Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 74
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Psychometrika ; 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290564

RESUMO

Education can be viewed as a control theory problem in which students seek ongoing exogenous input-either through traditional classroom teaching or other alternative training resources-to minimize the discrepancies between their actual and target (reference) performance levels. Using illustrative data from [Formula: see text] Dutch elementary school students as measured using the Math Garden, a web-based computer adaptive practice and monitoring system, we simulate and evaluate the outcomes of using off-line and finite memory linear quadratic controllers with constraintsto forecast students' optimal training durations. By integrating population standards with each student's own latent change information, we demonstrate that adoption of the control theory-guided, person- and time-specific training dosages could yield increased training benefits at reduced costs compared to students' actual observed training durations, and a fixed-duration training scheme. The control theory approach also outperforms a linear scheme that provides training recommendations based on observed scores under noisy and the presence of missing data. Design-related issues such as ways to determine the penalty cost of input administration and the size of the control horizon window are addressed through a series of illustrative and empirically (Math Garden) motivated simulations.

2.
Psychol Rev ; 129(1): 1-3, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266788

RESUMO

During its 128 years of operation, Psychological Review has exerted a powerful and consistent influence on the field under its long-term sponsor, the American Psychological Association (APA). Notwithstanding changes in ownership, it has always been what it is now-the flagship of the Association and the field. Since its inception, the journal has focused on theoretical analyses (e.g., systematic evaluations of alternative theories) and/or developments (e.g., the generation of novel theories) in the psychological sciences. Thus, the objectives of any incoming editor and editorial board remain steadfast: (a) to maintain and enhance the standing of Psychological Review in the field and (b) to correspondingly align its scope, content, and operations with any changes in the Association, the field of psychology in particular, and science and society in general. The journal's new senior editorial team is excited to navigate Psychological Review through the ever-changing landscape of psychology at this time of multiple challenges, referred to by the United Nations Secretary General António Guterres as "the greatest cascade of crises in our lifetime." Although we are initiating a number of changes, we will do our best to maintain Psychological Review's excellence. This will involve our capacity to reflect on and disseminate new theoretical developments, enriched and inspired by current trends in science in general and in psychological science in particular, while maintaining an overarching commitment to advancing the field through the incorporation of diverse perspectives. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Addict Behav ; 129: 107252, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182945

RESUMO

Many people across the world use potentially addictive legal and illegal substances, but evidence suggests that not all use leads to heavy use and dependence, as some substances are used moderately for long periods of time. Here, we empirically examine, the stability of and transitions between three substance use states: zero-use, moderate use, and heavy use. We investigate two large datasets from the US and the Netherlands on yearly usage and change of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results, which we make available through an extensive interactive tool, suggests that there are stable moderate use states, even after meeting criteria for a positive diagnosis of substance abuse or dependency, for both alcohol and cannabis use. Moderate use of tobacco, however, was rare. We discuss implications of recognizing three states rather than two states as a modeling target, in which the moderate use state can both act as an intervention target or as a gateway between zero use and heavy use.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Cannabis , Abuso de Maconha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco
4.
Dev Sci ; 25(2): e13174, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453470

RESUMO

The ability to monitor and adjust our performance is crucial for adaptive behaviour, a key component of human cognitive control. One widely studied metric of this behaviour is post-error slowing (PES), the finding that humans tend to slow down their performance after making an error. This study is a first attempt at generalizing the effect of PES to an online adaptive learning environment where children practise mathematics and language skills. This population was of particular interest since the major development of error processing occurs during childhood. Eight million response patterns were collected from 150,000 users aged 5 to 13 years old for 6 months, across 23 different learning activities. PES could be observed in most learning activities and greater PES was associated with greater post-error accuracy. PES also varied as a function of several variables. At the task level, PES was greater when there was less time pressure, when errors were slower, and in learning activities focusing on mathematical rather than language skills. At the individual level, students who chose the most difficult level to practise and had higher skill ability also showed greater PES. Finally, non-linear developmental differences in error processing were found, where the PES magnitude increased from 6 to 9-years-old and decreased from 9 to 13. This study shows that PES underlies adaptive behaviour in an educational context for primary school students.


