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1.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e24414, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are recommended to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) at 35 to 45 years of age. RRSO substantially decreases ovarian cancer risk, but at the cost of immediate menopause. Knowledge about the potential adverse effects of premenopausal RRSO, such as increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cognitive dysfunction, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL), is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the long-term health effects of premenopausal RRSO on cardiovascular disease, bone health, cognitive functioning, urological complaints, sexual functioning, and HRQoL in women with high familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer. METHODS: We will conduct a multicenter cross-sectional study with prospective follow-up, nested in a nationwide cohort of women at high familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer. A total of 500 women who have undergone RRSO before 45 years of age, with a follow-up period of at least 10 years, will be compared with 250 women (frequency matched on current age) who have not undergone RRSO or who have undergone RRSO at over 55 years of age. Participants will complete an online questionnaire on lifestyle, medical history, cardiovascular risk factors, osteoporosis, cognitive function, urological complaints, and HRQoL. A full cardiovascular assessment and assessment of bone mineral density will be performed. Blood samples will be obtained for marker analysis. Cognitive functioning will be assessed objectively with an online neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS: This study was approved by the institutional review board in July 2018. In February 2019, we included our first participant. As of November 2020, we had enrolled 364 participants in our study. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge from this study will contribute to counseling women with a high familial risk of breast/ovarian cancer about the long-term health effects of premenopausal RRSO. The results can also be used to offer health recommendations after RRSO. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03835793; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03835793. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24414.

2.
BMC Med Genomics ; 13(1): 169, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Precision oncology' can ensure the best suitable treatment at the right time by tailoring treatment towards individual patient and comprehensive tumour characteristics. In current molecular pathology, diagnostic tests which are part of the standard of care (SOC) only cover a limited part of the spectrum of genomic changes, and often are performed in an iterative way. This occurs at the expense of valuable patient time, available tissue sample, and interferes with 'first time right' treatment decisions. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) captures a near complete view of genomic characteristics of a tumour in a single test. Moreover, WGS facilitates faster implementation of new treatment relevant biomarkers. At present, WGS mainly has been applied in study settings, but its performance in a routine diagnostic setting remains to be evaluated. The WIDE study aims to investigate the feasibility and validity of WGS-based diagnostics in clinical practice. METHODS: 1200 consecutive patients in a single comprehensive cancer centre with (suspicion of) a metastasized solid tumour will be enrolled with the intention to analyse tumour tissue with WGS, in parallel to SOC diagnostics. Primary endpoints are (1) feasibility of implementation of WGS-based diagnostics into routine clinical care and (2) clinical validation of WGS by comparing identification of treatment-relevant variants between WGS and SOC molecular diagnostics. Secondary endpoints entail (1) added clinical value in terms of additional treatment options and (2) cost-effectiveness of WGS compared to SOC diagnostics through a Health Technology Assessment (HTA) analysis. Furthermore, the (3) perceived impact of WGS-based diagnostics on clinical decision making will be evaluated through questionnaires. The number of patients included in (experimental) therapies initiated based on SOC or WGS diagnostics will be reported with at least 3 months follow-up. The clinical efficacy is beyond the scope of WIDE. Key performance indicators will be evaluated after every 200 patients enrolled, and procedures optimized accordingly, to continuously improve the diagnostic performance of WGS in a routine clinical setting. DISCUSSION: WIDE will yield the optimal conditions under which WGS can be implemented in a routine molecular diagnostics setting and establish the position of WGS compared to SOC diagnostics in routine clinical care.

