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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401921

RESUMO

Background - Electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation requires expertise and is mostly based on physician recognition of specific patterns, which may be challenging in rare cardiac diseases. Deep neural networks (DNN) can discover complex features in ECGs and may facilitate the detection of novel features which possibly play a pathophysiological role in relatively unknown diseases. Using a cohort of phospholamban (PLN) p.Arg14del mutation carriers, we aimed to investigate whether a novel DNN-based approach can identify established ECG features, but moreover we aimed to expand our knowledge on novel ECG features in these patients. Methods - A DNN was developed on 12-lead median beat ECGs of 69 patients and 1380 matched controls and independently evaluated on 17 patients and 340 controls. Differentiating features were visualized using Guided Grad-CAM++. Novel ECG features were tested for their diagnostic value by adding them to a logistic regression model including established ECG features. Results - The DNN showed excellent discriminatory performance with a c-statistic of 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.91-0.99) and sensitivity and specificity of 0.82 and 0.93, respectively. Visualizations revealed established ECG features (low QRS voltages and T-wave inversions), specified these features (e.g. R and T-wave attenuation in V2/V3) and identified novel PLN-specific ECG features (e.g. increased PR-duration). The logistic regression baseline model improved significantly when augmented with the identified features (p<0.001). Conclusions - A DNN-based feature detection approach was able to discover and visualize disease-specific ECG features in PLN mutation carriers and revealed yet unidentified features. This novel approach may help advance diagnostic capabilities in daily practice.

2.
Europace ; 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458771

RESUMO

AIMS: Classical cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), biomarkers, and common genetic variation have been suggested for risk assessment of atrial fibrillation (AF). To evaluate their clinical potential, we analysed their individual and combined ability of AF prediction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In N = 6945 individuals of the FINRISK 1997 cohort, we assessed the predictive value of CVRF, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and 145 recently identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) combined in a developed polygenic risk score (PRS) for incident AF. Over a median follow-up of 17.8 years, n = 551 participants (7.9%) developed AF. In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, NT-proBNP [hazard ratio (HR) of log transformed values 4.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.66-6.22; P < 0.001] and the PRS (HR 2.18; 95% CI 1.88-2.53; P < 0.001) were significantly related to incident AF. The discriminatory ability improved asymptotically with increasing numbers of SNPs. Compared with a clinical model, AF risk prediction was significantly improved by addition of NT-proBNP and the PRS. The C-statistic for the combination of CVRF, NT-proBNP, and the PRS reached 0.83 compared with 0.79 for CVRF only (P < 0.001). A replication in the Dutch Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort revealed similar results. Comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile, NT-proBNP and the PRS both showed a more than three-fold increased AF risk. Age remained the strongest risk factor with a 16.7-fold increased risk of AF in the highest quartile. CONCLUSION: The PRS and the established biomarker NT-proBNP showed comparable predictive ability. Both provided incremental predictive value over standard clinical variables. Further improvements for the PRS are likely with the discovery of additional SNPs.

3.
J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469137

RESUMO

The stress hormone cortisol modulates fuel metabolism, cardiovascular homoeostasis, mood, inflammation and cognition. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium previously identified a single locus associated with morning plasma cortisol. Identifying additional genetic variants that explain more of the variance in cortisol could provide new insights into cortisol biology and provide statistical power to test the causative role of cortisol in common diseases. The CORNET consortium extended its genome-wide association meta-analysis for morning plasma cortisol from 12,597 to 25,314 subjects and from ~2.2 M to ~7 M SNPs, in 17 population-based cohorts of European ancestries. We confirmed the genetic association with SERPINA6/SERPINA1. This locus contains genes encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and α1-antitrypsin. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses undertaken in the STARNET cohort of 600 individuals showed that specific genetic variants within the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influence expression of SERPINA6 rather than SERPINA1 in the liver. Moreover, trans-eQTL analysis demonstrated effects on adipose tissue gene expression, suggesting that variations in CBG levels have an effect on delivery of cortisol to peripheral tissues. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses provided evidence that each genetically-determined standard deviation (SD) increase in morning plasma cortisol was associated with increased odds of chronic ischaemic heart disease (0.32, 95% CI 0.06-0.59) and myocardial infarction (0.21, 95% CI 0.00-0.43) in UK Biobank and similarly in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. These findings reveal a causative pathway for CBG in determining cortisol action in peripheral tissues and thereby contributing to the aetiology of cardiovascular disease.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(1): e017393, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325242

