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2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070266

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While neonatal bloodspot screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has been introduced more than a decade ago, implementation in NBS programs remains challenging in many countries. Even if high-quality test methods and follow-up care are available, public uptake and parental acceptance are not guaranteed. The aim of this study was to describe the parental perspective on NBS for SCID in the context of an implementation pilot. Psychosocial aspects have never been studied before for NBS for SCID and are important for societal acceptance, a major criterion when introducing new disorders in NBS programs. METHODS: To evaluate the perspective of parents, interviews were conducted with parents of newborns with abnormal SCID screening results (N = 17). In addition, questionnaires about NBS for SCID were sent to 2000 parents of healthy newborns who either participated or declined participation in the SONNET-study that screened 140,593 newborns for SCID. RESULTS: Support for NBS for SCID was expressed by the majority of parents in questionnaires from both a public health perspective and a personal perspective. Parents emphasized the emotional impact of an abnormal screening result in interviews. (Long-term) stress and anxiety can be experienced during and after referral indicating the importance of uniform follow-up protocols and adequate information provision. CONCLUSION: The perspective of parents has led to several recommendations for NBS programs that are considering screening for SCID or other disorders. A close partnership of NBS programs' stakeholders, immunologists, geneticists, and pediatricians-immunologists in different countries is required for moving towards universal SCID screening for all infants.

3.
J Exp Med ; 217(11)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865561

RESUMO

The autosomal recessive immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Despite the identification of the underlying gene defects, it is unclear how mutations in any of the four known ICF genes cause a primary immunodeficiency. Here we demonstrate that loss of ZBTB24 in B cells from mice and ICF2 patients affects nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) during immunoglobulin class-switch recombination and consequently impairs immunoglobulin production and isotype balance. Mechanistically, we found that ZBTB24 associates with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and stimulates its auto-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The zinc-finger in ZBTB24 binds PARP1-associated poly(ADP-ribose) chains and mediates the PARP1-dependent recruitment of ZBTB24 to DNA breaks. Moreover, through its association with poly(ADP-ribose) chains, ZBTB24 protects them from degradation by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). This facilitates the poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent assembly of the LIG4/XRCC4 complex at DNA breaks, thereby promoting error-free NHEJ. Thus, we uncover ZBTB24 as a regulator of PARP1-dependent NHEJ and class-switch recombination, providing a molecular basis for the immunodeficiency in ICF2 syndrome.

4.
Pediatr Neurol ; 113: 26-32, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to expand the number of currently known pathogenic PNKP mutations, to study the phenotypic spectrum, including radiological characteristics and genotype-phenotype correlations, and to assess whether immunodeficiency and increased cancer risk are part of the DNA repair disorder caused by mutations in the PNKP gene. METHODS: We evaluated nine patients with PNKP mutations. A neurological history and examination was obtained. All patients had undergone neuroimaging and genetic testing as part of the prior diagnostic process. Laboratory measurements included potential biomarkers, and, in the context of a DNA repair disorder, we performed a detailed immunologic evaluation, including B cell repertoire analysis. RESULTS: We identified three new mutations in the PNKP gene and confirm the phenotypic spectrum of PNKP-associated disease, ranging from microcephaly, seizures, and developmental delay to ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 4. Irrespective of the phenotype, alpha-fetoprotein is a biochemical marker and increases with age and progression of the disease. On neuroimaging, (progressive) cerebellar atrophy was a universal feature. No clinical signs of immunodeficiency were present, and immunologic assessment was unremarkable. One patient developed cancer, but this was attributed to a concurrent von Hippel-Lindau mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Immunodeficiency and cancer predisposition do not appear to be part of PNKP-associated disease, contrasting many other DNA repair disorders. Furthermore, our study illustrates that the previously described syndromes microcephaly, seizures, and developmental delay, and ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 4, represent the extremes of an overlapping spectrum of disease. Cerebellar atrophy and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels are early diagnostic findings across the entire phenotypical spectrum.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 900, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655540

