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1.
J Sports Sci ; : 1-12, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617503

RESUMO

Peripheral vision is often considered vital in (combat) sports, yet most experimental paradigms (e.g., eye tracking) ignore peripheral information or struggle to make inferences about the role of peripheral vision in an in-situ performance environment. This study aimed to determine where visual information is located in the peripheral field during an in-situ combat sports task. Eight advanced judokas competed in grip-fighting exchanges while wearing a mobile eye-tracker to locate gaze direction. Three-dimensional position data of the head and hands were tracked using a VICON motion capture system. Gaze analysis through automatic feature detection showed that participants predominantly fixated on their opponent's chest. Kinematic data were used to calculate the angles between the opponent's hands and the gaze-anchor point on the chest of the opponent. Results revealed a nonlinear relationship between visual field (VF) size and visibility of the hands, with athletes needing a VF of at least 30-40 degrees radius to simultaneously monitor both hands of the opponent most of the time. These findings hold implications for the regulation of Paralympic judo for athletes with vision impairment, suggesting that a less severe degree of impairment should be required to qualify than the current criterion of 20 degrees radius.

2.
Hum Mov Sci ; 78: 102805, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965757

RESUMO

The prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries often involves movement training, but the effectiveness of different motor learning methods has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the effects of linear pedagogy (LP), nonlinear pedagogy (NLP) and differential learning (DL) motor learning methods on changing kinetic and kinematic factors during expected sidestep cutting related to non-contact ACL injuries. These methods primarily differ in the amount and type of movement variability they induce during practice. Sixty-six beginner male soccer players (27.5 ± 2.7 years, 180.6 ± 4.9 cm, 78.2 ± 4.6 kg) were randomly allocated to a group that trained for 12 weeks with either a LP, NLP or DL type of motor learning methods. All participants completed a biomechanical evaluation of side-step cutting before and after the training period. Analysis of covariance was used to compare post-testing outcomes among the groups while accounting for group differences in baseline performance. Changes in all kinematic and kinetic variables in NLP and DL groups were significantly higher compared to the LP group. Most comparisons were also different between NLP and DL group with the exception of vertical ground reaction force, the knee extension/flexion, knee valgus, and ankle dorsiflexion moments. Our findings indicate that beginner male soccer players may benefit from training programs incorporating NLP or DL versus LP to lower biomechanical factors associated with non-contact ACL injury, most likely because of the associated increased execution variability during training. We discuss that practitioners should consider using the NLP or DL methods, and particular the NLP, during which variability is induced to guide search, when implementing training programs to prevent ACL injuries in soccer.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Traumatismos do Joelho , Futebol , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
3.
Front Psychol ; 12: 653004, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995211

RESUMO

Cross-education is the phenomenon in which repeated practice of a unilateral motor task does not only result in performance improvement of the trained limb, but also in the untrained contralateral limb. The aim of this study was to test whether cross-education or positive transfer of learning is also achieved for tasks in which both limbs contribute in different ways by using modified equipment that switches the limbs' role. To this end, a reverse field hockey stick was used that requires a mirroring of arm and hand use and dominance (i.e., right hand on top of the hockey stick instead of the left hand). Two groups of young skilled female field hockey players participated in a crossover-design, in which participants received four training sessions with a reverse hockey stick followed by four training sessions with a regular hockey stick, or vice versa. In a pre-test, intermediate test (following the first intervention period), a post-test (after the second intervention period) and a retention test, participants' performance on a field hockey skill test with a regular hockey stick was measured. The results revealed that training with the reversed hockey stick led to significantly increased improvements compared to training with a regular hockey stick. We conclude that modified equipment can be used to exploit positive transfer of learning by switching the limbs' roles. The findings are discussed by referring to the symmetry preservation principle in dynamic systems theory and have clear practical relevance for field hockey trainers and players seeking to further improve field hockey skills.

4.
Front Psychol ; 12: 645312, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767653

RESUMO

Research in penalty kicking has primarily focused on spatial decision making, while temporal decision making has largely been neglected, even though it is as critical for success. Temporal decision making concerns goalkeepers choosing when to initiate their jump to the ball during the penalty taker's run-up (i.e., jump early or wait long), and penalty takers deciding where to kick the ball, either prior to the run-up or after the goalkeeper has committed to one side. We analyzed penalty takers' and goalkeepers' behavior during penalty shoot-outs at FIFA World Cups and UEFA European Championships to scrutinize if temporal aspects of decision making have an impact on penalty kick success. Results indicate that the likelihood of a penalty kick being scored depends on the combination of penalty takers' and goalkeepers' temporal decision-making strategies. Hence, moving early more often seems fruitful for goalkeepers, while penalty takers should consider varying penalty kick strategy between attempts.