Assuntos
Educação à Distância , Idioma , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Matemática , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
5.
Addict Behav ; 127: 107201, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959078

RESUMO

Addiction is a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon, impacted by biological predispositions, psychological processes, and the social environment. Using mathematical and computational models that allow for surrogative reasoning may be a promising avenue for gaining a deeper understanding of this complex behavior. This paper reviews and classifies a selection of formal models of addiction focusing on the intra- and inter-individual dynamics, i.e., (neuro) psychological models and social models. We find that these modeling approaches to addiction are too disjoint and argue that in order to unravel the complexities of biopsychosocial processes of addiction, models should integrate intra- and inter-individual factors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Meio Social
6.
Psychol Methods ; 26(6): 719-742, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323582

RESUMO

Estimating causal relations between two or more variables is an important topic in psychology. Establishing a causal relation between two variables can help us in answering that question of why something happens. However, using solely observational data are insufficient to get the complete causal picture. The combination of observational and experimental data may give adequate information to properly estimate causal relations. In this study, we consider the conditions where estimating causal relations might work and we show how well different algorithms, namely the Peter and Clark algorithm, the Downward Ranking of Feed-Forward Loops algorithm, the Transitive Reduction for Weighted Signed Digraphs algorithm, the Invariant Causal Prediction (ICP) algorithm and the Hidden Invariant Causal Prediction (HICP) algorithm, determine causal relations in a simulation study. Results showed that the ICP and the HICP algorithms perform best in most simulation conditions. We also apply every algorithm to an empirical example to show the similarities and differences between the algorithms. We believe that the combination of the ICP and the HICP algorithm may be suitable to be used in future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Causalidade , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
7.
Psychometrika ; 86(4): 938-972, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258714

RESUMO

The emergence of computer-based assessments has made response times, in addition to response accuracies, available as a source of information about test takers' latent abilities. The development of substantively meaningful accounts of the cognitive process underlying item responses is critical to establishing the validity of psychometric tests. However, existing substantive theories such as the diffusion model have been slow to gain traction due to their unwieldy functional form and regular violations of model assumptions in psychometric contexts. In the present work, we develop an attention-based diffusion model based on process assumptions that are appropriate for psychometric applications. This model is straightforward to analyse using Gibbs sampling and can be readily extended. We demonstrate our model's good computational and statistical properties in a comparison with two well-established psychometric models.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Tempo de Reação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 16(4): 756-766, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593167

RESUMO

This article aims to improve theory formation in psychology by developing a practical methodology for constructing explanatory theories: theory construction methodology (TCM). TCM is a sequence of five steps. First, the theorist identifies a domain of empirical phenomena that becomes the target of explanation. Second, the theorist constructs a prototheory, a set of theoretical principles that putatively explain these phenomena. Third, the prototheory is used to construct a formal model, a set of model equations that encode explanatory principles. Fourth, the theorist investigates the explanatory adequacy of the model by formalizing its empirical phenomena and assessing whether it indeed reproduces these phenomena. Fifth, the theorist studies the overall adequacy of the theory by evaluating whether the identified phenomena are indeed reproduced faithfully and whether the explanatory principles are sufficiently parsimonious and substantively plausible. We explain TCM with an example taken from research on intelligence (the mutualism model of intelligence), in which key elements of the method have been successfully implemented. We discuss the place of TCM in the larger scheme of scientific research and propose an outline for a university curriculum that can systematically educate psychologists in the process of theory formation.