RESUMO

Background: Variants in recombination-activating genes (RAG) are common genetic causes of autosomal recessive forms of combined immunodeficiencies (CID) ranging from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Omenn syndrome (OS), leaky SCID, and CID with granulomas and/or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI), and even milder presentation with antibody deficiency. Objective: We aim to estimate the incidence, clinical presentation, genetic variability, and treatment outcome with geographic distribution of patients with the RAG defects in populations inhabiting South, West, and East Slavic countries. Methods: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from RAG-deficient patients of Slavic origin via chart review, retrospectively. Recombinase activity was determined in vitro by flow cytometry-based assay. Results: Based on the clinical and immunologic phenotype, our cohort of 82 patients from 68 families represented a wide spectrum of RAG deficiencies, including SCID (n = 20), OS (n = 37), and LS/CID (n = 25) phenotypes. Sixty-seven (81.7%) patients carried RAG1 and 15 patients (18.3%) carried RAG2 biallelic variants. We estimate that the minimal annual incidence of RAG deficiency in Slavic countries varies between 1 in 180,000 and 1 in 300,000 live births, and it may vary secondary to health care disparities in these regions. In our cohort, 70% (n = 47) of patients with RAG1 variants carried p.K86Vfs*33 (c.256_257delAA) allele, either in homozygous (n = 18, 27%) or in compound heterozygous (n = 29, 43%) form. The majority (77%) of patients with homozygous RAG1 p.K86Vfs*33 variant originated from Vistula watershed area in Central and Eastern Poland, and compound heterozygote cases were distributed among all Slavic countries except Bulgaria. Clinical and immunological presentation of homozygous RAG1 p.K86Vfs*33 cases was highly diverse (SCID, OS, and AS/CID) suggestive of strong influence of additional genetic and/or epigenetic factors in shaping the final phenotype. Conclusion: We propose that RAG1 p.K86Vfs*33 is a founder variant originating from the Vistula watershed region in Poland, which may explain a high proportion of homozygous cases from Central and Eastern Poland and the presence of the variant in all Slavs. Our studies in this cohort of RAG1 founder variants confirm that clinical and immunological phenotypes only partially depend on the underlying genetic defect. As access to HSCT is improving among RAG-deficient patients in Eastern Europe, we anticipate improvements in survival.

6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 614, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373116

RESUMO

Background: Genetic tests for primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are expensive, time-consuming, and not easily accessible in developing countries. Therefore, we studied the feasibility of a customized single nucleotide variant (SNV) microarray that we developed to detect disease-causing variants and copy number variation (CNV) in patients with PIDs for only 40 Euros. Methods: Probes were custom-designed to genotype 9,415 variants of 277 PID-related genes, and were added to the genome-wide Illumina Global Screening Array (GSA). Data analysis of GSA was performed using Illumina GenomeStudio 2.0, Biodiscovery Nexus 10.0, and R-3.4.4 software. Validation of genotype calling was performed by comparing the GSA with whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 56 non-PID controls. DNA samples of 95 clinically diagnosed PID patients, of which 60 patients (63%) had a genetically established diagnosis (by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) PID panels or Sanger sequencing), were analyzed to test the performance of the GSA. The additional SNVs detected by GSA were validated by Sanger sequencing. Results: Genotype calling of the customized array had an accuracy rate of 99.7%. The sensitivity for detecting rare PID variants was high (87%). The single sample replication in two runs was high (94.9%). The customized GSA was able to generate a genetic diagnosis in 37 out of 95 patients (39%). These 37 patients included 29 patients in whom the genetic variants were confirmed by conventional methods (26 patients by SNV and 3 by CNV analysis), while in 8 patients a new genetic diagnosis was established (6 patients by SNV and 2 patients suspected for leukemia by CNV analysis). Twenty-eight patients could not be detected due to the limited coverage of the custom probes. However, the diagnostic yield can potentially be increased when newly updated variants are added. Conclusion: Our robust customized GSA seems to be a promising first-line rapid screening tool for PIDs at an affordable price, which opens opportunities for low-cost genetic testing in developing countries. The technique is scalable, allows numerous new genetic variants to be added, and offers the potential for genetic testing not only in PIDs, but also in many other genetic diseases.