RESUMO

Background Detailed insights in temporal evolution of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are currently missing. We aimed to describe and compare the post-ACS kinetics of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), and to determine their intra- and interindividual variation in clinically stable patients. Methods and Results We determined hs-cTnI (Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Roche) in 1507 repeated blood samples, derived from 191 patients with ACS (median, 8/patient) who remained free from adverse cardiac events during 1-year follow-up. Post-ACS kinetics were studied by linear mixed-effect models. Using the samples collected in the 6- to 12-month post-ACS time frame, patients were then considered to have chronic coronary syndrome. We determined (differences between) the average hs-cTnI and average hs-cTnT concentration, and the intra- and interindividual variation for both biomarkers. Compared with hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI peaked higher (median 3506 ng/L versus 494 ng/L; P<0.001) and was quicker below the biomarker-specific upper reference limit (16 versus 19 days; P<0.001). In the post-6-month samples, hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT showed modest correlation (rspearman=0.60), whereas the average hs-cTnT concentration was 5 times more likely to be above the upper reference limit than hs-cTnI. The intraindividual variations of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT were 14.0% and 18.1%, while the interindividual variations were 94.1% and 75.9%. Conclusions Hs-cTnI peaked higher after ACS and was quicker below the upper reference limit. In the post-6-month samples, hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT were clearly not interchangeable, and average hs-cTnT concentrations were much more often above the upper reference limit than hs-cTnI. For both markers, the within-patient variation fell largely below beween-patient variation. Registration URL: https://www.trialregister.nl; unique identifiers: NTR1698 and NTR1106.

5.
Acad Radiol ; 28(1): 36-45, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151538

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the rational and design of a population-based comparative study. The objective of the study is to assess the screening performance of volume-based management of CT-detected lung nodule in comparison to diameter-based management, and to improve the effectiveness of CT screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), in addition to lung cancer, based on quantitative measurement of CT imaging biomarkers in a Chinese screening setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based comparative study is being performed, including 10,000 asymptomatic participants between 40 and 74 years old from Shanghai urban population. Participants in the intervention group undergo a low-dose chest and cardiac CT scan at baseline and 1 year later, and are managed according to NELCIN-B3 protocol. Participants in the control group undergo a low-dose chest CT scan according to the routine CT protocol and are managed according to the clinical practice. Epidemiological data are collected through questionnaires. In the fourth year from baseline, the diagnosis of the three diseases will be collected. RESULTS: The unnecessary referral rate will be compared between NELCIN-B3 and standard protocol for managing early-detected lung nodules. The effectiveness of quantitative measurement of CT imaging biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer, COPD and CVD will be evaluated. CONCLUSION: We expect that the quantitative assessment of the CT imaging biomarkers will reduce the number of unnecessary referrals for early detected lung nodules, and will improve the early detection of COPD and CVD in a Chinese urban population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03988322. Registered on 14 June 2019.

6.
Data Brief ; 33: 106521, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294518

RESUMO

Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are increasingly recognized. Although it has been found that post-resuscitated women are less likely to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD) than men, data on follow-up in these patients are limited. Data for this data in brief article was obtained as a part of the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment elevation (COACT) trial. The data supplements the manuscript "Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy" were it was found that women were less likely to have significant CAD including chronic total occlusions, and had worse survival when CAD was present. The dataset presented in this paper describes sex differences on interventions, implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks and hospitalizations due to heart failure during one-year follow-up in patients successfully resuscitated after OHCA. Data was derived through a telephone interview at one year with the patient or general practitioner. Patients in this randomized dataset reflects a homogenous study population, which can be valuable to further build on research regarding long-term sex differences and to further improve cardiac care.

