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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(32): 6295-305, 2016 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27436425

RESUMO

Gangliosides (GA) are found in animal tissues and fluids, such as blood and milk. These sialo-glycosphingolipids have bioactivities in neural development, the gastrointestinal tract, and the immune system. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method was validated to characterize and quantitate the GA in beef, chicken, pork, and fish species (turbot, snapper, king salmon, and island mackerel). For the first time, we report the concentration of GM3, the dominant GA in these foods, as ranging from 0.35 to 1.1 mg/100 g and 0.70 to 5.86 mg/100 g of meat and fish, respectively. The minor GAs measured were GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b. Molecular species distribution revealed that the GA contained long- to very-long-chain acyl fatty acids attached to the ceramide moiety. Fish GA contained only N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) sialic acid, while beef, chicken, and pork contained GD1a/b species that incorporated both NeuAc and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) and hydroxylated fatty acids.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Gangliosídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Carne/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Peixes , Suínos
2.
Sci Rep ; 5: 8484, 2015 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25719731

RESUMO

Selective breeding has strongly reduced the genetic diversity in livestock species, and contemporary breeding practices exclude potentially beneficial rare genetic variation from the future gene pool. Here we test whether important traits arising by new mutations can be identified and rescued in highly selected populations. We screened milks from 2.5 million cows to identify an exceptional individual which produced milk with reduced saturated fat content, and improved unsaturated and omega-3 fatty acid concentrations. The milk traits were transmitted dominantly to her offspring, and genetic mapping and genome sequencing revealed a new mutation in a previously unknown splice enhancer of the DGAT1 gene. Homozygous carriers show features of human diarrheal disorders, and may be useful for the development of therapeutic strategies. Our study demonstrates that high-throughput phenotypic screening can uncover rich genetic diversity even in inbred populations, and introduces a novel strategy to develop novel milks with improved nutritional properties.


Assuntos
Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
Endocrinology ; 149(11): 5688-95, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18617622

RESUMO

Clinical studies have shown that total body fat mass is related to both bone density and fracture risk and that fat ingestion reduces bone turnover. These effects are at least partially mediated by endocrine mechanisms, but it is possible that lipids might act directly on bone. We assessed the effects of broad fractions of milk lipids in osteoblasts, bone marrow, and neonatal mouse calvariae. Several milk fractions and their hydrolysates inhibited osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow cultures, so we assessed the effects of free fatty acids in this model. Saturated fatty acids (0.1-10 microg/ml) inhibited osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow cultures and RAW264.7 cells. This effect was maximal for C14:0 to C18:0 fatty acids. The introduction of greater than 1 double bond abrogated this effect; omega3 and omega6 fatty acids had comparable low activity. Osteoblast proliferation was modestly increased by the antiosteoclastogenic compounds, ruling out a nonspecific toxic effect. Active fatty acids did not consistently change expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand or osteoprotegerin in osteoblastic cells nor did they affect the activity of key enzymes in the mevalonate pathway. However, receptors known to bind fatty acids were found to be expressed in osteoblastic (GPR120) and osteoclastic (GPR40, 41, 43, 120) cells. A synthetic GPR 40/120 agonist mimicked the inhibitory effects of fatty acids on osteoclastogenesis. These findings provide a novel link between lipid and bone metabolism, which might contribute to the positive relationship between adiposity and bone density as well as provide novel targets for pharmaceutical and nutriceutical development.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Ácido Mevalônico/metabolismo , Camundongos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/genética , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
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