7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 371, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265901

RESUMO

The EuroFlow PID consortium developed a set of flow cytometry tests for evaluation of patients with suspicion of primary immunodeficiency (PID). In this technical report we evaluate the performance of the SCID-RTE tube that explores the presence of recent thymic emigrants (RTE) together with T-cell activation status and maturation stages and discuss its applicability in the context of the broader EuroFlow PID flow cytometry testing algorithm for diagnostic orientation of PID of the lymphoid system. We have analyzed peripheral blood cells of 26 patients diagnosed between birth and 2 years of age with a genetically defined primary immunodeficiency disorder: 15 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patients had disease-causing mutations in RAG1 or RAG2 (n = 4, two of them presented with Omenn syndrome), IL2RG (n = 4, one of them with confirmed maternal engraftment), NHEJ1 (n = 1), CD3E (n = 1), ADA (n = 1), JAK3 (n = 3, two of them with maternal engraftment) and DCLRE1C (n = 1) and 11 other PID patients had diverse molecular defects [ZAP70 (n = 1), WAS (n = 2), PNP (n = 1), FOXP3 (n = 1), del22q11.2 (DiGeorge n = 4), CDC42 (n = 1) and FAS (n = 1)]. In addition, 44 healthy controls in the same age group were analyzed using the SCID-RTE tube in four EuroFlow laboratories using a standardized 8-color approach. RTE were defined as CD62L+CD45RO-HLA-DR-CD31+ and the activation status was assessed by the expression of HLA-DR+. Naïve CD8+ T-lymphocytes and naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes were defined as CD62L+CD45RO-HLA-DR-. With the SCID-RTE tube, we identified patients with PID by low levels or absence of RTE in comparison to controls as well as low levels of naïve CD4+ and naïve CD8+ lymphocytes. These parameters yielded 100% sensitivity for SCID. All SCID patients had absence of RTE, including the patients with confirmed maternal engraftment or oligoclonally expanded T-cells characteristic for Omenn syndrome. Another dominant finding was the increased numbers of activated CD4+HLA-DR+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ lymphocytes. Therefore, the EuroFlow SCID-RTE tube together with the previously published PIDOT tube form a sensitive and complete cytometric diagnostic test suitable for patients suspected of severe PID (SCID or CID) as well as for children identified via newborn screening programs for SCID with low or absent T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs).

9.
Stem Cell Reports ; 14(2): 300-311, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956083

RESUMO

RAG2 severe combined immune deficiency (RAG2-SCID) is a lethal disorder caused by the absence of functional T and B cells due to a differentiation block. Here, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a RAG2-SCID patient to study the nature of the T cell developmental blockade. We observed a strongly reduced capacity to differentiate at every investigated stage of T cell development, from early CD7-CD5- to CD4+CD8+. The impaired differentiation was accompanied by an increase in CD7-CD56+CD33+ natural killer (NK) cell-like cells. T cell receptor D rearrangements were completely absent in RAG2SCID cells, whereas the rare T cell receptor B rearrangements were likely the result of illegitimate rearrangements. Repair of RAG2 restored the capacity to induce T cell receptor rearrangements, normalized T cell development, and corrected the NK cell-like phenotype. In conclusion, we succeeded in generating an iPSC-based RAG2-SCID model, which enabled the identification of previously unrecognized disorder-related T cell developmental roadblocks.