3.
J Community Genet ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880035

RESUMO

Individuals having a genetic predisposition to cancer and their partners face challenging decisions regarding their wish to have children. This study aimed to determine the effects of an online decision aid to support couples in making an informed decision regarding their reproductive options. A nationwide pretest-posttest study was conducted in the Netherlands among 131 participants between November 2016 and May 2018. Couples were eligible for participation if one partner had a pathogenic variant predisposing for an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome. Participants completed a questionnaire before use (T0), and at 3 months (T3) after use of the decision aid to assess the primary outcome measure informed decision-making, and the secondary outcome measures decisional conflict, knowledge, realistic expectations, level of deliberation, and decision self-efficacy. T0-T3 comparisons show an overall positive effect for all outcome measures (all ps < 0.05; knowledge (ES = - 1.05), decisional conflict (ES = 0.99), participants' decision self-efficacy (ES = -0.55), level of deliberation (ES = - 0.50), and realistic expectations (ES = - 0.44). Informed decision-making increased over time and 58.0% of the participants made an informed reproductive decision at T3. The online decision aid seems to be an appropriate tool to complement standard reproductive counseling to support our target group in making an informed reproductive decision. Use of the decision aid may lessen the negative psychological impact of decision-making on couples' daily life and wellbeing.

4.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in the CDKN2A gene are generally associated with the development of melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but specific genotype-phenotype correlations might exist and the extent of PDAC risk is not well established for many variants. METHODS: Using the Dutch national familial melanoma database, we identified all families with a pathogenic CDKN2A variant and investigated the occurrence of PDAC within these families. We also estimated the standardised incidence ratio and lifetime PDAC risk for carriers of a highly prevalent variant in these families. RESULTS: We identified 172 families in which 649 individuals carried 15 different pathogenic variants. The most prevalent variant was the founder mutation c.225_243del (p16-Leiden, 484 proven carriers). Second most prevalent was c.67G>C (55 proven carriers). PDAC developed in 95 of 163 families (58%, including 373 of 629 proven carriers) harbouring a variant with an effect on the p16INK4a protein, whereas PDAC did not occur in the 9 families (20 proven carriers) with a variant affecting only p14ARF. In the c.67G>C families, PDAC occurred in 12 of the 251 (5%) persons at risk. The standardised incidence ratio was 19.1 (95% CI 8.3 to 33.6) and the cumulative PDAC incidence at age 75 years (lifetime risk) was 19% (95% CI 7.5% to 30.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the notion that pathogenic CDKN2A variants affecting the p16INK4a protein, including c.67G>C, are associated with increased PDAC risk and carriers of such variants should be offered pancreatic cancer surveillance. There is no clinical evidence that impairment of only the p14ARF protein leads to an increased PDAC risk.

5.
Endoscopy ; 52(10): 839-846, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND : The International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium (IGCLC) consensus guideline advises prophylactic gastrectomy in early adulthood to prevent gastric cancer development in CDH1 germline mutation carriers; psychosocial reasons may postpone gastrectomy. We analyzed the yield of signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) during surveillance gastroscopy in CDH1 mutation carriers. METHODS : A retrospective analysis on surveillance gastroscopies in CDH1 mutation carriers was performed. The yield of SRCC in both targeted and random biopsies was studied. Endoscopic (biopsy) results were compared with the histopathologic outcomes in gastrectomy specimens. RESULTS : 42 CDH1 mutation carriers (18 men; mean age 43, range 20-82 years) underwent 96 surveillance gastroscopies. SRCC lesions were identified on surveillance gastroscopy in 21 patients (50 %), by either targeted biopsies only (n = 11), random biopsies only (n = 3), or both random and targeted biopsies (n = 7). SRCC was detected in 41 /377 targeted biopsies (11 %), whereas random biopsies revealed SRCC in 14/1563 biopsies (0.9 %). At least one SRCC lesion was found in 26 of 30 gastrectomy specimens. In 18 of these 26 specimens (69 %), SRCC had been identified by endoscopic biopsies. Missed lesions were all small superficial SRCC foci, mainly in the body of the stomach. CONCLUSION : In our cohort of CDH1 mutation carriers, SRCC lesions were identified by an extensive endoscopic surveillance protocol in 69 % of SRCC-positive patients who underwent a gastric resection. The low number of SRCC detected through random sampling demands a critical reappraisal of random biopsy sampling in the IGCLC guideline.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(8): 1020-1027, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300191

