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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 689-705, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495489

RESUMO

Sphingomyelinases generate ceramide from sphingomyelin as a second messenger in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. Children from 12 unrelated families presented with microcephaly, simplified gyral pattern of the cortex, hypomyelination, cerebellar hypoplasia, congenital arthrogryposis, and early fetal/postnatal demise. Genomic analysis revealed bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in SMPD4, coding for the neutral sphingomyelinase-3 (nSMase-3/SMPD4). Overexpression of human Myc-tagged SMPD4 showed localization both to the outer nuclear envelope and the ER and additionally revealed interactions with several nuclear pore complex proteins by proteomics analysis. Fibroblasts from affected individuals showed ER cisternae abnormalities, suspected for increased autophagy, and were more susceptible to apoptosis under stress conditions, while treatment with siSMPD4 caused delayed cell cycle progression. Our data show that SMPD4 links homeostasis of membrane sphingolipids to cell fate by regulating the cross-talk between the ER and the outer nuclear envelope, while its loss reveals a pathogenic mechanism in microcephaly.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2079, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543881

RESUMO

Background: Primary antibody deficiencies (PADs) and anterior pituitary dysfunction are both rare conditions. However, recent studies have remarkably reported the occurrence of anterior pituitary dysfunction in PAD patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional, single-center study we evaluated the prevalence of endocrine disorders in adult PAD patients. Our study focused on common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency (IgGSD), and specific anti-polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD). We assessed hormone levels, performed provocative tests and genetic testing in a subset of patients by direct sequencing of the nuclear factor kappa beta subunit 2 (NFKB2) gene and primary immunodeficiency (PID) gene panel testing by whole exome sequencing (WES). Results: Our results demonstrated that one out of 24 IgGSD/SPAD patients had secondary hypothyroidism and three out of 9 men with IgGSD/SPAD had secondary hypogonadism. Premature ovarian failure was observed in four out of 9 women with CVID and primary testicular failure in one out of 15 men with CVID. In two out of 26 CVID patients we found partial adrenal insufficiency (AI) and in one out of 18 patients with IgGSD/SPAD secondary AI was found. Moreover, in one out of 23 patients with CVID and in two out of 17 patients with IgGSD/SPAD severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was found, while one patient with IgGSD/SPAD showed mild GHD. Combined endocrine disorders were detected in two women with CVID (either partial secondary AI or autoimmune thyroiditis with primary hypogonadism) and in three men with IgGSD/SPAD (two with either mild GHD or secondary hypothyroidism combined with secondary hypogonadism, and one man with secondary AI and severe GHD). Genetic testing in a subset of patients did not reveal pathogenic variants in NFKB2 or other known PID-associated genes. Conclusion: This is the first study to describe a high prevalence of both anterior pituitary and end-organ endocrine dysfunction in adult PAD patients. As these endocrine disorders may cause considerable health burden, assessment of endocrine axes should be considered in PAD patients.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 434-440, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374204

RESUMO

Brittle and "tiger-tail" hair is the diagnostic hallmark of trichothiodystrophy (TTD), a rare recessive disease associated with a wide spectrum of clinical features including ichthyosis, intellectual disability, decreased fertility, and short stature. As a result of premature abrogation of terminal differentiation, the hair is brittle and fragile and contains reduced cysteine content. Hypersensitivity to UV light is found in about half of individuals with TTD; all of these individuals harbor bi-allelic mutations in components of the basal transcription factor TFIIH, and these mutations lead to impaired nucleotide excision repair and basal transcription. Different genes have been found to be associated with non-photosensitive TTD (NPS-TTD); these include MPLKIP (also called TTDN1), GTF2E2 (also called TFIIEß), and RNF113A. However, a relatively large group of these individuals with NPS-TTD have remained genetically uncharacterized. Here we present the identification of an NPS-TTD-associated gene, threonyl-tRNA synthetase (TARS), found by next-generation sequencing of a group of uncharacterized individuals with NPS-TTD. One individual has compound heterozygous TARS variants, c.826A>G (p.Lys276Glu) and c.1912C>T (p.Arg638∗), whereas a second individual is homozygous for the TARS variant: c.680T>C (p.Leu227Pro). We showed that these variants have a profound effect on TARS protein stability and enzymatic function. Our results expand the spectrum of genes involved in TTD to include genes implicated in amino acid charging of tRNA, which is required for the last step in gene expression, namely protein translation. We previously proposed that some of the TTD-specific features derive from subtle transcription defects as a consequence of unstable transcription factors. We now extend the definition of TTD from a transcription syndrome to a "gene-expression" syndrome.