10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2680, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849931

RESUMO

B-cell precursors (BCP) arise from hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow (BM). Identification and characterization of the different BCP subsets has contributed to the understanding of normal B-cell development. BCP first rearrange their immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (IGH) genes to form the pre-B-cell receptor (pre-BCR) complex together with surrogate light chains. Appropriate signaling via this pre-BCR complex is followed by rearrangement of the Ig light chain genes, resulting in the formation, and selection of functional BCR molecules. Consecutive production, expression, and functional selection of the pre-BCR and BCR complexes guide the BCP differentiation process that coincides with corresponding immunophenotypic changes. We studied BCP differentiation in human BM samples from healthy controls and patients with a known genetic defect in V(D)J recombination or pre-BCR signaling to unravel normal immunophenotypic changes and to determine the effect of differentiation blocks caused by the specific genetic defects. Accordingly, we designed a 10-color antibody panel to study human BCP development in BM by flow cytometry, which allows identification of classical preB-I, preB-II, and mature B-cells as defined via BCR-related markers with further characterization by additional markers. We observed heterogeneous phenotypes associated with more than one B-cell maturation pathway, particularly for the preB-I and preB-II stages in which V(D)J recombination takes place, with asynchronous marker expression patterns. Next Generation Sequencing of complete IGH gene rearrangements in sorted BCP subsets unraveled their rearrangement status, indicating that BCP differentiation does not follow a single linear pathway. In conclusion, B-cell development in human BM is not a linear process, but a rather complex network of parallel pathways dictated by V(D)J-recombination-driven checkpoints and pre-BCR/BCR mediated-signaling occurring during B-cell production and selection. It can also be described as asynchronous, because precursor B-cells do not differentiate as full population between the different stages, but rather transit as a continuum, which seems influenced (in part) by V-D-J recombination-driven checkpoints.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Masculino , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Recombinação V(D)J/genética , Recombinação V(D)J/imunologia
11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2438, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781088

RESUMO

Background: Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T) is a severe DNA repair disorder that leads to a broad range of symptoms including neurodegeneration and a variable immunodeficiency. A-T is one of the incidental findings that accompanies newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), leading to an early diagnosis of A-T at birth in a pre-symptomatic stage. While some countries embrace all incidental findings, the current policy in the Netherlands on reporting untreatable incidental findings is more conservative. We present parents' perspectives and considerations on the various advantages vs. disadvantages of early and late diagnosis of A-T. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and sent to 4,000 parents of healthy newborns who participated in the Dutch SONNET-study (implementation pilot for newborn screening for SCID). The questionnaire consisted of open-ended and scale questions on advantages and disadvantages of early and late diagnosis of A-T. To address potential bias, demographic characteristics of the study sample were compared to a reference population. Results: A total of 664 of 4,000 parents sent back the questionnaire (response rate 16.6%). The vast majority of parents (81.9%) favored early diagnosis of A-T over late diagnosis. Main arguments were to avoid a long period of uncertainty prior to diagnosis and to ensure the most optimal clinical care and guidance from the onset of symptoms. Parents who favored late diagnosis of A-T stated that early diagnosis would not lead to improved quality of life and preferred to enjoy the asymptomatic "golden years" with their child. The majority of parents (81.1%) stated that they would participate in newborn screening for A-T if a test was available. Conclusions: Reporting untreatable incidental findings remains a disputed topic worldwide. Although the current policy in the Netherlands is not to report untreatable incidental findings, unless the health advantage is clear, the majority of parents of healthy newborns are in favor of an early A-T diagnosis in the pre-symptomatic phase of the disorder. Our results as well as other studies that showed support for the screening of untreatable disorders may serve as valuable tools to inform policymakers in their considerations about NBS for untreatable disorders.

12.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 373, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620409

RESUMO

Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are born with profound deficiency of functional T-lymphocytes. Early detection and diagnosis would allow for prompt institution of isolation from infection and referral for definitive treatment with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Universal newborn screening for SCID, using an assay to detect T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) in dried blood spots (DBS), is now being performed in all states in the United States. In this review, we discuss the development and outcomes of TREC screening, and continued challenges to implementation.

