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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449058

RESUMO

Polymerase δ is essential for eukaryotic genome duplication and synthesizes DNA at both the leading and lagging strands. The polymerase δ complex is a heterotetramer comprising the catalytic subunit POLD1 and the accessory subunits POLD2, POLD3, and POLD4. Beyond DNA replication, the polymerase δ complex has emerged as a central element in genome maintenance. The essentiality of polymerase δ has constrained the generation of polymerase δ-knockout cell lines or model organisms and, therefore, the understanding of the complexity of its activity and the function of its accessory subunits. To our knowledge, no germline biallelic mutations affecting this complex have been reported in humans. In patients from 2 independent pedigrees, we have identified what we believe to be a novel syndrome with reduced functionality of the polymerase δ complex caused by germline biallelic mutations in POLD1 or POLD2 as the underlying etiology of a previously unknown autosomal-recessive syndrome that combines replicative stress, neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and immunodeficiency. Patients' cells showed impaired cell-cycle progression and replication-associated DNA lesions that were reversible upon overexpression of polymerase δ. The mutations affected the stability and interactions within the polymerase δ complex or its intrinsic polymerase activity. We believe our discovery of human polymerase δ deficiency identifies the central role of this complex in the prevention of replication-related DNA lesions, with particular relevance to adaptive immunity.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1271, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263462

RESUMO

Guidelines for screening for primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are well-defined and several consensus diagnostic strategies have been proposed. These consensus proposals have only partially been implemented due to lack of standardization in laboratory procedures, particularly in flow cytometry. The main objectives of the EuroFlow Consortium were to innovate and thoroughly standardize the flowcytometric techniques and strategies for reliable and reproducible diagnosis and classification of PID of the lymphoid system. The proposed EuroFlow antibody panels comprise one orientation tube and seven classification tubes and corresponding databases of normal and PID samples. The 8-color 12-antibody PID Orientation tube (PIDOT) aims at identification and enumeration of the main lymphocyte and leukocyte subsets; this includes naïve pre-germinal center (GC) and antigen-experienced post-GC memory B-cells and plasmablasts. The seven additional 8(-12)-color tubes can be used according to the EuroFlow PID algorithm in parallel or subsequently to the PIDOT for more detailed analysis of B-cell and T-cell subsets to further classify PID of the lymphoid system. The Pre-GC, Post-GC, and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH)-isotype B-cell tubes aim at identification and enumeration of B-cell subsets for evaluation of B-cell maturation blocks and specific defects in IgH-subclass production. The severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) tube and T-cell memory/effector subset tube aim at identification and enumeration of T-cell subsets for assessment of T-cell defects, such as SCID. In case of suspicion of antibody deficiency, PIDOT is preferably directly combined with the IgH isotype tube(s) and in case of SCID suspicion (e.g., in newborn screening programs) the PIDOT is preferably directly combined with the SCID T-cell tube. The proposed ≥8-color antibody panels and corresponding reference databases combined with the EuroFlow PID algorithm are designed to provide fast, sensitive and cost-effective flowcytometric diagnosis of PID of the lymphoid system, easily applicable in multicenter diagnostic settings world-wide.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 878, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105700

RESUMO

Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by impaired antibody production and poor terminal differentiation of the B cell compartment, yet its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. We first reported the occurrence of epigenetic alterations in CVID by high-throughput methylation analysis in CVID-discordant monozygotic twins. Data from a recent whole DNA methylome analysis throughout different stages of normal B cell differentiation allowed us to design a new experimental approach. We selected CpG sites for analysis based on two criteria: one, CpGs with potential association with the transcriptional status of relevant genes for B cell activation and differentiation; and two, CpGs that undergo significant demethylation from naïve to memory B cells in healthy individuals. DNA methylation was analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing of specific CpG sites in sorted naïve and memory B cell subsets from CVID patients and healthy donors. We observed impaired demethylation in two thirds of the selected CpGs in CVID memory B cells, in genes that govern B cell-specific processes or participate in B cell signaling. The degree of demethylation impairment associated with the extent of the memory B cell reduction. The impaired demethylation in such functionally relevant genes as AICDA in switched memory B cells correlated with a lower proliferative rate. Our new results reinforce the hypothesis of altered demethylation during B cell differentiation as a contributing pathogenic mechanism to the impairment of B cell function and maturation in CVID. In particular, deregulated epigenetic control of AICDA could play a role in the defective establishment of a post-germinal center B cell compartment in CVID.