7.
Blood Adv ; 4(24): 6353-6363, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351130

RESUMO

Erythrocytosis is a common reason for referral to hematology services and is usually secondary in origin. The aim of this study was to assess clinical characteristics and clonal hematopoiesis (CH) in individuals with erythrocytosis in the population-based Lifelines cohort (n = 147 167). Erythrocytosis was defined using strict (World Health Organization [WHO] 2008/British Committee for Standards in Hematology) and wide (WHO 2016) criteria. Individuals with erythrocytosis (strict criteria) and concurrent leukocytosis and/or thrombocytosis were 1:2 matched with individuals with isolated erythrocytosis and analyzed for somatic mutations indicative of CH (≥5% variant allele frequency). One hundred eighty five males (0.3%) and 223 females (0.3%) met the strict criteria, whereas 4868 males (7.6%) and 309 females (0.4%) met the wide criteria. Erythrocytosis, only when defined using strict criteria, was associated with cardiovascular morbidity (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.6), cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.0-4.6), and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6), independent of conventional risk factors. Mutations were detected in 51 of 133 (38%) evaluable individuals, with comparable frequencies between individuals with and without concurrent cytosis. The JAK2 V617F mutation was observed in 7 of 133 (5.3%) individuals, all having concurrent cytosis. The prevalence of mutations in BCOR/BCORL1 (16%) was high, suggesting aberrant epigenetic regulation. Erythrocytosis with CH was associated with cardiovascular morbidity (OR, 9.1; 95% CI, 1.2-68.4) in a multivariable model. Our data indicate that only when defined using strict criteria erythrocytosis is associated with cardiovascular morbidity (especially in the presence of CH), cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(24): e016808, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287642

RESUMO

Background Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychostimulant and is associated with lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, whether these associations are causal remains unknown. This study aimed to identify genetic variants associated with caffeine intake, and to investigate evidence for causal links with CAD or T2DM. In addition, we aimed to replicate previous observational findings. Methods and Results Observational associations were tested within UK Biobank using Cox regression analyses. Moderate observational caffeine intakes from coffee or tea were associated with lower risks of CAD or T2DM, with the lowest risks at intakes of 121 to 180 mg/day from coffee for CAD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.73-0.82; P<1×10-16]), and 301 to 360 mg/day for T2DM (HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.67-0.86]; P=1.57×10-5). Next, genome-wide association studies were performed on self-reported caffeine intake from coffee, tea, or both in 407 072 UK Biobank participants. These analyses identified 51 novel genetic variants associated with caffeine intake at P<1.67×10-8. These loci were enriched for central nervous system genes. However, in contrast to the observational analyses, 2-sample Mendelian randomization analyses using the identified loci in independent disease-specific cohorts yielded no evidence for causal links between genetically determined caffeine intake and the development of CAD or T2DM. Conclusions Mendelian randomization analyses indicate genetically determined higher caffeine intake might not protect against CAD or T2DM, despite protective associations in observational analyses.

9.
Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev ; 9(3): 146-154, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240510

RESUMO

The combination of big data and artificial intelligence (AI) is having an increasing impact on the field of electrophysiology. Algorithms are created to improve the automated diagnosis of clinical ECGs or ambulatory rhythm devices. Furthermore, the use of AI during invasive electrophysiological studies or combining several diagnostic modalities into AI algorithms to aid diagnostics are being investigated. However, the clinical performance and applicability of created algorithms are yet unknown. In this narrative review, opportunities and threats of AI in the field of electrophysiology are described, mainly focusing on ECGs. Current opportunities are discussed with their potential clinical benefits as well as the challenges. Challenges in data acquisition, model performance, (external) validity, clinical implementation, algorithm interpretation as well as the ethical aspects of AI research are discussed. This article aims to guide clinicians in the evaluation of new AI applications for electrophysiology before their clinical implementation.