RESUMO

When hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) due to a BRCA1/BRCA2 germline pathogenic variant is diagnosed, the proband will be asked to inform other at-risk family members. In the Netherlands, a guideline was introduced in 2012 which provided detailed recommendations regarding this proband-mediated procedure. We now evaluated the uptake of predictive BRCA1/BRCA2 testing in 40 consecutive HBOC families diagnosed in our centre in 2014. We performed a retrospective observational study of all 40 families in which a pathogenic BRCA1/BRCA2 germline variant was identified during 2014. We scored the uptake of predictive and confirmatory testing by the end of 2018 and explored factors associated with the level of uptake. Two families were excluded. In the remaining 38 families, among 239 family members ≥18 years at 50% risk of being a mutation carrier or at 25% risk if the family member at 50% risk was deceased, 102 (43%) were tested. Among 108 females 25-75 years of age at 50% risk, 59 (55%) underwent predictive or confirmatory testing, and among 43 males at 50% risk with daughters ≥18 years, 22 (51%) were tested. Factors which complicated cascade screening included family members living abroad, probands not wanting to share information and limited pedigree information. In conclusion, the standard proband-mediated procedure of informing relatives seems to be far from optimal. We suggest a tailored approach for each family, including the option of a direct approach to at-risk family members by the geneticist. In addition, we suggest detailed monitoring and follow-up of families.

7.
Fam Cancer ; 19(1): 65-76, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773425

RESUMO

Pre-test counseling about multigene panel testing involves many uncertainties. Ideally, counselees are informed about uncertainties in a way that enables them to make an informed decision about panel testing. It is presently unknown whether and how uncertainty is discussed during initial cancer genetic counseling. We therefore investigated whether and how counselors discuss and address uncertainty, and the extent of shared decision-making (SDM), and explored associations between counselors' communication and their characteristics in consultations on panel testing for cancer. For this purpose, consultations of counselors discussing a multigene panel with a simulated patient were videotaped. Simulated patients represented a counselee who had had multiple cancer types, according to a script. Before and afterwards, counselors completed a survey. Counselors' uncertainty expressions, initiating and the framing of expressions, and their verbal responses to scripted uncertainties of the simulated patient were coded by two researchers independently. Coding was done according to a pre-developed coding scheme using The Observer XT software for observational analysis. Additionally, the degree of SDM was assessed by two observers. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to assess associations of communicated uncertainties, responses and the extent of SDM, with counselors' background characteristics. In total, twenty-nine counselors, including clinical geneticists, genetic counselors, physician assistants-in-training, residents and interns, participated of whom working experience varied between 0 and 25 years. Counselors expressed uncertainties mainly regarding scientific topics (94%) and on their own initiative (95%). Most expressions were framed directly (77%), e.g. We don't know, and were emotionally neutral (59%; without a positive/negative value). Counselors mainly responded to uncertainties of the simulated patient by explicitly referring to the uncertainty (69%), without providing space for further disclosure (66%). More experienced counselors provided less space to further disclose uncertainty (p < 0.02), and clinical geneticists scored lower on SDM compared with other types of counselors (p < 0.03). Our findings that counselors mainly communicate scientific uncertainties and use space-reducing responses imply that the way counselors address counselees' personal uncertainties and concerns during initial cancer genetic counseling is suboptimal.