13.
Immun Ageing ; 16: 22, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485252

RESUMO

Background: Aging is known to induce immunosenescence, resulting in alterations in both the innate and adaptive immune system. Here we evaluated the effects of aging on B cell subsets in peripheral blood of 155 immunologically healthy individuals in four age categories (range 20-95y) via multi-parameter flow cytometry. Furthermore, we studied the naive and antigen-experienced B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire of different age groups and compared it to the clonal BCR repertoire of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a disease typically presenting in elderly individuals. Results: Total numbers and relative frequencies of B cells were found to decline upon aging, with reductions in transitional B cells, memory cell types, and plasma blasts in the 70 + y group. The BCR repertoire of naive mature B cells and antigen-experienced B cells did not clearly alter until age 70y. Clear changes in IGHV gene usage were observed in naive mature B cells of 70 + y individuals, with a transitional pattern in the 50-70y group. IGHV gene usage of naive mature B cells of the 50-70y, but not the 70 + y, age group resembled that of both younger (50-70y) and older (70 + y) CLL patients. Additionally, CLL-associated stereotypic BCR were found as part of the healthy control BCR repertoire, with an age-associated increase in frequency of several stereotypic BCR (particularly subsets #2 and #5). Conclusion: Composition of the peripheral B cell compartment changes with ageing, with clear reductions in non-switched and CD27 + IgG+ switched memory B cells and plasma blasts in especially the 70 + y group. The BCR repertoire is relatively stable until 70y, whereafter differences in IGHV gene usage are seen. Upon ageing, an increasing trend in the occurrence of particular CLL-associated stereotypic BCR is observed.

14.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1913, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507588

RESUMO

The generation of high-affinity antibodies depends on somatic hypermutation (SHM). SHM is initiated by the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which generates uracil (U) lesions in the B-cell receptor (BCR) encoding genes. Error-prone processing of U lesions creates a typical spectrum of point mutations during SHM. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism of SHM in humans; currently available knowledge is limited by the number of mutations analyzed per patient. We collected a unique cohort of 10 well-defined patients with bi-allelic mutations in genes involved in base excision repair (BER) (UNG) or mismatch repair (MMR) (MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2) and are the first to present next-generation sequencing (NGS) data of the BCR, allowing us to study SHM extensively in humans. Analysis using ARGalaxy revealed selective skewing of SHM mutation patterns specific for each genetic defect, which are in line with the five-pathway model of SHM that was recently proposed based on mice data. However, trans-species comparison revealed differences in the role of PMS2 and MSH2 in strand targeting between mice and man. In conclusion, our results indicate a role for UNG, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 in the generation of SHM in humans comparable to their function in mice. However, we observed differences in strand targeting between humans and mice, emphasizing the importance of studying molecular mechanisms in a human setting. The here developed method combining NGS and ARGalaxy analysis of BCR mutation data forms the basis for efficient SHM analyses of other immune deficiencies.

15.
J Clin Invest ; 129(10): 4194-4206, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449058

RESUMO

Polymerase δ is essential for eukaryotic genome duplication and synthesizes DNA at both the leading and lagging strands. The polymerase δ complex is a heterotetramer comprising the catalytic subunit POLD1 and the accessory subunits POLD2, POLD3, and POLD4. Beyond DNA replication, the polymerase δ complex has emerged as a central element in genome maintenance. The essentiality of polymerase δ has constrained the generation of polymerase δ-knockout cell lines or model organisms and, therefore, the understanding of the complexity of its activity and the function of its accessory subunits. To our knowledge, no germline biallelic mutations affecting this complex have been reported in humans. In patients from 2 independent pedigrees, we have identified what we believe to be a novel syndrome with reduced functionality of the polymerase δ complex caused by germline biallelic mutations in POLD1 or POLD2 as the underlying etiology of a previously unknown autosomal-recessive syndrome that combines replicative stress, neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and immunodeficiency. Patients' cells showed impaired cell-cycle progression and replication-associated DNA lesions that were reversible upon overexpression of polymerase δ. The mutations affected the stability and interactions within the polymerase δ complex or its intrinsic polymerase activity. We believe our discovery of human polymerase δ deficiency identifies the central role of this complex in the prevention of replication-related DNA lesions, with particular relevance to adaptive immunity.