4.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(7): 835-846, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230885

RESUMO

We investigated whether there are similar serum alterations in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated serum analytes in two epidemiological studies on schizophrenia (N = 121) and MDD (N = 1172) versus controls. Serum analytes (N = 109) were measured with a multi-analyte profiling platform and analysed using linear regression models, adjusted for site, age, gender, ethnicity, anti-inflammatory agents, smoking, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and adjusted for multiple comparisons. An increase in leptin and insulin levels was observed for both schizophrenia patients (Cohen's d (d): 0.26 and 0.65, respectively) and MDD patients (d: 0.29 and 0.12, respectively) compared to their respective controls. Lower angiopoietin-2 levels were seen in both schizophrenia (d: -0.22) and MDD (d: -0.13). Four analytes differed in only schizophrenia patients (increased levels of C-peptide and prolactin, and decreased levels of CD5 antigen-like and sex hormone binding globulin) and one analyte differed in only MDD patients (increased angiotensinogen levels) compared to their respective controls. Restricting analyses to patients with a current episode of disease showed even more marked elevations of insulin and leptin. Our results suggest the presence of insulin and leptin resistance as cross-disorder mechanisms that could contribute to the higher somatic comorbidity and decreased life-span seen in both disorders.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067316

RESUMO

Craniosynostosis, the premature ossification of cranial sutures, is a developmental disorder of the skull vault, occurring in approximately 1 in 2250 births. The causes are heterogeneous, with a monogenic basis identified in ~25% of patients. Using whole-genome sequencing, we identified a novel, de novo variant in BCL11B, c.7C>A, encoding an R3S substitution (p.R3S), in a male patient with coronal suture synostosis. BCL11B is a transcription factor that interacts directly with the nucleosome remodelling and deacetylation complex (NuRD) and polycomb-related complex 2 (PRC2) through the invariant proteins RBBP4 and RBBP7. The p.R3S substitution occurs within a conserved amino-terminal motif (RRKQxxP) of BCL11B and reduces interaction with both transcriptional complexes. Equilibrium binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations show that the p.R3S substitution disrupts ionic coordination between BCL11B and the RBBP4-MTA1 complex, a subassembly of the NuRD complex, and increases the conformational flexibility of Arg-4, Lys-5 and Gln-6 of BCL11B. These alterations collectively reduce the affinity of BCL11B p.R3S for the RBBP4-MTA1 complex by nearly an order of magnitude. We generated a mouse model of the BCL11B p.R3S substitution using a CRISPR-Cas9-based approach, and we report herein that these mice exhibit craniosynostosis of the coronal suture, as well as other cranial sutures. This finding provides strong evidence that the BCL11B p.R3S substitution is causally associated with craniosynostosis and confirms an important role for BCL11B in the maintenance of cranial suture patency.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5558, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944372

RESUMO

Faecal transplants (microbiota transfer) have shown to be promising therapies having a wide range of therapeutic applications. However, current safety considerations hamper further valorisation. As such, well designed faecal transplant analogues provide an interesting alternative to minimize possible safety aspects. However, to date little knowledge on how to rationally design such analogues exists. Here, we show by applying first order basic graph theory that such analogues dedicated to restoring a specific physiological functionality (a microbial guild) should consist of 5-6 species to maximize stability, efficiency, and minimize safety issues and production costs.