4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 782, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031769

RESUMO

B cell reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is variable and influenced by different patient, donor, and treatment related factors. In this review we describe B cell reconstitution after pediatric allogeneic HST, including the kinetics of reconstitution of the different B cell subsets and the development of the B cell repertoire, and discuss the influencing factors. Observational studies show important roles for stem cell source, conditioning regimen, and graft vs. host disease in B cell reconstitution. In addition, B cell recovery can play an important role in post-transplant infections and vaccine responses to encapsulated bacteria, such as pneumococcus. A substantial number of patients experience impaired B cell function and/or dependency on Ig substitution after allogeneic HSCT. The underlying mechanisms are largely unresolved. The integrated aspects of B cell recovery after HSCT, especially BCR repertoire reconstitution, are awaiting further investigation using modern techniques in order to gain more insight into B cell reconstitution and to develop strategies to improve humoral immunity after allogeneic HSCT.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predominantly antibody deficiencies (PADs) are the most prevalent primary immunodeficiencies, but their B-cell defects and underlying genetic alterations remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated patients with PADs for the distribution of 41 blood B-cell and plasma cell (PC) subsets, including subsets defined by expression of distinct immunoglobulin heavy chain subclasses. METHODS: Blood samples from 139 patients with PADs, 61 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), 68 patients with selective IgA deficiency (IgAdef), 10 patients with IgG subclass deficiency with IgA deficiency, and 223 age-matched control subjects were studied by using flow cytometry with EuroFlow immunoglobulin isotype staining. Patients were classified according to their B-cell and PC immune profile, and the obtained patient clusters were correlated with clinical manifestations of PADs. RESULTS: Decreased counts of blood PCs, memory B cells (MBCs), or both expressing distinct IgA and IgG subclasses were identified in all patients with PADs. In patients with IgAdef, B-cell defects were mainly restricted to surface membrane (sm)IgA+ PCs and MBCs, with 2 clear subgroups showing strongly decreased numbers of smIgA+ PCs with mild versus severe smIgA+ MBC defects and higher frequencies of nonrespiratory tract infections, autoimmunity, and affected family members. Patients with IgG subclass deficiency with IgA deficiency and those with CVID showed defects in both smIgA+ and smIgG+ MBCs and PCs. Reduced numbers of switched PCs were systematically found in patients with CVID (absent in 98%), with 6 different defective MBC (and clinical) profiles: (1) profound decrease in MBC numbers; (2) defective CD27+ MBCs with almost normal IgG3+ MBCs; (3) absence of switched MBCs; and (4) presence of both unswitched and switched MBCs without and; (5) with IgG2+ MBCs; and (6) with IgA1+ MBCs. CONCLUSION: Distinct PAD defective B-cell patterns were identified that are associated with unique clinical profiles.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886612

RESUMO

In the rapidly evolving field of primary immunodeficiencies (PID), the EuroFlow consortium decided to develop a PID orientation and screening tube that facilitates fast, standardized, and validated immunophenotypic diagnosis of lymphoid PID, and allows full exchange of data between centers. Our aim was to develop a tool that would be universal for all lymphoid PIDs and offer high sensitivity to identify a lymphoid PID (without a need for specificity to diagnose particular PID) and to guide and prioritize further diagnostic modalities and clinical management. The tube composition has been defined in a stepwise manner through several cycles of design-testing-evaluation-redesign in a multicenter setting. Equally important appeared to be the standardized pre-analytical procedures (sample preparation and instrument setup), analytical procedures (immunostaining and data acquisition), the software analysis (a multidimensional view based on a reference database in Infinicyt software), and data interpretation. This standardized EuroFlow concept has been tested on 250 healthy controls and 99 PID patients with defined genetic defects. In addition, an application of new EuroFlow software tools with multidimensional pattern recognition was designed with inclusion of maturation pathways in multidimensional patterns (APS plots). The major advantage of the EuroFlow approach is that data can be fully exchanged between different laboratories in any country of the world, which is especially of interest for the PID field, with generally low numbers of cases per center.

