type included all combinations [Le(a-b+), Le(a+b-), Le(a-b-)]. The fecal HMO-profiles in the first few months of life are either predominantly composed of neutral or acidic HMOs and are possibly effected by the HMO-fingerprint in the respective breast milk. Independent of the initial presence of acidic or neutral fecal HMOs, a gradual change to blood-group specific oligosaccharides was observed. Their presence pointed to a gastrointestinal degradation of the feeding-related HMOs, followed by conjugation with blood group specific antigenic determinants present in the gastrointestinal mucus layer. Eleven of these 'hybrid'-oligosaccharides were annotated in this study. When solid food was introduced, no HMOs and their degradation- and metabolization products were recovered in the fecal samples.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO , Eletroforese Capilar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Pirenos/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química
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