7.
Brain ; 142(4): 867-884, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879067

RESUMO

Recessive mutations in RTTN, encoding the protein rotatin, were originally identified as cause of polymicrogyria, a cortical malformation. With time, a wide variety of other brain malformations has been ascribed to RTTN mutations, including primary microcephaly. Rotatin is a centrosomal protein possibly involved in centriolar elongation and ciliogenesis. However, the function of rotatin in brain development is largely unknown and the molecular disease mechanism underlying cortical malformations has not yet been elucidated. We performed both clinical and cell biological studies, aimed at clarifying rotatin function and pathogenesis. Review of the 23 published and five unpublished clinical cases and genomic mutations, including the effect of novel deep intronic pathogenic mutations on RTTN transcripts, allowed us to extrapolate the core phenotype, consisting of intellectual disability, short stature, microcephaly, lissencephaly, periventricular heterotopia, polymicrogyria and other malformations. We show that the severity of the phenotype is related to residual function of the protein, not only the level of mRNA expression. Skin fibroblasts from eight affected individuals were studied by high resolution immunomicroscopy and flow cytometry, in parallel with in vitro expression of RTTN in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that rotatin regulates different phases of the cell cycle and is mislocalized in affected individuals. Mutant cells showed consistent and severe mitotic failure with centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation, leading to aneuploidy and apoptosis, which could relate to depletion of neuronal progenitors often observed in microcephaly. We confirmed the role of rotatin in functional and structural maintenance of primary cilia and determined that the protein localized not only to the basal body, but also to the axoneme, proving the functional interconnectivity between ciliogenesis and cell cycle progression. Proteomics analysis of both native and exogenous rotatin uncovered that rotatin interacts with the neuronal (non-muscle) myosin heavy chain subunits, motors of nucleokinesis during neuronal migration, and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived bipolar mature neurons rotatin localizes at the centrosome in the leading edge. This illustrates the role of rotatin in neuronal migration. These different functions of rotatin explain why RTTN mutations can lead to heterogeneous cerebral malformations, both related to proliferation and migration defects.

8.
Front Immunol ; 10: 312, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863411

RESUMO

Background: Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease, where patients often suffer from fatigue. Biological pathways underlying fatigue are unknown. In this study aptamer-based SOMAscan technology is used to identify potential biomarkers and treatment targets for fatigue in pSS. Methods: SOMAscan® Assay 1.3k was performed on serum samples of healthy controls (HCs) and pSS patients characterized for interferon upregulation and fatigue. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between pSS patients and HC or fatigued and non-fatigued pSS patients were validated and discriminatory capacity of markers was tested using independent technology. Results: Serum concentrations of over 1,300 proteins were compared between 63 pSS patients and 20 HCs resulting in 58 upregulated and 46 downregulated proteins. Additionally, serum concentrations of 30 interferon positive (IFNpos) and 30 interferon negative (IFNneg) pSS patients were compared resulting in 25 upregulated and 13 downregulated proteins. ELISAs were performed for several DEPs between pSS patients and HCs or IFNpos and IFNneg all showing a good correlation between protein levels measured by ELISA and relative fluorescence units (RFU) measured by the SOMAscan. Comparing 22 fatigued and 23 non-fatigued pSS patients, 16 serum proteins were differentially expressed, of which 14 were upregulated and 2 were downregulated. Top upregulated DEPs included neuroactive synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), alpha-enolase (ENO1) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL1). Furthermore, the proinflammatory mediator IL36a and several complement factors were upregulated in fatigued compared to non-fatigued pSS patients. ROC analysis indicated that DEPs showed good capacity to discriminate fatigued and non-fatigued pSS patients. Conclusion: In this study we validated the use of aptamer-based proteomics and identified a novel set of proteins which were able to distinguish fatigued from non-fatigued pSS patients and identified a so-called "fatigue signature."

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 709-720, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905399

RESUMO

The Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-subunit complex that regulates multiple steps of transcription. Mediator activity is regulated by the reversible association of a four-subunit module comprising CDK8 or CDK19 kinases, together with cyclin C, MED12 or MED12L, and MED13 or MED13L. Mutations in MED12, MED13, and MED13L were previously identified in syndromic developmental disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Here, we report CDK8 mutations (located at 13q12.13) that cause a phenotypically related disorder. Using whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing, and by international collaboration, we identified eight different heterozygous missense CDK8 substitutions, including 10 shown to have arisen de novo, in 12 unrelated subjects; a recurrent mutation, c.185C>T (p.Ser62Leu), was present in five individuals. All predicted substitutions localize to the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain. Affected individuals have overlapping phenotypes characterized by hypotonia, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral disorders, and variable facial dysmorphism. Congenital heart disease occurred in six subjects; additional features present in multiple individuals included agenesis of the corpus callosum, ano-rectal malformations, seizures, and hearing or visual impairments. To evaluate the functional impact of the mutations, we measured phosphorylation at STAT1-Ser727, a known CDK8 substrate, in a CDK8 and CDK19 CRISPR double-knockout cell line transfected with wild-type (WT) or mutant CDK8 constructs. These experiments demonstrated a reduction in STAT1 phosphorylation by all mutants, in most cases to a similar extent as in a kinase-dead control. We conclude that missense mutations in CDK8 cause a developmental disorder that has phenotypic similarity to syndromes associated with mutations in other subunits of the Mediator kinase module, indicating probable overlap in pathogenic mechanisms.