7.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(5): 721-729, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805731

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a condition that often results in severe infections and death at young age. Early detection shortly after birth, followed by treatment before infections occur, largely increases the chances of survival. As the incidence of SCID is low, assessing cost-effectiveness of adding screening for SCID to the newborn screening program is relevant for decision making. Lifetime costs and effects of newborn screening for SCID were compared to a situation without screening in the Netherlands in a decision analysis model. Model parameters were based on literature and expert opinions. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Due to earlier detection, the number of deaths due to SCID per 100,000 children was assessed to decrease from 0.57 to 0.23 and a number of 11.7 quality adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained was expected. Total yearly healthcare costs, including costs of screening, diagnostics, and treatment, were €390,800 higher in a situation with screening compared to a situation without screening, resulting in a cost-utility ratio of €33,400 per QALY gained.Conclusion: Newborn screening for SCID might be cost-effective. However, there is still a lot of uncertainty around the cost-effectiveness estimate. Pilot screening projects are warranted to obtain more accurate estimates for the European situation. What is Known: • Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a condition that often results in severe infections and death at a young age. • As the incidence of SCID is low, assessing cost-effectiveness of adding screening for SCID to the newborn screening program is needed. What is New: • Newborn screening for SCID is expected to reduce mortality from 0.57 to 0.23 per 100,000 children at additional healthcare costs of €390,800. The cost-utility ratio is €33,400 per QALY gained. • Due to large uncertainty around cost-effectiveness estimates, pilot screening projects are warranted for Europe.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem Neonatal/economia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Países Baixos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/economia
8.
Nat Immunol ; 20(3): 350-361, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718914

RESUMO

Despite the known importance of zinc for human immunity, molecular insights into its roles have remained limited. Here we report a novel autosomal recessive disease characterized by absent B cells, agammaglobulinemia and early onset infections in five unrelated families. The immunodeficiency results from hypomorphic mutations of SLC39A7, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-to-cytoplasm zinc transporter ZIP7. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis we have precisely modeled ZIP7 deficiency in mice. Homozygosity for a null allele caused embryonic death, but hypomorphic alleles reproduced the block in B cell development seen in patients. B cells from mutant mice exhibited a diminished concentration of cytoplasmic free zinc, increased phosphatase activity and decreased phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of the pre-B cell and B cell receptors. Our findings highlight a specific role for cytosolic Zn2+ in modulating B cell receptor signal strength and positive selection.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Pré-Escolar , Citosol/imunologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Linhagem , Zinco/metabolismo
9.
Chest ; 155(1): e13-e16, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616742

RESUMO

CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old girl was referred to a pediatric pulmonologist for dyspnea and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (RTIs). The patient was born full term to unrelated Dutch parents after an uneventful pregnancy and birth. The year before presentation, she had suffered from pneumonia and > 10 upper RTIs. Apart from the recurrent RTIs, which started in infancy, her medical history was not significant and did not include allergies or eczema. An adenotonsillectomy was performed at the age of 2 years, and she was treated with multiple antibiotic regimens and inhalation therapy with salbutamol and corticosteroids, with no relief of symptoms.

10.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(1): 129-143, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656191

RESUMO

Objective: The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, immune-mediated disease of peripheral nerves. Plasmablasts and plasma cells play a central role in GBS by producing neurotoxic antibodies. The standard treatment for GBS is high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg), however the working mechanism is unknown and the response to treatment is highly variable. We aimed to determine whether IVIg changes the frequency of B-cell subsets in patients with GBS. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 67 patients with GBS before and/or 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks after treatment with high-dose IVIg. B-cell subset frequencies were determined by flow cytometry and related to serum immunoglobulin levels. Immunoglobulin transcripts before and after IVIg treatment were examined by next-generation sequencing. Antiglycolipid antibodies were determined by ELISA. Results: Patients treated with IVIg demonstrated a strong increase in plasmablasts, which peaked 1 week after treatment. Flow cytometry identified a relative increase in IgG2 plasmablasts posttreatment. Within IGG sequences, dominant clones were identified which were also IGG2 and had different immunoglobulin sequences compared to pretreatment samples. High plasmablast frequencies after treatment correlated with an increase in serum IgG and IgM, suggesting endogenous production. Patients with a high number of plasmablasts started to improve earlier (P = 0.015) and were treated with a higher dose of IVIg. Interpretation: High-dose IVIg treatment alters the distribution of B-cell subsets in the peripheral blood of GBS patients, suggesting de novo (oligo-)clonal B-cell activation. Very high numbers of plasmablasts after IVIg therapy may be a potential biomarker for fast clinical recovery.