16.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1271, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263462

RESUMO

Guidelines for screening for primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are well-defined and several consensus diagnostic strategies have been proposed. These consensus proposals have only partially been implemented due to lack of standardization in laboratory procedures, particularly in flow cytometry. The main objectives of the EuroFlow Consortium were to innovate and thoroughly standardize the flowcytometric techniques and strategies for reliable and reproducible diagnosis and classification of PID of the lymphoid system. The proposed EuroFlow antibody panels comprise one orientation tube and seven classification tubes and corresponding databases of normal and PID samples. The 8-color 12-antibody PID Orientation tube (PIDOT) aims at identification and enumeration of the main lymphocyte and leukocyte subsets; this includes naïve pre-germinal center (GC) and antigen-experienced post-GC memory B-cells and plasmablasts. The seven additional 8(-12)-color tubes can be used according to the EuroFlow PID algorithm in parallel or subsequently to the PIDOT for more detailed analysis of B-cell and T-cell subsets to further classify PID of the lymphoid system. The Pre-GC, Post-GC, and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH)-isotype B-cell tubes aim at identification and enumeration of B-cell subsets for evaluation of B-cell maturation blocks and specific defects in IgH-subclass production. The severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) tube and T-cell memory/effector subset tube aim at identification and enumeration of T-cell subsets for assessment of T-cell defects, such as SCID. In case of suspicion of antibody deficiency, PIDOT is preferably directly combined with the IgH isotype tube(s) and in case of SCID suspicion (e.g., in newborn screening programs) the PIDOT is preferably directly combined with the SCID T-cell tube. The proposed ≥8-color antibody panels and corresponding reference databases combined with the EuroFlow PID algorithm are designed to provide fast, sensitive and cost-effective flowcytometric diagnosis of PID of the lymphoid system, easily applicable in multicenter diagnostic settings world-wide.

17.
Front Immunol ; 10: 878, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105700

RESUMO

Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by impaired antibody production and poor terminal differentiation of the B cell compartment, yet its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. We first reported the occurrence of epigenetic alterations in CVID by high-throughput methylation analysis in CVID-discordant monozygotic twins. Data from a recent whole DNA methylome analysis throughout different stages of normal B cell differentiation allowed us to design a new experimental approach. We selected CpG sites for analysis based on two criteria: one, CpGs with potential association with the transcriptional status of relevant genes for B cell activation and differentiation; and two, CpGs that undergo significant demethylation from naïve to memory B cells in healthy individuals. DNA methylation was analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing of specific CpG sites in sorted naïve and memory B cell subsets from CVID patients and healthy donors. We observed impaired demethylation in two thirds of the selected CpGs in CVID memory B cells, in genes that govern B cell-specific processes or participate in B cell signaling. The degree of demethylation impairment associated with the extent of the memory B cell reduction. The impaired demethylation in such functionally relevant genes as AICDA in switched memory B cells correlated with a lower proliferative rate. Our new results reinforce the hypothesis of altered demethylation during B cell differentiation as a contributing pathogenic mechanism to the impairment of B cell function and maturation in CVID. In particular, deregulated epigenetic control of AICDA could play a role in the defective establishment of a post-germinal center B cell compartment in CVID.

