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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807661

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the health risks that may arise from the implementation of greywater reuse and rainwater harvesting for household use, especially for toilet flushing. In addition, the risk of cross connections between these systems and the drinking water system was considered. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a method that uses mathematical modelling to estimate the risk of infection when exposure to pathogens happens and was used in this study to assess the health risks. The results showed that using rainwater without prior treatment for toilet flushing poses an annual infection risk from L. pneumophila at 0.64 per-person-per-year (pppy) which exceeds the Dutch standard of 10-4 pppy. The use of untreated greywater showed a risk that is below the standard. However, treatment is recommended due to the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow in the reuse system. Moreover, showering and drinking with cross-connected water has a high annual infection risk that exceeds the standard due to contact with Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli O157:H7. Several measures can be implemented to mitigate the risks such as treating the greywater and rainwater with a minimum of 5-log removal, closing the toilet lid while flushing, good design of greywater and rainwater collection systems, and rigorous plumbing installation procedures.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145344, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515881

RESUMO

The high chlorine dosages in wastewater treatment plants during the COVID-19 pandemic may result in increased formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), posing great threat to the aquatic ecosystem of the receiving water body and the public health in the downstream area. However, limited information is available on the effect of biological wastewater treatment processes on the formation of CX3R-type DBPs. This study investigated the effect of oxidation ditch (OD) and anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO), two widely used biological wastewater treatment processes, on the formation of five classes of CX3R-type DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetaldehydes (HALs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and halonitromethanes (HNMs), during chlorination. Experimental results showed that biological treatment effectively reduced the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV254, while it increased the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and therefore the ratio of DON/DOC. In addition, increases in the contents of soluble microbial product- and humic acid-like matters, and the transformation of high molecular weight (MW) fractions in the dissolved organic matter into low MW fractions were observed after OD and AAO processes. Although biological treatment effectively decreased the formation of Cl-THMs, Cl-HAAs, Cl-HANs and Cl-HNMs, the formation of DBCM, DBAA, BDCAA, DBCAA, DCAL, TCAL and DBAN (where C = chloro, B = bromo, D = di, T = tri) all increased significantly, due to the increased formation reactivity. Moreover, biological treatment increased the ratio of bromide/DOC and bromine incorporation into THMs, HAAs and DHANs except for HALs and THANs. Different from previous studies, this study revealed that biological treatment increased the formation of some DBPs, especially brominated DBPs, despite the efficient removal of organic matters. It provides insights into the DBP risk control in wastewater treatment, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 404(Pt A): 124154, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065457

RESUMO

A novel sol-gel method was employed in this study to efficiently synthesize SnO2 nanoparticles to catalyze the ozonation of acetaminophen (ACT) from aqueous solutions. The influence of various parameters including Sn source, type of capping and alkaline agents, and calcination temperature on the catalytic activity of the SnO2 preparations was investigated. The SnO2 nanoparticles prepared by tin tetrachloride as Sn source, NaOH as gelatin agent, CTAB as capping agent and at calcination temperature of 550 °C (SnNaC-550) exhibited the maximum performance in the catalysis of ACT. The optimized catalyst (SnNaC-550) had spherical-homogeneous and cubic-shaped nanocrystalline particles with 5.5 nm mean particle size and a BET surface area of 81 m2/g, which resulted in 98% degradation and 84% mineralization of 50 mg/L ACT at 20 and 30 min reaction time, respectively when combined with ozonation (COP). Based on the radical scavenger experiments, •OH was the major oxidizing agent involved in the removal of ACT. LC/MS analysis showed that short-chain carboxylic acids were the main intermediates. Furthermore, the SnNaC-550 catalytic activity was preserved after four successive cycles. Collectively, the new method has the potential to efficiently synthesize stable and reusable SnO2 nanoparticles to catalyze the ozonation of ACT from aquatic environments.