9.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 03 01.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875152

RESUMO

Three BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations occur more frequently in the Jewish population than in the general population. In Jewish patients with breast cancer about 10% of cases are caused by one of these mutations; consequently, all patients with breast cancer and who are of Jewish ancestry, or their healthy family members, are eligible for genetic testing.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Judeus/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
J Genet Couns ; 28(3): 533-542, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629779

RESUMO

A nationwide pretest-posttest study was conducted in all clinical genetic centres in the Netherlands, to evaluate the effects of an online decision aid to support persons who have a genetic predisposition to cancer and their partners in making an informed decision regarding reproductive options. Main outcomes (decisional conflict, knowledge, realistic expectations, level of deliberation, and decision self-efficacy) were measured before use (T0), immediately after use (T1), and at 2 weeks (T2) after use of the decision aid. Paired sample t tests were used to compute differences between the first and subsequent measurements. T0-T1 and T0-T2 comparisons indicate a significant reduction in mean decisional conflict scores with stronger effects for participants with high baseline decisional conflict. Furthermore, use of the decision aid resulted in increased knowledge levels and improved realistic expectations. Level of deliberation only increased for participants with lower baseline levels of deliberation. Decision self-efficacy increased for those with low baseline scores, whereas those with high baseline scores showed a reduction at T2. It can be concluded that use of the decision aid resulted in several positive outcomes indicative of informed decision-making. The decision aid is an appropriate and highly appreciated tool to be used in addition to reproductive counseling.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias/genética , Sistemas On-Line , Participação do Paciente , Reprodução , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Parceiros Sexuais
11.
Fam Cancer ; 18(1): 137-146, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846879

RESUMO

An online decision aid to support persons having a genetic predisposition to cancer and their partners during reproductive decision-making was developed. A two-phase usability test was conducted among 12 couples (N = 22; 2 persons participated without their partner) at risk for hereditary cancer and 15 health care providers. Couples and health care providers expressed similar suggestions for improvements, and evaluated the modified decision aid as acceptable, easy to use, and comprehensible. The final decision aid was pilot tested (N = 16) with paired sample t tests comparing main outcomes (decisional conflict, knowledge, realistic expectations regarding the reproductive options and decision self-efficacy) before (T0), immediately (T1) and 2 weeks after (T2) use of the decision aid. Pilot testing indicated decreased decisional conflict scores, increased knowledge, and improved realistic expectations regarding the reproductive options, at T1 and T2. No effect was found for couples' decision self-efficacy. The positive findings during usability testing were thus reflected in the pilot study. The decision aid will be further evaluated in a nationwide pretest-posttest study to facilitate implementation in the onco-genetic counselling setting. Ultimately, it is expected that the decision aid will enable end-users to make an informed decision.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Reprodução/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
12.
Fam Cancer ; 18(1): 127-135, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846880