18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 782, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031769

RESUMO

B cell reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is variable and influenced by different patient, donor, and treatment related factors. In this review we describe B cell reconstitution after pediatric allogeneic HST, including the kinetics of reconstitution of the different B cell subsets and the development of the B cell repertoire, and discuss the influencing factors. Observational studies show important roles for stem cell source, conditioning regimen, and graft vs. host disease in B cell reconstitution. In addition, B cell recovery can play an important role in post-transplant infections and vaccine responses to encapsulated bacteria, such as pneumococcus. A substantial number of patients experience impaired B cell function and/or dependency on Ig substitution after allogeneic HSCT. The underlying mechanisms are largely unresolved. The integrated aspects of B cell recovery after HSCT, especially BCR repertoire reconstitution, are awaiting further investigation using modern techniques in order to gain more insight into B cell reconstitution and to develop strategies to improve humoral immunity after allogeneic HSCT.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(3): 809-824, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predominantly antibody deficiencies (PADs) are the most prevalent primary immunodeficiencies, but their B-cell defects and underlying genetic alterations remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated patients with PADs for the distribution of 41 blood B-cell and plasma cell (PC) subsets, including subsets defined by expression of distinct immunoglobulin heavy chain subclasses. METHODS: Blood samples from 139 patients with PADs, 61 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), 68 patients with selective IgA deficiency (IgAdef), 10 patients with IgG subclass deficiency with IgA deficiency, and 223 age-matched control subjects were studied by using flow cytometry with EuroFlow immunoglobulin isotype staining. Patients were classified according to their B-cell and PC immune profile, and the obtained patient clusters were correlated with clinical manifestations of PADs. RESULTS: Decreased counts of blood PCs, memory B cells (MBCs), or both expressing distinct IgA and IgG subclasses were identified in all patients with PADs. In patients with IgAdef, B-cell defects were mainly restricted to surface membrane (sm)IgA+ PCs and MBCs, with 2 clear subgroups showing strongly decreased numbers of smIgA+ PCs with mild versus severe smIgA+ MBC defects and higher frequencies of nonrespiratory tract infections, autoimmunity, and affected family members. Patients with IgG subclass deficiency with IgA deficiency and those with CVID showed defects in both smIgA+ and smIgG+ MBCs and PCs. Reduced numbers of switched PCs were systematically found in patients with CVID (absent in 98%), with 6 different defective MBC (and clinical) profiles: (1) profound decrease in MBC numbers; (2) defective CD27+ MBCs with almost normal IgG3+ MBCs; (3) absence of switched MBCs; and (4) presence of both unswitched and switched MBCs without and; (5) with IgG2+ MBCs; and (6) with IgA1+ MBCs. CONCLUSION: Distinct PAD defective B-cell patterns were identified that are associated with unique clinical profiles.

20.
Front Immunol ; 10: 246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886612

RESUMO

In the rapidly evolving field of primary immunodeficiencies (PID), the EuroFlow consortium decided to develop a PID orientation and screening tube that facilitates fast, standardized, and validated immunophenotypic diagnosis of lymphoid PID, and allows full exchange of data between centers. Our aim was to develop a tool that would be universal for all lymphoid PIDs and offer high sensitivity to identify a lymphoid PID (without a need for specificity to diagnose particular PID) and to guide and prioritize further diagnostic modalities and clinical management. The tube composition has been defined in a stepwise manner through several cycles of design-testing-evaluation-redesign in a multicenter setting. Equally important appeared to be the standardized pre-analytical procedures (sample preparation and instrument setup), analytical procedures (immunostaining and data acquisition), the software analysis (a multidimensional view based on a reference database in Infinicyt software), and data interpretation. This standardized EuroFlow concept has been tested on 250 healthy controls and 99 PID patients with defined genetic defects. In addition, an application of new EuroFlow software tools with multidimensional pattern recognition was designed with inclusion of maturation pathways in multidimensional patterns (APS plots). The major advantage of the EuroFlow approach is that data can be fully exchanged between different laboratories in any country of the world, which is especially of interest for the PID field, with generally low numbers of cases per center.

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