6.
Hum Mov Sci ; 76: 102763, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517202

RESUMO

Traditionally, goalkeeping in the soccer penalty kick has been studied using video-based technology, in which goalkeepers watched video footage of penalty kicks and indicated perceived ball direction. By omitting the requirement to actually dive or jump to the ball, these studies overlooked how action capabilities constrain goalkeepers' actions. By contrast, we examined whether goalkeeping in the penalty kick is consistent with affordance-based control, that is, whether goalkeepers guide their dive by taking into account their action capabilities (i.e., the time they need to intercept the ball). To this end, high- and moderate-skilled goalkeepers faced in-situ penalty kicks. Time constraints were manipulated by varying the kicking distance and the kicker's run-up speed. The results showed that goalkeepers of both skills level scaled the lateral dive onset to their action capabilities, but high-skilled goalkeepers acted closer to their maximum action boundary. In doing so, goalkeepers did not take the varying time constraints into account. Instead, high-skilled goalkeepers acted consistent with a strategy in which they coordinated the onset of the dive with the landing of kicker's non-kicking leg next to the ball. Consequently, we only find partial support for affordance-based control. We propose that this is explained by reliable information becoming available (too) late within the spatiotemporal constraints of the penalty kick.


Assuntos
Atletas , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Futebol , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
7.
Conscious Cogn ; 87: 103056, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310651

RESUMO

It has been claimed that increased reliance on context, or allocentric information, develops when aiming movements are more consciously monitored and/or controlled. Since verbalizing target features requires strong conscious monitoring, we expected an increased reliance on allocentric information when verbalizing a target label (i.e. target number) during movement execution. We examined swiping actions towards a global array of targets embedded in different local array configurations on a tablet under no-verbalization and verbalization conditions. The global and local array configurations allowed separation of contextual-effects from any possible numerical magnitude biases triggered from calling out specific target numbers.The patterns of constant errors in the target directionwere used to assess differences between conditions. Variation in the target context configuration systematically biased movement endpoints in both the no-verbalization and verbalization conditions. Ultimately, our results do not support the assertion that calling out target numbers during movement execution increases the context-dependency of targeted actions.


Assuntos
Movimento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Humanos
8.
Motor Control ; 25(1): 1-18, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004684

RESUMO

It has been shown that texting degrades driving performance, but the extent to which this is mediated by the driver's age and postural stability has not been addressed. Hence, the present study examined the effects of texting, sitting surface stability, and balance training in young and older adults' driving performance. Fifteen young (mean age = 24.3 years) and 13 older (mean age = 62.8 years) participants were tested in a driving simulator with and without texting on a smartphone and while sitting on a stable or unstable surface (i.e., a plastic wobble board), before and after a 30-min sitting balance training. Analyses of variance showed that texting deteriorated driving performance but irrespective of sitting surface stability. Balance training decreased the negative effects of texting on driving, especially in older adults. Perceived workload increased when drivers were texting, and balance training reduced perceived workload. Perceived workload was higher while sitting on the unstable surface, but less so after balance training. Path analyses showed that the effects on driving performance and perceived workload were (indirectly) associated with changes in postural stability (i.e., postural sway). The study confirms that texting threatens safe driving performance by challenging postural stability, especially in older adults. The study also suggests that it is important to further investigate the role balance training can play in reducing these negative effects of texting.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/normas , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/instrumentação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Postura Sentada , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
9.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 30(12): 2485-2497, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749011

RESUMO

The capability to adapt to changing conditions is crucial for safe and successful performance in physical activities and sports. According to the affordance-based control perspective, individuals act in such a way as to take into account the limits of their capability to act. However, it is not clear how strength interacts with skill in shaping performer-environment interactions. We, therefore, determined whether fingertip strength influences patterns of gaze and climbing behavior on new routes of ever-increasing difficulty. We expected that comparatively weaker climbers would show less complex behavior because of an inability to perceive and act. Stronger climbers would show more complex visuo-motor behavior because more opportunities for action remain, even as route difficulty increases. For very strong climbers the route would not be challenging enough, and less complex patterns suffice. Twenty climbers, ranging from lower grade to elite level participated. Maximum fingertip strength was obtained. Participants previewed and then climbed two separate 3 m long traverses, gradually decreasing in edge depth. Gaze and hip positions were collected for subsequent computation of gaze transition entropy (during preview) and hip displacement entropy (during climbing). Data revealed statistically significant curvilinear relationships between both fingertip strength and gaze transition entropy, and fingertip strength, and hip displacement entropy. Visuo-motor complexity is scaled by how close the individual must act relative to boundaries of what the environment affords and does not afford for action given the individual constraints. Future research should examine in greater detail relationships between action capabilities and functional movement variability.