10.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(8): 817-823, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222494

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the frequency and pattern of cardiac complications in patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS: CAPACITY-COVID is an international patient registry established to determine the role of cardiovascular disease in the COVID-19 pandemic. In this registry, data generated during routine clinical practice are collected in a standardised manner for patients with a (highly suspected) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection requiring hospitalisation. For the current analysis, consecutive patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 registered between 28 March and 3 July 2020 were included. Patients were followed for the occurrence of cardiac complications and pulmonary embolism from admission to discharge. In total, 3011 patients were included, of which 1890 (62.8%) were men. The median age was 67 years (interquartile range 56-76); 937 (31.0%) patients had a history of cardiac disease, with pre-existent coronary artery disease being most common (n=463, 15.4%). During hospitalisation, 595 (19.8%) patients died, including 16 patients (2.7%) with cardiac causes. Cardiac complications were diagnosed in 349 (11.6%) patients, with atrial fibrillation (n=142, 4.7%) being most common. The incidence of other cardiac complications was 1.8% for heart failure (n=55), 0.5% for acute coronary syndrome (n=15), 0.5% for ventricular arrhythmia (n=14), 0.1% for bacterial endocarditis (n=4) and myocarditis (n=3), respectively, and 0.03% for pericarditis (n=1). Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 198 (6.6%) patients. CONCLUSION: This large study among 3011 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 shows that the incidence of cardiac complications during hospital admission is low, despite a frequent history of cardiovascular disease. Long-term cardiac outcomes and the role of pre-existing cardiovascular disease in COVID-19 outcome warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
/complicações , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/tendências , /genética , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , /virologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pericardite/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros
13.
J Thorac Imaging ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and its association with cardiovascular risk factors and Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk in a middle-aged Dutch population. METHODS: Classic cardiovascular risk factors and CAC were analyzed in 4083 participants aged 45 to 60 years (57.9% women) from the population-based ImaLife study. CAC scores were quantified on noncontrast cardiac CT scans. Age-specific and sex-specific distribution of CAC categories (0, 1 to 99, 100 to 299, ≥300) and percentiles were determined. SCORE risk categories (<1%, ≥1% to 5%, and ≥5%) were compared with CAC distribution. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) of classic risk factors for CAC were estimated. RESULTS: CAC was present in 54.5% male and 26.5% female participants. The percentage of individuals with CAC increased with increasing age. Mean SCORE was 2.0% in men and 0.7% in women. In SCORE <1%, 32.7% of men and 17.1% of women had CAC. In men with SCORE ≥5%, 26.9% had no CAC. Only 0.1% of women had SCORE ≥5%. PAF of classic risk factors for CAC was 18.5% in men and 31.4% in women. PAF was highest for hypertension (in men 8.0%, 95% confidence interval, 4.2%-11.8%; in women 13.1%, 95% confidence interval, 7.9%-18.2%) followed by hypercholesterolemia and obesity. CONCLUSION: In this middle-aged cohort, more than half of the men and a quarter of the women had CAC. One out of 4 men at high risk (SCORE ≥5%) could be placed into a lower risk category owing to absence of CAC. Thus, adding CAC scoring to SCORE could have considerable effect on cardiovascular risk classification. Elimination of exposure to classic risk factors could reduce limited proportion of CAC in a middle-aged population.

14.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2020: 6014915, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041696

RESUMO

Background: In animal studies, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to protect the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. This study evaluates the safety and tolerability of the H2S donor sodium thiosulfate (STS) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Eighteen patients, undergoing coronary angiography for ACS, received STS intravenously immediately after arrival at the catheterization laboratory according to a "3 + 3 dose-escalation design" with fixed dosing endpoint (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 12.5, and 15 grams). This first dose STS was combined with verapamil and nitroglycerin required for transradial procedures. A second dose STS was administered 6 hours later. Primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicity, defined as significant hemodynamic instability or death up to 24 hours or before discharge from the coronary care unit. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of anaphylaxis, nausea, vomiting, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) course. Results: Sixteen patients received two dosages of STS and two patients one dosage. None of the patients reached the primary endpoint, nor experienced a serious adverse event. We observed a clinically well-tolerated decline in SBP 1 hour after administration of the first STS dose and concomitant verapamil/nitroglycerin. SBP for all patients together reduced 16.8 (8.1-25.5) mmHg (P = 0.0008). No significant decline in SBP occurred after the second dose. Mild nausea was observed in one patient. Conclusion: This is the first report on sodium thiosulfate administration in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Our data suggest that sodium thiosulfate was well tolerated in this setting. The potential benefit of this intervention has to be examined in larger studies.