Assuntos
Teoria Psicológica , Psicologia/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Inteligência
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16226, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004877

RESUMO

People's choices are often found to be inconsistent with the assumptions of rational choice theory. Over time, several probabilistic models have been proposed that account for such deviations from rationality. However, these models have become increasingly complex and are often limited to particular choice phenomena. Here we introduce a network approach that explains a broad set of choice phenomena. We demonstrate that this approach can be used to compare different choice theories and integrates several choice mechanisms from established models. A basic setup implements bounded rationality, loss aversion, and inhibition in a natural fashion, which allows us to predict the occurrence of well-known choice phenomena, such as the endowment effect and the similarity, attraction, compromise, and phantom context effects. Our results show that this network approach provides a simple representation of complex choice behaviour, and can be used to gain a better understanding of how the many choice phenomena and key theoretical principles from different types of decision-making are connected.

10.
J Intell ; 8(4)2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023229

RESUMO

In memory of Dr. Dennis John McFarland, who passed away recently, our objective is to continue his efforts to compare psychometric networks and latent variable models statistically. We do so by providing a commentary on his latest work, which he encouraged us to write, shortly before his death. We first discuss the statistical procedure McFarland used, which involved structural equation modeling (SEM) in standard SEM software. Next, we evaluate the penta-factor model of intelligence. We conclude that (1) standard SEM software is not suitable for the comparison of psychometric networks with latent variable models, and (2) the penta-factor model of intelligence is only of limited value, as it is nonidentified. We conclude with a reanalysis of the Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale data McFarland discussed and illustrate how network and latent variable models can be compared using the recently developed R package Psychonetrics. Of substantive theoretical interest, the results support a network interpretation of general intelligence. A novel empirical finding is that networks of intelligence replicate over standardization samples.

11.
J Intell ; 8(2)2020 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375211

RESUMO

Geary puts forward an appealing argument for the consideration of mitochondrial functioning as a candidate for a formative g Geary (2019); it is also an ambitious argument [...].

12.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 193: 105448, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In standard practice, sleep is classified into distinct stages by human observers according to specific rules as for instance specified in the AASM manual. We here show proof of principle for a conceptualization of sleep stages as attractor states in a nonlinear dynamical system in order to develop new empirical criteria for sleep stages. METHODS: EEG (single channel) of two healthy sleeping participants was used to demonstrate this conceptualization. Firstly, distinct EEG epochs were selected, both detected by a MLR classifier and through manual scoring. Secondly, change point analysis was used to identify abrupt changes in the EEG signal. Thirdly, these detected change points were evaluated on whether they were preceded by early warning signals. RESULTS: Multiple change points were identified in the EEG signal, mostly in interplay with N2. The dynamics before these changes revealed, for a part of the change points, indicators of generic early warning signals, characteristic of complex systems (e.g., ecosystems, climate, epileptic seizures, global finance systems). CONCLUSIONS: The sketched new framework for studying critical transitions in sleep EEG might benefit the understanding of individual and pathological differences in the dynamics of sleep stage transitions. Formalising sleep as a nonlinear dynamical system can be useful for definitions of sleep quality, i.e. stability and accessibility of an equilibrium state, and disrupted sleep, i.e. constant shifting between instable sleep states.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Epilepsia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Sono , Fases do Sono
13.
Cogn Psychol ; 121: 101292, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217348

RESUMO

Evidence accumulation models (EAMs) have become the dominant models of speeded decision making, which are able to decompose choices and response times into cognitive parameters that drive the decision process. Several models within the EAM framework contain fundamentally different ideas of how the decision making process operates, though previous assessments have found that these models display a high level of mimicry, which has hindered the ability of researchers to contrast these different theoretical viewpoints. Our study introduces a neglected phenomenon that we term "double responding", which can help to further constrain these models. We show that double responding produces several interesting benchmarks, and that the predictions of different EAMs can be distinguished in standard experiment paradigms when they are constrained to account for the choice response time distributions and double responding behaviour in unison. Our findings suggest that lateral inhibition (e.g., the leaky-competing accumulator) provides models with a universal ability to make accurate predictions for these data. Furthermore, only models containing feed-forward inhibition (e.g., the diffusion model) performed poorly under both of our proposed extensions of the standard EAM framework to double responding, suggesting a general inability of feed-forward inhibition to accurately predict these data. We believe that our study provides an important step forward in further constraining models of speeded decision making, though additional research on double responding is required before broad conclusions are made about which models provide the best explanation of the underlying decision-making process.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos
14.
J Intell ; 8(1)2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138312