10.
Gigascience ; 8(2)2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The determination of microbial communities using the mothur tool suite (https://www.mothur.org) is well established. However, mothur requires bioinformatics-based proficiency in order to perform calculations via the command-line. Galaxy is a project dedicated to providing a user-friendly web interface for such command-line tools (https://galaxyproject.org/). RESULTS: We have integrated the full set of 125+ mothur tools into Galaxy as the Galaxy mothur Toolset (GmT) and provided a set of workflows to perform end-to-end 16S rRNA gene analyses and integrate with third-party visualization and reporting tools. We demonstrate the utility of GmT by analyzing the mothur MiSeq standard operating procedure (SOP) dataset (https://www.mothur.org/wiki/MiSeq_SOP). CONCLUSIONS: GmT is available from the Galaxy Tool Shed, and a workflow definition file and full Galaxy training manual for the mothur SOP have been created. A Docker image with a fully configured GmT Galaxy is also available.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software
11.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 97(6): 626-632, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688042

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma [(P)VRL]) is a rare malignancy of the eye localized in the retina, vitreous or choroid. Here, we aim to determine the value of the combination of innovative diagnostic methods for accurate differentiation between (P)VRL and non-(P)VRL in patients with suspect uveitis or vitritis. METHODS: Multicolour flow cytometric immunophenotyping of cells in the vitreous samples was performed using the EuroFlow small sample tube. Additionally, cytokines/chemokines and growth factors were measured in the vitreous specimens using a multiplex immunoassay. Data were evaluated in predefined clinical subgroups using omniviz unsupervised Pearson's correlation visualization and unsupervised heatmap analysis. RESULTS: A total of 53 patients were prospectively included in the period 2012-2015. In the (P)VRL subgroup (n = 10), nine cases showed aberrant surface membrane immunoglobulin (SmIg) light chain expression. In the non-(P)VRL group (n = 43) clearly skewed SmIg light chain expression was observed in two multiple sclerosis-related uveitis cases, but not in other uveitis types. Soluble mediator measurement revealed high interleukin (IL)-10/IL-6 ratios, and high IL-1RA levels in 9/10 (P)VRL cases, but not in any non-(P)VRL case. Further correlation and heatmap analysis revealed a minimal signature of cellular parameters (CD19+ B cells, aberrant SmIg light chain expression) and cytokine parameters (IL-10/IL-6 ratio >1, high IL-10, high IL-1 RA, high monocyte chemotactic protein-1, high macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß) to reliably distinguish (P)VRL from non-(P)VRL. CONCLUSION: Here, we show the power of a combined cellular and proteomics strategy for detecting (P)VRL in vitreous specimens, especially in cases with minor cellular (P)VRL infiltrates.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Coroide/diagnóstico , Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Citocinas/metabolismo , Linfoma/metabolismo , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Retina/diagnóstico , Corpo Vítreo/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Corioide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Coroide/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Retina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Retina/metabolismo , Corpo Vítreo/metabolismo
12.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; 70: 55-84, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572124

RESUMO

Retinal drusen formation is not only a clinical hallmark for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) but also for other disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and renal diseases. The initiation and growth of drusen is poorly understood. Attention has focused on lipids and minerals, but relatively little is known about the origin of drusen-associated proteins and how they are retained in the space between the basal lamina of the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner collagenous layer space (sub-RPE-BL space). While some authors suggested that drusen proteins are mainly derived from cellular debris from processed photoreceptor outer segments and the RPE, others suggest a choroidal cell or blood origin. Here, we reviewed and supplemented the existing literature on the molecular composition of the retina/choroid complex, to gain a more complete understanding of the sources of proteins in drusen. These "drusenomics" studies showed that a considerable proportion of currently identified drusen proteins is uniquely originating from the blood. A smaller, but still large fraction of drusen proteins comes from both blood and/or RPE. Only a small proportion of drusen proteins is uniquely derived from the photoreceptors or choroid. We next evaluated how drusen components may "meet, greet and stick" to each other and/or to structures like hydroxyapatite spherules to form macroscopic deposits in the sub-RPE-BL space. Finally, we discuss implications of our findings with respect to the previously proposed homology between drusenogenesis in AMD and plaque formation in atherosclerosis.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450690