15.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 541-547, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The blood metabolome incorporates cues from the environment and the host's genetic background, potentially offering a holistic view of an individual's health status. METHODS: We have compiled a vast resource of proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and phenotypic data encompassing over 25 000 samples derived from 26 community and hospital-based cohorts. RESULTS: Using this resource, we constructed a metabolomics-based age predictor (metaboAge) to calculate an individual's biological age. Exploration in independent cohorts demonstrates that being judged older by one's metabolome, as compared with one's chronological age, confers an increased risk on future cardiovascular disease, mortality, and functionality in older individuals. A web-based tool for calculating metaboAge (metaboage.researchlumc.nl) allows easy incorporation in other epidemiological studies. Access to data can be requested at bbmri.nl/samples-images-data. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we present a vast resource of metabolomics data and illustrate its merit by constructing a metabolomics-based score for biological age that captures aspects of current and future cardiometabolic health.

16.
Cell Syst ; 11(3): 229-238.e5, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916098

RESUMO

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most useful non-invasive diagnostic tests for a wide array of cardiac disorders. Traditional approaches to analyzing ECGs focus on individual segments. Here, we performed comprehensive deep phenotyping of 77,190 ECGs in the UK Biobank across the complete cycle of cardiac conduction, resulting in 500 spatial-temporal datapoints, across 10 million genetic variants. In addition to characterizing polygenic risk scores for the traditional ECG segments, we identified over 300 genetic loci that are statistically associated with the high-dimensional representation of the ECG. We established the genetic ECG signature for dilated cardiomyopathy, associated the BAG3, HSPB7/CLCNKA, PRKCA, TMEM43, and OBSCN loci with disease risk and confirmed this association in an independent cohort. In total, our work demonstrates that a high-dimensional analysis of the entire ECG provides unique opportunities for studying cardiac biology and disease and furthering drug development. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the Supplemental Information.

17.
N Engl J Med ; 383(15): 1447-1457, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of single as compared with dual antiplatelet treatment on bleeding and thromboembolic events after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) in patients who do not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation has not been well studied. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled trial, we assigned a subgroup of patients who were undergoing TAVI and did not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive aspirin alone or aspirin plus clopidogrel for 3 months. The two primary outcomes were all bleeding (including minor, major, and life-threatening or disabling bleeding) and non-procedure-related bleeding over a period of 12 months. Most bleeding at the TAVI puncture site was counted as non-procedure-related. The two secondary outcomes were a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-procedure-related bleeding, stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 1) and a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 2) at 1 year, with both outcomes tested sequentially for noninferiority (noninferiority margin, 7.5 percentage points) and superiority. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients were assigned to receive aspirin alone and 334 were assigned to receive aspirin plus clopidogrel. A bleeding event occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) receiving aspirin alone and in 89 (26.6%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.77; P = 0.001). Non-procedure-related bleeding occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) and 83 patients (24.9%), respectively (risk ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.83; P = 0.005). A secondary composite 1 event occurred in 76 patients (23.0%) receiving aspirin alone and in 104 (31.1%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (difference, -8.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -14.9 to -1.5; P<0.001; risk ratio, 0.74; 95% CI for superiority, 0.57 to 0.95; P = 0.04). A secondary composite 2 event occurred in 32 patients (9.7%) and 33 patients (9.9%), respectively (difference, -0.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -4.7 to 4.3; P = 0.004; risk ratio, 0.98; 95% CI for superiority, 0.62 to 1.55; P = 0.93). A total of 44 patients (13.3%) and 32 (9.6%), respectively, received oral anticoagulation during the trial. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing TAVI who did not have an indication for oral anticoagulation, the incidence of bleeding and the composite of bleeding or thromboembolic events at 1 year were significantly less frequent with aspirin than with aspirin plus clopidogrel administered for 3 months. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular TAVI EU Clinical Trials Register number, 2013-003125-28; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02247128.).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Período Pós-Operatório , Trombose/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14771, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901066