RESUMO

Following the identification in a proband of a germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation in hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (HBOC) or a DNA mismatch repair gene mutation in Lynch syndrome (LS) he or she will be asked to inform at-risk family members about the option for presymptomatic DNA testing. However, in clinical practice multiple factors may complicate the process of information sharing. We critically evaluated studies on the uptake of presymptomatic genetic testing in both syndromes. A search of relevant MeSH terms and key words in PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO yielded 795 articles published between 2001 and 2017. Thirty of these publications included outcome measures relevant for the current study. Based on information provided by the proband (15 studies) the uptake of presymptomatic genetic testing ranged from 15 to 57% in HBOC, while one study in LS kindreds reported an uptake of 70%. Based on information provided by genetics centres (the remaining 15 studies) the uptake ranged from 21 to 44% in HBOC and from 41 to 94% in LS. However, when genetics centres contacted relatives directly a substantial number of additional family members could be tested. Proband-mediated provision of information to at-risk relatives is a standard procedure in hereditary breast-ovarian cancer and Lynch syndrome. However, the resulting uptake of presymptomatic testing is disappointing-an issue that is now urgent due to the increased use of genetic testing in clinical oncology. We propose that additional strategies should be introduced including the geneticist directly contacting relatives. The outcomes of these strategies should be carefully monitored and evaluated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Linhagem
13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(2): 497-503, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Classification of rare BRCA1 missense variants presents a major challenge for the counseling and treatment of patients. Variant classification can be complicated by conflicting lines of evidence. BRCA1 c.5309G>T p.(Gly1770Val) has been shown to abrogate BRCA1 protein homologous DNA repair; however, multiple sequence alignment demonstrates a lack of sequence conservation at this position, suggesting that glycine at position 1770 may not be essential for cellular maintenance in humans. We analyzed clinical information to resolve the classification of BRCA1 c.5309G>T p.(Gly1770Val). METHODS: We performed multifactorial likelihood analysis combining segregation data for 14 informative families, and breast tumor histopathological data for 17 variant carriers, ascertained through the ENIGMA consortium. RESULTS: Bayes segregation analysis gave a likelihood ratio of 101:1 in favor of pathogenicity. The vast majority of breast tumors showed features indicative of pathogenic variant carrier status, resulting in a likelihood ratio of 15800794:1 towards pathogenicity. Despite a low prior probability of pathogenicity (0.03) based on bioinformatic prediction, multifactorial likelihood analysis including segregation and histopathology analysis gave a posterior probability of > 0.99 and final classification of Pathogenic. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that BRCA1 c.5309G>T p.(Gly1770Val), previously described as a Moroccan founder variant, should be treated as a disease-causing variant despite a lack of evolutionary conservation at this amino acid position. Additionally, we stress that bioinformatic information should be used in combination with other data, either direct clinical evidence or some form of clinical calibration, to arrive at a final clinical classification.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Evolução Molecular , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sequência Conservada , Reparo do DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
14.
Br J Cancer ; 119: 357-363, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is rarely examined. As carriers may increasingly undergo IVF as part of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), we examined the impact of ovarian stimulation for IVF on breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1550 BRCA1 and 964 BRCA2 mutation carriers, derived from the nationwide HEBON study and the nationwide PGD registry. Questionnaires, clinical records and linkages with the Netherlands Cancer Registry were used to collect data on IVF exposure, risk-reducing surgeries and cancer diagnosis, respectively. Time-dependent Cox regression analyses were conducted, stratified for birth cohort and adjusted for subfertility. RESULTS: Of the 2514 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, 3% (n = 76) were exposed to ovarian stimulation for IVF. In total, 938 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (37.3%) were diagnosed with breast cancer. IVF exposure was not associated with risk of breast cancer (HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.46-1.36). Similar results were found for the subgroups of subfertile women (n = 232; HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.39-1.37) and BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.60-2.09). In addition, age at and recency of first IVF treatment were not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSION: No evidence was found for an association between ovarian stimulation for IVF and breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Indução da Ovulação , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco
15.
J Med Genet ; 55(10): 669-674, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In approximately 10% of all gastric cancer (GC) cases, a heritable cause is suspected. A subset of these cases have a causative germline CDH1 mutation; however, in most cases the cause remains unknown. Our objective was to assess to what extent these remaining cases may be explained by germline mutations in the novel candidate GC predisposing genes CTNNA1, MAP3K6 or MYD88. METHODS: We sequenced a large cohort of unexplained young and/or familial patients with GC (n=286) without a CDH1germline mutation for germline variants affecting CTNNA1, MAP3K6 and MYD88 using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach based on single-molecule molecular inversion probes. RESULTS: Predicted deleterious germline variants were not encountered in MYD88, but recurrently observed in CTNNA1 (n=2) and MAP3K6 (n=3) in our cohort of patients with GC. In contrast to deleterious variants in CTNNA1, deleterious variants in MAP3K6 also occur frequently in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results MAP3K6 should no longer be considered a GC predisposition gene, whereas deleterious CTNNA1 variants are confirmed as an infrequent cause of GC susceptibility. Biallelic MYD88 germline mutations are at most a very rare cause of GC susceptibility as no additional cases were identified.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Caderinas/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , alfa Catenina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
16.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 87(2): 397-404.e2, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28455161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the yield of endoscopic screening in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of CDH1-negative hereditary diffuse-type gastric cancer (HDGC) patients. METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, in 2 expert centers in the Netherlands data were collected on FDRs from families fulfilling the international HDGC criteria that underwent endoscopic screening. Extensive inspection of the stomach was performed by gastroscopy, taking random and/or targeted stomach biopsy specimens to identify diffuse-type gastric cancer. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2016, 90 persons (40% men; mean age, 48 years) from 40 families were offered endoscopic screening. The mean number of endoscopies per person was 3. The mean follow-up time was 46 months and mean endoscopic interval 20 months. Signet ring cell carcinoma foci restricted to the mucosa (pT1a) were identified in 4 persons (4%) from 1 family, which afterward was diagnosed with a germline CTNNA1 mutation. Advanced poorly cohesive gastric carcinoma was diagnosed in 1 person from another family. Intestinal metaplasia was diagnosed in 38 persons (42%) and low-grade dysplasia in 4 persons (4%). Additionally, in 40 persons (44%) scar tissue was observed in the gastric mucosa, which can hinder the endoscopic detection of small white lesions typical for HDGC. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic screening in HDGC families without a pathogenic CDH1 mutation may be reasonable, as we detected signet ring cell carcinomas in 6% of persons screened. However, the criteria and frequency of screening may have to be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/patologia , Gastroscopia , Metaplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD , Biópsia , Caderinas/genética , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Metaplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto Jovem , alfa Catenina/genética
17.
Fam Cancer ; 17(4): 507-515, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29147930