11.
Clin Immunol ; 200: 39-42, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690192

RESUMO

Good syndrome is an immunodeficiency presenting with thymoma, hypogammaglobulinemia and almost absent B cells. To investigate the origin of the B-cell lymphopenia in these patients, we studied B cell differentiation in the bone marrow of Good syndrome patients. We found very low numbers of precursor B cells in bone marrow of Good syndrome patients and a differentiation arrest after the pro-B-cell stage; this is different from other agammaglobulinemia patients with a defect in pre B-cell receptor signaling.

12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2545, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532750

RESUMO

Common variable immune deficiency disorder (CVID) is the most clinically relevant cause of antibody failure. It is a highly heterogeneous disease with different underlying etiologies. CVID has been associated with a quantitative B cell defect, however, little is known about the quality of B cells present. Here, we studied the naïve and antigen selected B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in 33 CVID patients using next generation sequencing, to investigate B cells quality. Analysis for each individual patient revealed whether they have a defect in immune repertoire formation [V(D)J recombination] or specification (somatic hypermutation, subclass distribution, or selection). The naïve BCR repertoire was normal in most of the patients, although alterations in repertoire diversity and the junctions were found in a limited number of patients indicating possible defects in early B-cell development or V(D)J recombination in these patients. In contrast, major differences were found in the antigen selected BCR repertoire. Here, most patients (15/17) showed a reduced frequency of somatic hypermutation (SHM), changes in subclass distribution and/or minor alterations in antigen selection. Together these data show that in our CVID cohort only a small number of patients have a defect in formation of the naïve BCR repertoire, whereas the clear majority of patients have disturbances in their antigen selected repertoire, suggesting a defect in repertoire specification in the germinal centers of these patients. This highlights that CVID patients not only have a quantitative B cell defect, but that also the quality of, especially post germinal center B cells, is impaired.

13.
Clin Immunol ; 195: 82-87, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075290

RESUMO

Signaling via the CD19-complex, consisting of CD19, CD81, CD21 and CD225, is critically important for B-cell development, differentiation and maturation. In this complex, each protein has its own distinct function. Over the past decade, 15 patients with antibody deficiency due to deficiencies in the CD19-complex have been described. These patients have deficiencies in different complex-members, all caused by either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations. Although all patients had antibody deficiencies, the clinical phenotype was different per deficient protein. We aimed to provide an overview of what is known about the function of the different complex-members, knowledge from mouse-studies and to summarize the clinical phenotypes of the patients. Combining this knowledge together can explain why deficiencies in different members of the same complex, result in disease phenotypes that are alike, but not the same.

14.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1506, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013564