RESUMO

Small-scale studies have suggested a link between the human gut microbiome and highly prevalent diseases. However, the extent to which the human gut microbiome can be considered a determinant of disease and healthy aging remains unknown. We aimed to determine the spectrum of diseases that are linked to the human gut microbiome through the utilization of its genetic determinants as a proxy for its composition. 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to influence the human gut microbiome were used to assess the association with health and disease outcomes in 422,417 UK Biobank participants. Potential causal estimates were obtained using a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. From the total sample analysed (mean age was 57 ± 8 years), 194,567 (46%) subjects were male. Median exposure was 66-person years (interquartile range 59-72). Eleven SNPs were significantly associated with 28 outcomes (Bonferroni corrected P value < 4.63·10-6) including food intake, hypertension, atopy, COPD, BMI, and lipids. Multiple SNP MR pointed to a possible causal link between Ruminococcus flavefaciens and hypertension, and Clostridium and platelet count. Microbiota and their metabolites might be of importance in the interplay between overlapping pathophysiological processes, although challenges remain in establishing causal relationships.

19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876654

RESUMO

Importance: Ischemic heart disease is a common cause of cardiac arrest. However, randomized data on long-term clinical outcomes of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest in the absence of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are lacking. Objective: To determine whether immediate coronary angiography improves clinical outcomes at 1 year in patients after cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI, compared with a delayed coronary angiography strategy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prespecified analysis of a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial evaluated 552 patients who were enrolled in 19 Dutch centers between January 8, 2015, and July 17, 2018. The study included patients who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a shockable rhythm who were successfully resuscitated without signs of STEMI. Follow-up was performed at 1 year. Data were analyzed, using the intention-to-treat principle, between August 29 and October 10, 2019. Interventions: Immediate coronary angiography and PCI if indicated or coronary angiography and PCI if indicated, delayed until after neurologic recovery. Main Outcomes and Measures: Survival, myocardial infarction, revascularization, implantable cardiac defibrillator shock, quality of life, hospitalization for heart failure, and the composite of death or myocardial infarction or revascularization after 1 year. Results: At 1 year, data on 522 of 552 patients (94.6%) were available for analysis. Of these patients, 413 were men (79.1%); mean (SD) age was 65.4 (12.3) years. A total of 162 of 264 patients (61.4%) in the immediate angiography group and 165 of 258 patients (64.0%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.28). The composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization since the index hospitalization was met in 112 patients (42.9%) in the immediate group and 104 patients (40.6%) in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.77-1.56). No significant differences between the groups were observed for the other outcomes at 1-year follow-up. For example, the rate of ICD shocks was 20.4% in the immediate group and 16.2% in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.66-2.64). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial of patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be superior to a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to clinical outcomes at 1 year. Coronary angiography in this patient group can therefore be delayed until after neurologic recovery without affecting outcomes. Trial Registration: trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR4973.

20.
Circulation ; 142(19): 1799-1807, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 15% of saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) occlude during the first year after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) despite aspirin use. The POPular CABG trial (The Effect of Ticagrelor on Saphenous Vein Graft Patency in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery) investigated whether ticagrelor added to standard aspirin improves SVG patency at 1 year after CABG. METHODS: In this investigator-initiated, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, patients with ≥1 SVGs were randomly assigned (1:1) after CABG to ticagrelor or placebo added to standard aspirin (80 mg or 100 mg). The primary outcome was SVG occlusion at 1 year, assessed with coronary computed tomography angiography, in all patients that had primary outcome imaging available. A generalized estimating equation model was used to perform the primary analysis per SVG. The secondary outcome was 1-year SVG failure, which was a composite of SVG occlusion, SVG revascularization, myocardial infarction in myocardial territory supplied by a SVG, or sudden death. RESULTS: Among 499 randomly assigned patients, the mean age was 67.9±8.3 years, 87.1% were male, the indication for CABG was acute coronary syndrome in 31.3%, and 95.2% of procedures used cardiopulmonary bypass. Primary outcome imaging was available in 220 patients in the ticagrelor group and 223 patients in the placebo group. The SVG occlusion rate in the ticagrelor group was 10.5% (51 of 484 SVGs) versus 9.1% in the placebo group (43 of 470 SVGs), odds ratio, 1.29 [95% CI, 0.73-2.30]; P=0.38. SVG failure occurred in 35 (14.2%) patients in the ticagrelor group versus 29 (11.6%) patients in the placebo group (odds ratio, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.72-2.05]). CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the addition of ticagrelor to standard aspirin did not reduce SVG occlusion at 1 year after CABG. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02352402.

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