RESUMO

One of the highest ambitions in educational technology is the move towards personalized learning. To this end, computerized adaptive learning (CAL) systems are developed. A popular method to track the development of student ability and item difficulty, in CAL systems, is the Elo Rating System (ERS). The ERS allows for dynamic model parameters by updating key parameters after every response. However, drawbacks of the ERS are that it does not provide standard errors and that it results in rating variance inflation. We identify three statistical issues responsible for both of these drawbacks. To solve these issues we introduce a new tracking system based on urns, where every person and item is represented by an urn filled with a combination of green and red marbles. Urns are updated, by an exchange of marbles after each response, such that the proportions of green marbles represent estimates of person ability or item difficulty. A main advantage of this approach is that the standard errors are known, hence the method allows for statistical inference, such as testing for learning effects. We highlight features of the Urnings algorithm and compare it to the popular ERS in a simulation study and in an empirical data example from a large-scale CAL application.

15.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 191: 104730, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765997

RESUMO

Online learning environments are well-suited for tailoring the learning experience of children individually and on a large scale. An environment such as Math Garden allows children to practice exercises adapted to their specific mathematical ability; this is thought to maximize their mathematical skills. In the current experiment, we investigated whether learning environments should also consider the differential impact of cognitive load on children's math performance depending on their individual verbal working memory (WM) and inhibitory control (IC) capacity. A total of 39 children (8-11 years old) performed a multiple-choice computerized arithmetic game. Participants were randomly assigned to two conditions where the visibility of time pressure, a key feature in most gamified learning environments, was manipulated. Results showed that verbal WM was positively associated with arithmetic performance in general but that higher IC predicted better performance only when the time pressure was not visible. This effect was mostly driven by the younger children. Exploratory analyses of eye-tracking data (N = 36) showed that when time pressure was visible, children attended more often to the question (e.g., 6 × 8). In addition, when time pressure was visible, children with lower IC, in particular younger children, attended more often to answer options representing operant confusion (e.g., 9 × 4 = 13) and visited more answer options before responding. These findings suggest that tailoring the visibility of time pressure, based on a child's individual cognitive profile, could improve arithmetic performance and may in turn improve learning in online learning environments.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Educação à Distância , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Matemática/educação , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Criança , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 14(6): 1034-1061, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647746

RESUMO

The positive manifold of intelligence has fascinated generations of scholars in human ability. In the past century, various formal explanations have been proposed, including the dominant g factor, the revived sampling theory, and the recent multiplier effect model and mutualism model. In this article, we propose a novel idiographic explanation. We formally conceptualize intelligence as evolving networks in which new facts and procedures are wired together during development. The static model, an extension of the Fortuin-Kasteleyn model, provides a parsimonious explanation of the positive manifold and intelligence's hierarchical factor structure. We show how it can explain the Matthew effect across developmental stages. Finally, we introduce a method for studying growth dynamics. Our truly idiographic approach offers a new view on a century-old construct and ultimately allows the fields of human ability and human learning to coalesce.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Individualidade , Inteligência , Modelos Teóricos , Criança , Humanos
17.
Front Psychol ; 10: 620, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984068