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) patients are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Phenotypic variability might in part be explained by common susceptibility loci identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Previous studies focused mostly on MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 carriers, with conflicting results. We aimed to determine the role of GWAS SNPs in PMS2 mutation carriers. A cohort study was performed in 507 PMS2 carriers (124 CRC cases), genotyped for 24 GWAS SNPs, including SNPs at 11q23.1 and 8q23.3. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a weighted Cox regression analysis to correct for ascertainment bias. Discrimination was assessed with a concordance statistic in a bootstrap cross-validation procedure. Individual SNPs only had non-significant associations with CRC occurrence with HRs lower than 2, although male carriers of allele A at rs1321311 (6p21.31) may have increased risk of CRC (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.0). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 24 HRs had an HR of 2.6 (95% CI 1.5-4.6) for the highest compared to the lowest quartile, but had no discriminative ability (c statistic 0.52). Previously suggested SNPs do not modify CRC risk in PMS2 carriers. Future large studies are needed for improved risk stratification among Lynch syndrome patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(11): 1246-1252, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875981

RESUMO

Recognition of individuals with a genetic predisposition to gastric cancer (GC) enables preventive measures. However, the underlying cause of genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer remains largely unexplained. We performed germline whole-exome sequencing on leukocyte DNA of 54 patients from 53 families with genetically unexplained diffuse-type and intestinal-type GC to identify novel GC-predisposing candidate genes. As young age at diagnosis and familial clustering are hallmarks of genetic tumor susceptibility, we selected patients that were diagnosed below the age of 35, patients from families with two cases of GC at or below age 60 and patients from families with three GC cases at or below age 70. All included individuals were tested negative for germline CDH1 mutations before or during the study. Variants that were possibly deleterious according to in silico predictions were filtered using several independent approaches that were based on gene function and gene mutation burden in controls. Despite a rigorous search, no obvious candidate GC predisposition genes were identified. This negative result stresses the importance of future research studies in large, homogeneous cohorts.


Assuntos
Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD , Caderinas/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico
19.
JAMA ; 317(23): 2402-2416, 2017 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632866