4.
Environ Res ; 194: 110648, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358877

RESUMO

Drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) have been thoroughly studied, but the concept of thermal energy recovery from DWDSs is very new and has been conceptualized in the past few years. Cold recovery results in a temperature increase of the drinking water. Its effects on drinking water quality and biofilm development are unclear. Hence, we studied both bulk water and biofilm phases for 232 days in two parallel pilot scale distribution systems with two temperature settings after cold recovery, 25 °C and 30 °C, and compared these with a reference pilot system without cold recovery. In all three pilot distributions systems (DSs) our results showed an initial increase in biomass (ATP) in the biofilm phase, along with occurrence of primary colonizers (Betaproteobacteriales) and subsequently a decrease in biomass and an increasing relative abundance of other microbial groups (amoeba resisting groups; Xanthobacteraceae, Legionellales), including those responsible for EPS formation in biofilms (Sphingomonadaceae). The timeline for biofilm microbial development was different for the three pilot DSs: the higher the temperature, the faster the development took place. With respect to the water phase within the three pilot DSs, major microbial contributions came from the feed water (17-100%) and unkown sources (2-80%). Random contributions of biofilm (0-70%) were seen between day 7-77. During this time period six-fold higher ATP concentration (7-11 ng/l) and two-fold higher numbers of high nucleic acid cells (5.20-5.80 × 104 cells/ml) were also observed in the effluent water from all three pilot DSs, compared to the feed water. At the end of the experimental period the microbial composition of effluent water from three pilot DSs revealed no differences, except the presence of a biofilm related microbial group (Sphingomonadaceae), within all three DSs compared to the feed water. In the biofilm phase higher temperatures initiated the growth of primary colonizing bacteria but this did not lead to differences in microbial diversity and composition at the end of the experimental period. Hence, we propose that the microbiological water quality of DWDSs with cold recovery should be monitored more frequently during the first 2-3 months of operation.

5.
Water Res ; 188: 116472, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027697

RESUMO

Continuous development of industry and civilization has led to changes in composition, texture and toxicity of waste water due to the wide range of pollutants being present. Considering that the conventional wastewater treatment methods are insufficient for removing micropollutants and nutrients to a high level, other, alternative, treatment methods should be used to polish wastewater treatment plant effluents. In this study we developed an alternative, polishing concept for removal of ammonium and micropollutants that could potentially be incorporated in existing wastewater treatment plants. We demonstrated a method to use high silica MOR zeolite granules as an adsorbent for simultaneous removal of the micropollutant sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and ammonium (NH4+) ions from aqueous solutions. At an initial NH4+ concentration of 10 mg/L the high silica zeolite mordenite (MOR) granules removed 0.42 mg/g of NH4+, similar to the removal obtained by commonly used natural zeolite Zeolita (0.44 mg/g). However, at higher NH4+ concentrations the Zeolita performed better. In addition, the Langmuir isotherm model showed a higher maximum adsorption capacity of Zeolita (qmax, 4.08 mg/g), which was about two times higher than that of MOR (2.11). The adsorption capacity of MOR towards SMX, at both low (2 µg/L) and high (50 mg/L) initial concentrations, was high and even increased in the presence of NH4+ ions. The used adsorbent could be regenerated with ozone and reused in consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles with marginal decrease in the total adsorption capacity.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Zeolitas , Adsorção , Dióxido de Silício , Sulfametoxazol
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(23): 14854-14861, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170666

RESUMO

The provision of urban water and wastewater services contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Urban water supply and wastewater utilities can potentially achieve low-carbon or carbon-neutral operation through many "utility opportunities". Outside the jurisdiction of water utilities, many water-related "wider opportunities" can also contribute to GHG emissions abatement for cities. This study aims to explore the GHG emissions abatement potential, cost effectiveness, and enabling factors of implementing wider opportunities in cities. Using Amsterdam as a case study, we developed a marginal abatement cost curve to compare the abatement potential and cost effectiveness of both utility and wider opportunities. The results show that many wider opportunities related to thermal energy, water end use, and life cycle are cost-effective with significant abatement potential, compared to utility opportunities. This case study and emerging worldwide examples show that the water industry has a role to play to support wider water-related opportunities in cities. This vision can be supported by developing mechanisms to credit utilities for wider opportunity initiatives, building inter- and intrasectoral partnerships for utilities, accounting for scope 3 emissions of utilities, and being open to extend utilities' role beyond water and wastewater services providers.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140546, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629263