RESUMO

Adaptive learning systems have received an increasing attention as they enable to provide personalized instructions tailored to the behaviors and needs of individual learners. In order to reach this goal, it is desired to have an assessment system, monitoring each learner's ability change in real time. The Elo Rating System (ERS), a popular scoring algorithm for paired competitions, has recently been considered as a fast and flexible method that can assess learning progress in online learning environments. However, it has been argued that a standard ERS may be problematic due to the multidimensional nature of the abilities embedded in learning materials. In order to handle this issue, we propose a system that incorporates a multidimensional item response theory model (MIRT) in the ERS. The basic idea is that instead of updating a single ability parameter from the Rasch model, our method allows a simultaneous update of multiple ability parameters based on a compensatory MIRT model, resulting in a multidimensional extension of the ERS ("M-ERS"). To evaluate the approach, three simulation studies were conducted. Results suggest that the ERS that incorrectly assumes unidimensionality has a seriously lower prediction accuracy compared to the M-ERS. Accounting for both speed and accuracy in M-ERS is shown to perform better than using accuracy data only. An application further illustrates the method using real-life data from a popular educational platform for exercising math skills.

18.
Behav Res Methods ; 51(2): 895-909, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511157

RESUMO

Electronic learning systems have received increasing attention because they are easily accessible to many students and are capable of personalizing the learning environment in response to students' learning needs. To that end, using fast and flexible algorithms that keep track of the students' ability change in real time is desirable. Recently, the Elo rating system (ERS) has been applied and studied in both research and practical settings (Brinkhuis & Maris, 2009; Klinkenberg, Straatemeier, & van der Maas in Computers & Education, 57, 1813-1824, 2011). However, such adaptive algorithms face the cold-start problem, defined as the problem that the system does not know a new student's ability level at the beginning of the learning stage. The cold-start problem may also occur when a student leaves the e-learning system for a while and returns (i.e., a between-session period). Because external effects could influence the student's ability level during the period, there is again much uncertainty about ability level. To address these practical concerns, in this study we propose alternative approaches to cold-start issues in the context of the e-learning environment. Particularly, we propose making the ERS more efficient by using an explanatory item response theory modeling to estimate students' ability levels on the basis of their background information and past trajectories of learning. A simulation study was conducted under various conditions, and the results showed that the proposed approach substantially reduces ability estimation errors. We illustrate the approach using real data from a popular learning platform.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Aprendizagem , Educação à Distância/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Estudantes
19.
J Intell ; 6(1)2018 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162441

RESUMO

Molenaar's manifesto on psychology as idiographic science (Molenaar, 2004) brought the N = 1 times series perspective firmly to the attention of developmental scientists. The rich intraindividual variation in complex developmental processes requires the study of these processes at the level of the individual. Yet, the idiographic approach is all but easy in practical research. One major limitation is the collection of short interval times series of high quality data on developmental processes. In this paper, we present a novel measurement approach to this problem. We developed an online practice and monitoring system which is now used by thousands of Dutch primary school children on a daily or weekly basis, providing a new window on cognitive development. We will introduce the origin of this new instrument, called Math Garden, explain its setup, and present and discuss ways to analyze children's individual developmental pathways.

20.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 126(7): 989-999, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106282

RESUMO

Forbes, Wright, Markon, and Krueger (2017) stated that "psychopathology networks have limited replicability" (p. 1011) and that "popular network analysis methods produce unreliable results" (p. 1011). These conclusions are based on an assessment of the replicability of four different network models for symptoms of major depression and generalized anxiety across two samples; in addition, Forbes et al. analyzed the stability of the network models within the samples using split-halves. Our reanalysis of the same data with the same methods led to results directly opposed to theirs: All network models replicated very well across the two data sets and across the split-halves. We trace the differences between Forbes et al.'s results and our own to the fact that they did not appear to accurately implement all network models and used debatable metrics to assess replicability. In particular, they deviated from existing estimation routines for relative importance networks, did not acknowledge the fact that the skip structure used in the interviews strongly distorted correlations between symptoms, and incorrectly assumed that network structures and metrics should be the same not only across the different samples but also across the different network models used. In addition to a comprehensive reanalysis of the data, we end with a discussion of best practices concerning future research into the replicability of psychometric networks. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...