RESUMO

Importance: The clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers requires accurate, prospective cancer risk estimates. Objectives: To estimate age-specific risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for mutation carriers and to evaluate risk modification by family cancer history and mutation location. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of 6036 BRCA1 and 3820 BRCA2 female carriers (5046 unaffected and 4810 with breast or ovarian cancer or both at baseline) recruited in 1997-2011 through the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study, the Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, with ascertainment through family clinics (94%) and population-based studies (6%). The majority were from large national studies in the United Kingdom (EMBRACE), the Netherlands (HEBON), and France (GENEPSO). Follow-up ended December 2013; median follow-up was 5 years. Exposures: BRCA1/2 mutations, family cancer history, and mutation location. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual incidences, standardized incidence ratios, and cumulative risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer. Results: Among 3886 women (median age, 38 years; interquartile range [IQR], 30-46 years) eligible for the breast cancer analysis, 5066 women (median age, 38 years; IQR, 31-47 years) eligible for the ovarian cancer analysis, and 2213 women (median age, 47 years; IQR, 40-55 years) eligible for the contralateral breast cancer analysis, 426 were diagnosed with breast cancer, 109 with ovarian cancer, and 245 with contralateral breast cancer during follow-up. The cumulative breast cancer risk to age 80 years was 72% (95% CI, 65%-79%) for BRCA1 and 69% (95% CI, 61%-77%) for BRCA2 carriers. Breast cancer incidences increased rapidly in early adulthood until ages 30 to 40 years for BRCA1 and until ages 40 to 50 years for BRCA2 carriers, then remained at a similar, constant incidence (20-30 per 1000 person-years) until age 80 years. The cumulative ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years was 44% (95% CI, 36%-53%) for BRCA1 and 17% (95% CI, 11%-25%) for BRCA2 carriers. For contralateral breast cancer, the cumulative risk 20 years after breast cancer diagnosis was 40% (95% CI, 35%-45%) for BRCA1 and 26% (95% CI, 20%-33%) for BRCA2 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] for comparing BRCA2 vs BRCA1, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82; P=.001 for difference). Breast cancer risk increased with increasing number of first- and second-degree relatives diagnosed as having breast cancer for both BRCA1 (HR for ≥2 vs 0 affected relatives, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.41-2.82; P<.001 for trend) and BRCA2 carriers (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.08-3.37; P=.02 for trend). Breast cancer risk was higher if mutations were located outside vs within the regions bounded by positions c.2282-c.4071 in BRCA1 (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11-1.93; P=.007) and c.2831-c.6401 in BRCA2 (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36-2.74; P<.001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide estimates of cancer risk based on BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carrier status using prospective data collection and demonstrate the potential importance of family history and mutation location in risk assessment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(5): 1236-1241, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27620280

RESUMO

Purpose: As estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers arises at an older age with less aggressive tumor characteristics than ER-negative (ER-) BRCA1-mutated breast cancer, it has been suggested that these tumors are "sporadic" and not BRCA1 driven. With the introduction of targeted treatments specific for tumors with a nonfunctioning BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene, the question whether the BRCA genes are impaired in the tumor is highly relevant. Therefore, we performed genomic profiling of BRCA1-mutated ER+ tumors.Experimental Design: Genomic profiling, BRCA1 promoter methylation assessment, and loss of heterozygosity analysis were done on 16 BRCA1-mutated ER+ tumors. Results were compared with 57 BRCA1-mutated ER- tumors, 36 BRCA2-mutated ER+-associated tumors, and 182 sporadic ER+ tumors.Results: The genomic profile of BRCA1-mutated ER+ tumors was different from BRCA1-mutated ER- breast tumors, but highly similar to BRCA2-mutated ER+ tumors. In 83% of the BRCA1-mutated ER+ tumors, loss of the wild-type BRCA1 allele was observed. In addition, clinicopathologic variables in BRCA1-mutated ER+ cancer were also more similar to BRCA2-mutated ER+ and sporadic ER+ breast cancer than to BRCA1-mutated ER- cancers.Conclusions: As BRCA1-mutated ER+ tumors show a BRCAness copy number profile and LOH, it is likely that the loss of a functional BRCA1 protein plays a role in tumorigenesis in BRCA1-mutated ER+ tumors. Therefore, we hypothesize that these tumors are sensitive to drugs targeting the BRCA1 gene defect, providing new targeted treatment modalities for advanced BRCA-deficient, ER+ breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(5); 1236-41. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
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