Assuntos
Dedos/fisiologia , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
10.
Motor Control ; 24(3): 422-434, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502971

RESUMO

By assessing the precision of gestural interactions with touchscreen targets, the authors investigate how the type of gesture, target location, and scene visibility impact movement endpoints. Participants made visually and memory-guided pointing and swiping gestures with a stylus to targets located in a semicircle. Specific differences in aiming errors were identified between swiping and pointing. In particular, participants overshot the target more when swiping than when pointing and swiping endpoints showed a stronger bias toward the oblique than pointing gestures. As expected, the authors also found specific differences between conditions with and without delays. Overall, the authors observed an influence on movement execution from each of the three parameters studied and uncovered that the information used to guide movement appears to be gesture specific.


Assuntos
Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hum Mov Sci ; 70: 102586, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217204

RESUMO

The role of different directions of attention on the extent of the off-center effect (penalty takers kick to the bigger side of the goal more often, although they explicitly perceive the goalkeeper in the center of the goal) was investigated for soccer penalty kicking. Regarding the directions of attention of the striker, two conflicting assumptions (attention is paid to the goalkeeper vs. attention is only spent on target) were directly contrasted. Participants viewed a goalkeeper standing either in the middle of the goal or being displaced by different distances to the left or right. In the goal-side-related instruction condition, participants had to indicate the greater goal side and already did so at above chance-level for small displacements of 0.1%, although they were not confident in their perceptual judgments, hinting at the occurrence of the off-center effect. They became mindful of displacements of 0.8% and larger when they indicated the goal side for kicking with greater confidence. In the goalkeeper-related instruction condition, participants were asked to choose a goal side for kicking, but only when they perceived the goalkeeper in the middle of the goal. Participants chose the greater goal side at above chance-level for small displacements of 0.2%. They became mindful of the displacement for a difference of 0.8%. However, when comparing the results of both instruction conditions statistically it turned out that the effect of different directions of attention on the off-center's extent differs from those previously reported. Participants were implicitly influenced by comparably small goalkeeper displacements, but became earlier aware of goalkeeper displacements in the goal-side-related instruction condition.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Conscientização , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Res Dev Disabil ; 97: 103551, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After one year of tuition, up to a third of primary school children show insufficient handwriting. It is unclear whether this early insufficient handwriting predicts persistent handwriting problems, because there is a dearth of studies that followed developmental trajectories longitudinally. AIMS: To describe handwriting development in primary school children longitudinally and to determine predictive positive value and sensitivity of early handwriting assessment. To analyse whether underlying abilities helps early identification of persistent handwriting problems. METHODS: 173 primary school children were yearly assessed for four years using the Concise Assessment Scale for Children's Handwriting and the Beery Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration. RESULTS: Both quality and speed of handwriting increased with years of tuition, with a pronounced increase in quality between two and three years of writing tuition. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were low. The only significant predictor of handwriting quality was handwriting quality in the previous year. For handwriting speed, no significant developmental model was revealed. CONCLUSIONS: Quality and speed of handwriting after one year of tuition is not sufficiently predictive for distinguishing between transient insufficient handwriting and persistent handwriting problems three years later. Practitioners should hold back when referring children for remedial teaching.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Escrita Manual , Desempenho Psicomotor , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos
13.
Hum Mov Sci ; 69: 102556, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989949

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of working memory capacity on implicit and explicit motor sequence learning in young children. To this end, a task was utilized that required a gross motor response (flexing the elbow) and that could differentiate between movement speed (i.e., reaction time and movement time) and movement accuracy. Children aged 7-9 years practiced a serial reaction time task that involved the production of a fixed sequence of elbow flexions of prescribed magnitude across two consecutive days. Children in the explicit group were informed about the presence of the sequence and were shown this sequence, while children in the implicit group were not made aware of the sequence. Additionally, children's verbal and visuospatial working memory capacity was assessed. Results of day 1 regarding movement speed revealed no evidence of sequence learning for either group, but movement accuracy results suggested that sequence learning occurred for the implicit group. For both groups, only improvements in movement accuracy were consolidated on day 2, indicating both general and sequence specific learning. Working memory capacity did not correlate with learning in either of the groups. Children in the explicit group accumulated more sequence knowledge compared to children in the implicit group, but this knowledge did not translate to more or better sequence learning. The minimal differences found between the implicit and explicit condition and the absence of a role for working memory capacity add to the increasing evidence that the observed differences between implicit and explicit sequence learning in adults may be less distinct in children.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Movimento , Análise de Variância , Criança , Humanos , Conhecimento , Destreza Motora , Tempo de Reação , Interface Usuário-Computador
14.
Front Psychol ; 10: 2378, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749732