RESUMO

As well as known contaminants, surface waters also contain an unknown variety of chemical and microbial contaminants which can pose a risk to humans if surface water is used for the production of drinking water. To protect human health proactively, and in a cost-efficient way, water authorities and drinking water companies need early warning systems. This study aimed to (1) assess the effectiveness of screening the scientific literature to direct sampling campaigns for early warning purposes, and (2) detect new aquatic contaminants of concern to public health in the Netherlands. By screening the scientific literature, six example contaminants (3 chemical and 3 microbial) were selected as potential aquatic contaminants of concern to the quality of Dutch drinking water. Stakeholders from the Dutch water sector and various information sources were consulted to identify the potential sources of these contaminants. Based on these potential contamination sources, two sampling sequences were set up from contamination sources (municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants), via surface water used for the production of drinking water to treated drinking water. The chemical contaminants, mycophenolic acid, tetrabutylphosphonium compounds and Hexafluoropropylene Oxide Trimer Acid, were detected in low concentrations and were thus not expected to pose a risk to Dutch drinking water. Colistin resistant Escherichia coli was detected for the first time in Dutch wastewater not influenced by hospital wastewater, indicating circulation of bacteria resistant to this last-resort antibiotic in the open Dutch population. Four out of six contaminants were thus detected in surface or wastewater samples, which showed that screening the scientific literature to direct sampling campaigns for both microbial and chemical contaminants is effective for early warning purposes.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Mineração de Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Países Baixos , Águas Residuárias
8.
Environ Res ; 187: 109655, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450425

RESUMO

Thermal energy recovery from drinking water has a high potential in the application of sustainable building and industrial cooling. However, drinking water and biofilm microbial qualities should be concerned because the elevated water temperature after cold recovery may influence the microbial activities in water and biofilm phases in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). In this study, the effect of cold recovery on microbial qualities was investigated in a chlorinated DWDS. The chlorine decay was slight (1.1%-15.5%) due to a short contact time (~60 s) and was not affected by the cold recovery (p > 0.05). The concentrations of cellular ATP and intact cell numbers in the bulk water were partially inactivated by the residual chlorine, with the removal rates of 10.1%-16.2% and 22.4%-29.4%, respectively. The chlorine inactivation was probably promoted by heat exchangers but was not further enhanced by higher temperatures. The higher water temperature (25 °C) enhanced the growth of biofilm biomass on pipelines. Principle coordination analysis (PCoA) showed that the biofilms on the stainless steel plates of HEs and the plastic pipe inner surfaces had totally different community compositions. Elevated temperatures favored the growth of Pseudomonas spp. and Legionella spp. in the biofilm after cold recovery. The community functional predictions revealed more abundances of five human diseases (e.g. Staphylococcis aureus infection) and beta-lactam resistance pathways in the biofilms at higher temperature. Compared with a previous study with a non-chlorinated DWDS, chlorine dramatically reduced the biofilm biomass growth but raised the relative abundances of the chlorine-resistant genera (i.e. Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas) in bacterial communities.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Biofilmes , Cloro , Temperatura Alta , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água
9.
Water Res ; 173: 115519, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006809

RESUMO

Recovering resources from wastewater systems is increasingly being emphasised. Many technologies exist or are under development for recycling nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater to agriculture. Planning and design methodologies are needed to identify and deploy the most sustainable solutions in given contexts. For the environmental sustainability dimension, life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to assess environmental impact potentials of wastewater-based nutrient recycling alternatives, especially nitrogen and phosphorus recycling. This review aims to evaluate how well the LCA methodology has been adapted and applied for assessing opportunities of wastewater-based nutrient recycling in the form of monomineral, multimineral, nutrient solution and organic solid. We reviewed 65 LCA studies that considered nutrient recycling from wastewater for agricultural land application. We synthesised some of their insights and methodological practices, and discussed the future outlook of using LCA for wastewater-based nutrient recycling. In general, more studies suggested positive environmental outcomes from wastewater-based nutrient recycling, especially when chemical inputs are minimised, and source separation of human excreta is achieved. The review shows the need to improve methodological consistency (e.g., multifunctionality, fertiliser offset accounting, contaminant accounting), ensure transparency of inventory and methods, consider uncertainty in comparative LCA context, integrate up-to-date cross-disciplinary knowledge (e.g., agriculture science, soil science) into LCA models, and consider the localised impacts of recycled nutrient products. Many opportunities exist for applying LCA at various scales to support decisions on wastewater-based nutrient recycling - for instance, performing "product perspective" LCA on recycled nutrient products, integrating "process perspective" LCA with other systems approaches for selecting and optimising individual recovery processes, assessing emerging nutrient recovery technologies and integrated resource recovery systems, and conducting systems analysis at city, national and global level.