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutations (SHMs) are prerequisites for antibody and immunoglobulin receptor maturation and adaptive immune diversity. The mismatch repair (MMR) machinery, consisting of homologs of MutSα, MutLα, and MutSß (MSH2/MSH6, MLH1/PMS2, and MSH2/MSH3, respectively) and other proteins, is involved in CSR, primarily acting as a backup for nonhomologous end-joining repair of activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA mismatches and, furthermore, in addition to error-prone polymerases, in the repair of SHM-induced DNA breaks. A varying degree of antibody formation defect, from IgA or selective IgG subclass deficiency to common variable immunodeficiency and hyper-IgM syndrome, has been detected in a small number of patients with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) due to biallelic loss-of-function mutations in one of the MMR genes (PMS2, MSH6, MLH1, or MSH2). To elucidate the clinical relevance of a presumed primary immunodeficiency (PID) in CMMRD, we systematically collected clinical history and laboratory data of a cohort of 15 consecutive, unrelated patients (10 not previously reported) with homozygous/compound heterozygous mutations in PMS2 (n = 8), MSH6 (n = 5), and MLH1 (n = 2), most of whom manifested with typical malignancies during childhood. Detailed descriptions of their genotypes, phenotypes, and family histories are provided. Importantly, none of the patients showed any clinical warning signs of PID (infections, immune dysregulation, inflammation, failure to thrive, etc.). Furthermore, we could not detect uniform or specific patterns of laboratory abnormalities. The concentration of IgM was increased in 3 out of 12, reduced in 3 out of 12, and normal in 6 out of 12 patients, while concentrations of IgG and IgG subclasses, except IgG4, and of IgA, and specific antibody formation were normal in most. Class-switched B memory cells were reduced in 5 out of 12 patients, and in 9 out of 12 also the CD38hiIgM- plasmablasts were reduced. Furthermore, results of next generation sequencing-based analyses of antigen-selected B-cell receptor rearrangements showed a significantly reduced frequency of SHM and an increased number of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) transcripts that use IGHG3, IGHG1, and IGHA1 subclasses. T cell subsets and receptor repertoires were unaffected. Together, neither clinical nor routine immunological laboratory parameters were consistently suggestive of PID in these CMMRD patients, but previously shown abnormalities in SHM and rearranged heavy chain transcripts were confirmed.

15.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(4): 538, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728794

RESUMO

The original version of the article, "Circulating T Cells of Patients with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Show Signs of Senescence" incorrectly listed the affiliation of the fourth author, Iwona Solarska. The correct affiliation is "Molecular Biology Laboratory, Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29772310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in recombination-activating gene (RAG) 1 and RAG2 are associated with a broad range of clinical and immunologic phenotypes in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: Using a flow cytometry-based assay, we aimed to measure the recombinase activity of naturally occurring RAG2 mutant proteins and to correlate our results with the severity of the clinical and immunologic phenotype. METHODS: Abelson virus-transformed Rag2-/- pro-B cells engineered to contain an inverted green fluorescent protein (GFP) cassette flanked by recombination signal sequences were transduced with retroviruses encoding either wild-type or 41 naturally occurring RAG2 variants. Bicistronic vectors were used to introduce compound heterozygous RAG2 variants. The percentage of GFP-expressing cells was evaluated by using flow cytometry, and high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze rearrangements at the endogenous immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus. RESULTS: The RAG2 variants showed a wide range of recombination activity. Mutations associated with severe combined immunodeficiency and Omenn syndrome had significantly lower activity than those detected in patients with less severe clinical presentations. Four variants (P253R, F386L, N474S, and M502V) previously thought to be pathogenic were found to have wild-type levels of activity. Use of bicistronic vectors permitted us to assess more carefully the effect of compound heterozygous mutations, with good correlation between GFP expression and the number and diversity of Igh rearrangements. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support genotype-phenotype correlation in the setting of RAG2 deficiency. The assay described can be used to define the possible disease-causing role of novel RAG2 variants and might help predict the severity of the clinical phenotype.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(5): 1589-1604.e11, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The actin-interacting protein WD repeat-containing protein 1 (WDR1) promotes cofilin-dependent actin filament turnover. Biallelic WDR1 mutations have been identified recently in an immunodeficiency/autoinflammatory syndrome with aberrant morphology and function of myeloid cells. OBJECTIVE: Given the pleiotropic expression of WDR1, here we investigated to what extent it might control the lymphoid arm of the immune system in human subjects. METHODS: Histologic and detailed immunologic analyses were performed to elucidate the role of WDR1 in the development and function of B and T lymphocytes. RESULTS: Here we identified novel homozygous and compound heterozygous WDR1 missense mutations in 6 patients belonging to 3 kindreds who presented with respiratory tract infections, skin ulceration, and stomatitis. In addition to defective adhesion and motility of neutrophils and monocytes, WDR1 deficiency was associated with aberrant T-cell activation and B-cell development. T lymphocytes appeared to develop normally in the patients, except for the follicular helper T-cell subset. However, peripheral T cells from the patients accumulated atypical actin structures at the immunologic synapse and displayed reduced calcium flux and mildly impaired proliferation on T-cell receptor stimulation. WDR1 deficiency was associated with even more severe abnormalities of the B-cell compartment, including peripheral B-cell lymphopenia, paucity of B-cell progenitors in the bone marrow, lack of switched memory B cells, reduced clonal diversity, abnormal B-cell spreading, and increased apoptosis on B-cell receptor/Toll-like receptor stimulation. CONCLUSION: Our study identifies a novel role for WDR1 in adaptive immunity, highlighting WDR1 as a central regulator of actin turnover during formation of the B-cell and T-cell immunologic synapses.