RESUMO

In mainstream or strong university education, the teacher selects and transmits knowledge and skills that students are to acquire and reproduce. Many researchers of radical embodied cognitive science still adhere to this way of teaching, even though this prescriptive pedagogy deeply contrasts with the theoretical underpinnings of their science. In this paper, we search for alternative ways of teaching that are more aligned with the central non-prescriptive and non-representational tenets of radical embodied cognitive science. To this end, we discuss recent views on education by Tim Ingold and Gert Biesta, which are based on Dewey's philosophy of pragmatism and Gibsons' ecological approach. The paper starts by introducing radical embodied cognitive science, particularly as it relates to motor skill learning, one of our prime interests in research and teaching. Next, we provide a synopsis and critique of the still dominant prescriptive and explicating pedagogy of strong education. Following Ingold and Biesta, we search for a weak alternative through a careful consideration of the education of attention and the participating teacher. To illustrate our arguments, we use examples of the first author's teaching about/of motor skill learning. The paper is concluded by briefly considering the implications of weak education for a radical embodied science of motor skill learning.

15.
Sports Med ; 49(12): 1825-1836, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502140

RESUMO

In combat sports, athletes continuously co-adapt their behavior to that of the opponent. We consider this interactive aspect of combat to be at the heart of skilled performance, yet combat sports research often neglects or limits interaction between combatants. To promote a more interactive approach, the aim of this paper is to understand combat sports from the combined perspective of ecological psychology and dynamic systems. Accordingly, combat athletes are driven by perception of affordances to attack and defend. Two combatants in a fight self-organize into one interpersonal synergy, where the perceptions and actions of both athletes are coupled. To be successful in combat, performers need to manipulate and take advantage of the (in)stability of the system. Skilled performance in combat sports therefore requires brinkmanship: combatants need to be aware of their action boundaries and purposefully act in meta-stable regions on the limits of their capabilities. We review the experimental literature to provide initial support for a synergetic approach to combat sports. Expert combatants seem able to accurately perceive action boundaries for themselves and their opponent. Local-level behavior of individual combatants has been found to lead to spatiotemporal synchronization at the global level of a fight. Yet, a formal understanding of combat as a dynamic system starting with the identification of order and control parameters is still lacking. We conclude that the ecological dynamics perspective offers a promising approach to further our understanding of skilled performance in combat sports, as well as to assist coaches and athletes to promote optimal training and learning.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Artes Marciais/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais
16.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1438, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316423

RESUMO

This study addressed the question whether coaches better allow athletes to self-control their decisions when under pressure or whether to impose a decision upon them. To this end, an experiment was conducted that manipulated the soccer kickers' degree of control in decision-making. Two groups of elite under-19 soccer players (n = 18) took penalty kicks in a self-controlled (i.e., kickers themselves decided to which side to direct the ball) and an externally controlled condition (i.e., the decision to which side to direct the ball was imposed upon the kickers). One group performed the penalty kick under psychological pressure (i.e., the present coaching staff assessed their performance), while the second group performed without pressure. Just before and after performing the kicks, CSAI-2 was used to measure cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence. Further, the number of goals scored, ball placement and speed, and the duration of preparatory and performatory behaviors were determined. The results verified increased levels of cognitive and somatic anxiety after performing the kicks in the pressured group compared to the no-pressure group. In addition, degree of self-control affected the participants' performance, particularly in the pressured group. They scored more goals and placed the kicks higher in the self-controlled than in the externally-controlled condition. Participants also took more time preparing and performing the run-up in the self-controlled condition. Findings indicate that increased self-control helps coping with the debilitating effects of pressure and can counter performance deteriorations. The findings are discussed within the framework of self-control theories, and recommendations for practitioners and athletes are made.