Assuntos
Reciclagem , Águas Residuárias , Agricultura , Cidades , Humanos , Nutrientes
10.
Water Res ; 161: 274-287, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202114

RESUMO

With the growth in production and use of chemicals and the fact that many end up in the aquatic environment, there is an increasing need for advanced water treatment technologies that can remove chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) from water. The current lack of a homogenous approach for testing advanced water treatment technologies hampers the interpretation and evaluation of CEC removal efficiency data, and hinders informed decision making by stakeholders with regard to which treatment technology could satisfy their specific needs. Here a data evaluation framework is proposed to improve the use of current knowledge in the field of advanced water treatment technologies for drinking water and wastewater, consisting of a set of 9 relevance criteria and 51 reliability criteria. The two criteria sets underpin a thorough, unbiased and standardised method to select studies to evaluate and compare CEC removal efficiency of advanced water treatment technologies in a scientifically sound way. The relevance criteria set was applied to 244 papers on removal efficiency, of which only 20% fulfilled the criteria. The reliability criteria were applied to the remaining papers. In general these criteria were fulfilled with regards to information on the target compound, the water matrix and the treatment process conditions. However, there was a lack of information on data interpretation and statistics. In conclusion, a minority of the evaluated papers are suited for comparison across techniques, compounds and water matrixes. There is a clear need for more uniform reporting of water treatment studies for CEC removal. In the future this will benefit the selection of appropriate technologies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Águas Residuárias , Água
11.
Chemosphere ; 220: 668-677, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605809

RESUMO

Riverbank filtration (RBF) as a barrier of pathogenic microorganisms and organic micropollutants recently has been proven capable of removing sulfonamides. However, the study about the effect of redox conditions on biodegradation of common and persistent sulfonamides in RBF is limited and the response of microbial communities to sulfonamides stress during RBF is unknown. In this study, two column set-ups (with residence time 5 days and 11 days respectively), simulating different redox conditions of riverbank filtration systems, were operated for seven months to investigate 1) the long-term effect of redox conditions on ng∙L-1 level sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline) removal, and 2) the microbial community evolution represented by the phylogenetic and metabolic function shift under non-lethal selective pressures of sulfonamides. The results showed that sulfonamides were more degradable under anoxic conditions than oxic and suboxic conditions. In the sulfonamides stressed community, the phylogenetic diversity increased slightly. Relative abundance of an intrinsic sulfonamides resistant bacteria Bacillus spp. increased, suggesting that sulfonamide resistance developed in specific bacteria under sulfonamides contamination pressure in RBF systems. At the same time, an activated transport function in the stressed microbial community was noticed. The predicted relative abundance of gene folP, which encodes dihydropteroate synthase, also increased significantly, indicating a detoxification mechanism and sulfonamides resistance potential under non-lethal selective pressures of sulfonamides in RBF systems.


Assuntos
Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Filtração , Microbiota/fisiologia , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Rios , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
12.
J Water Health ; 16(6): 861-892, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540262

RESUMO

This paper investigates disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation and their relationship with governing factors in chlorinated swimming pools. The study compares concentrations of DBPs with WHO guidelines for drinking water quality recommended to screen swimming pool water quality. The statistical analysis is based on a global database of 188 swimming pools accumulated from 42 peer-reviewed journal publications from 16 countries. The mean and standard deviation of dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were estimated as 282 ± 437 and 326 ± 517 µg L-1, respectively, which most often surpassed the WHO guidelines. Similarly, more than half of the examined pools had higher values of chloral hydrate (102 ± 128 µg L-1). The concentration of total chloramines (650 ± 490 µg L-1) was well above the WHO guidelines in all reported cases. Nevertheless, the reported values remained below the guidelines for most of the studied pools in the case of total trihalomethanes (134 ± 160 µg L-1), dichloroacetonitrile (12 ± 12 µg L-1) and dibromoacetonitrile (8 ± 11 µg L-1). Total organic carbon, free residual chlorine, temperature, pH, total nitrogen and bromide ions play a pivotal role in DBPs formation processes. Therefore, proper management of these governing factors could significantly reduce DBPs formation, thereby, contributing towards a healthy swimming pool environment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Piscinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cloraminas , Desinfecção , Trialometanos
13.
Water Res ; 130: 88-97, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202345