19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 446, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563914

RESUMO

Pathogenic gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) cause activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS), a disease characterized by humoral immunodeficiency, lymphadenopathy, and an inability to control persistent viral infections including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Understanding the mechanisms leading to impaired immune response is important to optimally treat APDS patients. Immunosenescence of CD8+ T cells was suggested to contribute to APDS pathogenesis. However, the constitutive activation of T cells in APDS may also result in T cell exhaustion. Therefore, we studied exhaustion of the CD8+ T cell compartment in APDS patients and compared them with healthy controls and HIV patients, as a control for exhaustion. The subset distribution of the T cell compartment of APDS patients was comparable with HIV patients with decreased naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and increased effector CD8+ T cells. Like in HIV+ patients, expression of activation markers and inhibitory receptors CD160, CD244, and programmed death receptor (PD)-1 on CD8+ T cells was increased in APDS patients, indicating exhaustion. EBV-specific CD8+ T cells from APDS patients exhibited an exhausted phenotype that resembled HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in terms of inhibitory receptor expression. Inhibition of PD-1 on EBV-specific CD8+ T cells from APDS patients enhanced in vitro proliferation and effector cytokine production. Based on these results, we conclude that total and EBV-specific CD8+ T cells from APDS patients are characterized by T cell exhaustion. Furthermore, PD-1 checkpoint inhibition may provide a possible therapeutic approach to support the immune system of APDS patients to control EBV and CMV.

20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(6): 2208-2219.e16, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humoral immunocompetence develops stepwise throughout life and contributes to individual susceptibility to infection, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and neoplasia. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) isotype serum levels can partly explain such age-related differences, but their relationship with the IgH isotype distribution within memory B-cell (MBC) and plasma cell (PCs) compartments remains to be investigated. OBJECTIVE: We studied the age-related distribution of MBCs and PCs expressing different IgH isotypes in addition to the immature/transitional and naive B-cell compartments. METHODS: B-cell and PC subsets and plasma IgH isotype levels were studied in cord blood (n = 19) and peripheral blood (n = 215) from healthy donors aged 0 to 90 years by using flow cytometry and nephelometry, respectively. RESULTS: IgH-switched MBCs expressing IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgA1, and IgA2 were already detected in cord blood and newborns at very low counts, whereas CD27+IgM++IgD+ MBCs only became detectable at 1 to 5 months and remained stable until 2 to 4 years, and IgD MBCs peaked at 2 to 4 years, with both populations decreasing thereafter. MBCs expressing IgH isotypes of the second immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region (IGHC) gene block (IgG1, IgG3, and IgA1) peaked later during childhood (2-4 years), whereas MBCs expressing third IGHC gene block immunoglobulin isotypes (IgG2, IgG4, and IgA2) reached maximum values during adulthood. PCs were already detected in newborns, increasing in number until 6 to 11 months for IgM, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgA1, and IgA2; until 2 to 4 years for IgD; and until 5 to 9 years for IgG4 and decreasing thereafter. For most IgH isotypes (except IgD and IgG4), maximum plasma levels were reached after PC and MBC counts peaked. CONCLUSIONS: PC counts reach maximum values early in life, followed by MBC counts and plasma IgH isotypes. Importantly, IgH isotypes from different IGHC gene blocks show different patterns, probably reflecting consecutive cycles of IgH isotype switch recombination through life.

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