17.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102505, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349179

RESUMO

Creative (original and functional) solutions to problems can be facilitated by guiding search behavior. According to cognitive models, when solving convergent tasks (tasks with few solutions), high available working memory (WM) resources and capacity can guide creative solution emergence via repeated (persistent) search within a solution subcategory. However, no clear associations have been found of WM capacity on creative outcomes when tasks require the individual to enact solutions in divergent doing tasks. This study further tested constraints on WM resources on search behavior and creative outcomes in a convergent doing task. Novices to combat sports were asked to repeatedly strike a target with the intent to achieve an individualized target force. In order to manipulate available WM resources, every ten strikes, participants were asked to recall and then retain a sequence of 5 digits (high load group: n = 21) or 2 digits (low load group: n = 21). The task constraints favored the functionality (or appropriateness) of a qualitatively distinct, non-obvious solution. Functionality was assessed using the force registered for each strike. Originality was assessed in terms of how infrequently actions occurred. Finally, search behavior was quantified based on changes in which limb was used and changes in which part of the limb was used from one strike to the next. There were no significant effects of WM load on creativity outcomes, solution search, or task success. Rather, task success was related to efficient search and creativity. Future research should focus on constraints (other than WM resources) that promote efficient search.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento Apetitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia
18.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 197: 16-22, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077994

RESUMO

The aims of the study were to initially investigate whether the perceived distance of a field hockey push pass task was influenced by manipulating task difficulty (Experiment 1), and further, expanding on the research, whether perceptual biases would translate into the execution of a corresponding push pass action (Experiment 2). Based on predictions from the two-visual systems model, we hypothesized that the action-specific perceptual biases in distance perception would not translate into the control of movement. In Experiment 1, elite field hockey players estimated the distance from targets that differed in size before making push pass actions toward the target (i.e., the smaller targets being more difficult). Results showed that participants did estimate the perceived distance of the push pass task to be larger as a function of task difficulty. We found a similar result in Experiment 2, and in addition, manipulated the required outcome of the push-pass while measuring the speed of the push-pass and found that a perceptual bias did not translate into the execution of the actual push pass task (Experiment 2). In line with the action-specific account of perception, a perceptual bias arose that may assist in making adaptive action choices. However, consistent with the two-visual systems model, this perceptual bias did not affect subsequent control of movement, preventing it from becoming maladaptive. Implications for talent identification and development are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Percepção de Distância/fisiologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Hóquei/psicologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Motor Control ; 23(1): 34-51, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012053

RESUMO

Effective learning methods are essential for motor skill development and participation in children with low motor abilities. Current learning methods predominantly aim to increase declarative knowledge through explicit instructions that necessitate sufficient working memory capacity. This study investigated the roles of declarative knowledge and working memory capacity in explicit motor learning of children with low motor abilities. We studied both acquisition performance (i.e., performance during practice) and learning (i.e., the improvement in performance from pretest to posttest). After practice with explicit instructions, children with low motor abilities showed significant learning, albeit that improvement was relatively small. However, working memory capacity and declarative knowledge did not predict learning. By contrast, working memory capacity and declarative knowledge did predict performance during practice. These findings suggest that explicit instructions enhance motor performance during practice, but that motor learning per se is largely implicit in children with low motor abilities.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Clin Rehabil ; 33(2): 207-221, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:: This study aimed to assess if external focus instructions result in greater improvements in motor skill and automaticity compared to internal focus instructions in stroke patients. DESIGN:: Double-blind randomized controlled trial. SETTING:: Inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit. SUBJECTS:: A total of 63 stroke patients (Meanage = 59.6 ± 10.7 years; Meandays since stroke = 28.5 ± 16.6; MedianFunctional Ambulation Categories = 4). INTERVENTIONS:: Patients were randomly assigned to an internal ( N = 31) or external ( N = 32) focus instruction group. Both groups practiced a balance board stabilization task, three times per week, for three weeks. Balance performance was assessed at baseline, and after one and three weeks of practice. MAIN MEASURES:: Primary outcome was the threshold stiffness (Nm/rad) at which patients could stay balanced. Secondary outcomes were patients' sway (root-mean-square error in degrees) at the baseline threshold stiffness under single- and dual-task conditions, and their performance on the Timed Up and Go Test and Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation. RESULTS:: Both groups achieved similar improvements in threshold stiffness (∆= 27.1 ± 21.1 Nm/rad), and single- (∆= 1.8 ± 2.3° root-mean-square error) and dual-task sway (∆= 1.7 ± 2.1° root-mean-square error) after three weeks of practice. No differences were found in improvements in clinical tests of balance and mobility. Patients with comparatively good balance and sensory function, and low attention capacity showed greatest improvements with external focus instructions. CONCLUSION:: External focus instructions did not result in greater improvement in balance skill in stroke patients compared to internal focus instructions. Results suggest that tailoring instructions to the individual stroke patient may result in optimal improvements in motor skill.


Assuntos
Atenção , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Caminhada
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