RESUMO

The removal of bromate (BrO3-) as a by-product of ozonation in subsequent managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems, specifically in anoxic nitrate (NO3-)-reducing zones, has so far gained little attention. In this study, batch reactors and columns were used to explore the influence of NO3- and increased assimilable organic carbon (AOC) due to ozonation pre-treatment on BrO3- removal in MAR systems. 8 m column experiments were carried out for 10 months to investigate BrO3- behavior in anoxic NO3--reducing zones of MAR systems. Anoxic batch experiments showed that an increase of AOC promoted microbial activity and corresponding BrO3- removal. A drastic increase of BrO3- biodegradation was observed in the sudden absence of NO3- in both batch reactors and columns, indicating that BrO3- and NO3- competed for biodegradation by denitrifying bacteria and NO3- was preferred as an electron acceptor under the simultaneous presence of NO3- and BrO3-. However, within 75 days' absence of NO3- in the anoxic column, BrO3- removal gradually decreased, indicating that the presence of NO3- is a precondition for denitrifying bacteria to reduce BrO3- in NO3--reducing anoxic zones. In the 8 m anoxic column set-up (retention time 6 days), the BrO3- removal achieved levels as low as 1.3 µg/L, starting at 60 µg/L (98% removal). Taken together, BrO3- removal is likely to occur in vicinity of NO3--reducing anoxic zones, so MAR systems following ozonation are potentially effective to remove BrO3-.


Assuntos
Bromatos/análise , Água Potável/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Nitratos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bromatos/química , Nitratos/química , Ozônio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
14.
Chemosphere ; 185: 637-646, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28728121

RESUMO

H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, microbial activity change and bacterial community evolution. The results from laboratory batch studies showed that 0.25 mg/L H2O2 lowered DOC removal by 10% while higher H2O2 concentrations at 3 and 5 mg/L promoted DOC removal by 8% and 28%. A H2O2 dosage of 0.25 mg/L did not impact microbial activity (as measured by ATP) while high H2O2 dosages, 1, 3 and 5 mg/L, resulted in reduced microbial activity of 23%, 37% and 37% respectively. Therefore, DOC removal was promoted by the increase of H2O2 dosage while microbial activity was reduced. The pyrosequencing results illustrated that bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria. The presence of H2O2 showed clear influence on the diversity and composition of bacterial communities, which became more diverse under 0.25 mg/L H2O2 but conversely less diverse when the dosage increased to 5 mg/L H2O2. Anaerobic bacteria were found to be most sensitive to H2O2 as their growth in batch reactors was limited by both 0.25 and 5 mg/L H2O2 (17-88% reduction). In conclusion, special attention should be given to effects of AOPs residuals on microbial ecology before introducing AOPs as a pre-treatment to biological (sand) processes. Additionally, the guideline on the maximum allowable H2O2 concentration should be properly evaluated.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Bactérias Anaeróbias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Oxirredução , Raios Ultravioleta , Água
15.
J Environ Manage ; 193: 360-372, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28237846

RESUMO

Water authorities and drinking water companies are challenged with the question if, where and how to abate contaminants of emerging concern in the urban water cycle. The most effective strategy under given conditions is often unclear to these stakeholders as it requires insight into several aspects of the contaminants such as sources, properties, and mitigation options. Furthermore the various parties in the urban water cycle are not always aware of each other's requirements and priorities. Processes to set priorities and come to agreements are lacking, hampering the articulation and implementation of possible solutions. To support decision makers with this task, a decision support system was developed to serve as a point of departure for getting the relevant stakeholders together and finding common ground. The decision support system was iteratively developed in stages. Stakeholders were interviewed and a decision support system prototype developed. Subsequently, this prototype was evaluated by the stakeholders and adjusted accordingly. The iterative process lead to a final system focused on the management of contaminants of emerging concern within the urban water cycle, from wastewater, surface water and groundwater to drinking water, that suggests mitigation methods beyond technical solutions. Possible wastewater and drinking water treatment techniques in combination with decentralised and non-technical methods were taken into account in an integrated way. The system contains background information on contaminants of emerging concern such as physical/chemical characteristics, toxicity and legislative frameworks, water cycle entrance pathways and a database with associated possible mitigation methods. Monitoring data can be uploaded to assess environmental and human health risks in a specific water system. The developed system was received with great interest by potential users, and implemented in an international water cycle network.


Assuntos
Qualidade da Água , Água/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água
16.
Water Res ; 72: 186-98, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25472689

RESUMO

In light of the increasing interest in development of sustainable potable reuse systems, additional research is needed to elucidate the risks of producing drinking water from new raw water sources. This article investigates the presence and potential health risks of organic micropollutants in greywater, a potential new source for potable water production introduced in this work. An extensive literature survey reveals that almost 280 organic micropollutants have been detected in greywater. A three-tiered approach is applied for the preliminary health risk assessment of these chemicals. Benchmark values are derived from established drinking water standards for compounds grouped in Tier 1, from literature toxicological data for compounds in Tier 2, and from a Threshold of Toxicological Concern approach for compounds in Tier 3. A risk quotient is estimated by comparing the maximum concentration levels reported in greywater to the benchmark values. The results show that for the majority of compounds, risk quotient values were below 0.2, which suggests they would not pose appreciable concern to human health over a lifetime exposure to potable water. Fourteen compounds were identified with risk quotients above 0.2 which may warrant further investigation if greywater is used as a source for potable reuse. The present findings are helpful in prioritizing upcoming greywater quality monitoring and defining the goals of multiple barriers treatment in future water reclamation plants for potable water production.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Saúde , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Reciclagem , Medição de Risco , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 496: 54-62, 2014 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25058934

RESUMO

The presence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water is a topic of concern. Previous risk assessments indicate that their low concentrations are very unlikely to pose risks to human health, however often conclusions had to be based on small datasets and mixture effects were not included. The objectives of this study were to a) investigate if pharmaceuticals in surface and polder water penetrate in drinking water, b) assess the lifelong exposure of consumers to pharmaceuticals via drinking water and c) assess the possible individual and mixture health risks associated with this exposure. To fulfill these aims, a 2-year set of 4-weekly monitoring data of pharmaceuticals was used from three drinking water production plants. The 42 pharmaceuticals that were monitored were selected according to their consumption volume, earlier detection, toxicity and representation of the most relevant therapeutic classes. Lifelong exposures were calculated from concentrations and compared with therapeutic doses. Health risks were assessed by benchmarking concentrations with provisional guideline values. Combined risks of mixtures of pharmaceuticals were estimated using the concept of Concentration Addition. The lifelong exposure to pharmaceuticals via drinking water was calculated to be extremely low, i.e. a few mg, in total corresponding to <10% of the dose a patient is administered on one day. The risk of adverse health effects appeared to be negligibly low. Application of Concentration Addition confirmed this for the mixture of pharmaceuticals simultaneously present. The investigated treatment plants appeared to reduce the (already negligible) risk up to 80%. The large available monitoring dataset enabled the performance of a realistic risk assessment. It showed that working with maximum instead of average concentrations may overestimate the risk considerably.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medição de Risco
18.
Water Sci Technol ; 69(5): 1059-66, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24622556

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the feasibility of installing decentralised installations for wastewater reuse in cities, information about flows at specific spots of a sewer is needed. However, measuring intermittent flows in partially filled conduits is a technical task which is sometimes difficult to accomplish. This paper describes a method to model intermittent discharges in small sewers by linking a stochastic model for wastewater discharge to a hydraulic model to predict the attenuation of the discharges and its impact on the arrival time to a defined spot. The method was validated in a case study. The model estimated adequately the wastewater discharges on working days.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Modelos Teóricos , Abastecimento de Água , Tempo (Meteorologia)
19.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 157(4): A5687, 2013.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23343740

RESUMO

Medications and radiographic contrast dyes are sometimes detected in surface waters, ground water and drinking water; these have proven detrimental effects on organisms living in such waters The concentration of medications found in drinking water is at least a thousand times below their minimum therapeutic dosages. In humans, the long-term effects of daily exposure to low dosages of medications and 'mixture toxicity' is not known; based on the concentrations and substance toxicity, it is presumed that the risk is nil.. Physicians can play their part in controlling the problem of medications becoming part of the water cycle by taking this into account when prescribing medications. Users can make a difference by handling their medications with care and by returning all unused portions to the pharmacy. The pharmaceutical industry can also do its part by taking degradability, options for removal and the environmental effects of medications into account during their stages of development.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Resíduos de Drogas/efeitos adversos , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Poluição Química da Água/efeitos adversos , Poluição Química da Água/análise , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Água Potável/efeitos adversos , Água Potável/análise , Água Potável/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco
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