RESUMO

AIM: In anatomic studies of the embryo, it has been established that during the development of the lower limb, several changes in foot position can be observed defined as a temporary 'physiological clubfoot'. The aim of this study was to develop and test a measurement tool for objective documentation of the first trimester foot position in vivo and made an attempt to create a chart for first trimester foot position. METHODS: We developed a virtual orthopedic protractor for measuring foot positioning using three-dimensional virtual reality visualization. Three-dimensional ultrasound volumes of 112 pregnancies of women examined during the first trimester were studied in a BARCO I-Space. The frontal angle (plantar flexion) and the lateral angle (adduction) between the leg and foot were measured from 8 until 13 weeks gestational age. RESULTS: We observed that the frontal angle steadily decreases, whereas the lateral angle first increases, resulting in transient physiological clubfeet position at 10- to 11-week gestation, followed by a decrease to a normal foot position. CONCLUSION: A transient clubfoot position is present during the normal development of the lower limbs, and it has been measured in vivo for the first time. This study emphasizes that a diagnosis of congenital clubfoot should not be made in the first trimester of pregnancy.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423129

RESUMO

Context: Thyroid hormone (TH) is important for normal brain development. The type 2 deiodinase (D2) controls TH action in the brain by activating T4 to T3. The enzymatic activity of D2 depends on the incorporation of selenocysteine (Sec) for which the SECIS element located in the 3`UTR is indispensable. We hypothesized that mutations in the SECIS element could impact on D2 function, resulting in a neurocognitive phenotype. Objective: To identify mutations in the SECIS element of DIO2 in patients with intellectual disability (ID) and to test their functional consequences. Design, setting and patients: The SECIS element of DIO2 was sequenced in 387 patients with unexplained ID, based on a predefined pattern of thyroid function tests. SECIS element read-through in wild-type (WT) or mutant D2 was quantified by a luciferase reporter system in transfected cells. Functional consequences were assessed by quantifying D2 activity in cell lysate or intact cell metabolism studies. Results: Sequence analysis revealed 2 heterozygous mutations: c.5703C>T and c.5730A>T, which were also present in unaffected family members. Functional evaluation showed that both mutations did not affect D2 enzyme activity in cell lysates or intact cells, although the 5730A>T mutation decreased SECIS element read-through by 75%. In the patient harboring the c.5730A>T variant, whole genome sequencing revealed a pathogenic deletion of the STXBP1 gene. Conclusion: We report 2 families with mutations in the SECIS element of D2. Although functional analysis shows that nucleotide 5730 is important for normal SECIS element read-through, both variants do not segregate with a distinct phenotype.

15.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; : 1753193418803521, 2018 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318985

RESUMO

Despite being a rare congenital limb anomaly, triphalangeal thumb is a subject of research in various scientific fields, providing new insights in clinical research and evolutionary biology. The findings of triphalangeal thumb can be predictive for other congenital anomalies as part of an underlying syndrome. Furthermore, triphalangeal thumb is still being used as a model in molecular genetics to study gene regulation by long-range regulatory elements. We present a review that summarizes a number of scientifically relevant topics that involve the triphalangeal thumb phenotype. Future initiatives involving multidisciplinary teams collaborating in the field of triphalangeal thumb research can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of this condition as well as other congenital upper limb anomalies.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206073, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336493

RESUMO

QuantiFERON-Gold TB (QFT)-positive patients with undetermined cause of uveitis are problematic in terms of whether to diagnose and treat them for tuberculosis (TB). Here, we investigated whether peripheral blood expression of type 1 interferon (IFN)-inducible genes may be of use to stratify QFT-positive patients with uveitis into groups of high versus low risk of having active TB-associated uveitis. We recruited all new uveitis patients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia for one year. We included 12 patients with uveitis and clinically diagnosed active pulmonary TB, 58 QFT-positive patients with uveitis of unknown cause, 10 newly diagnosed sputum-positive active pulmonary TB patients without uveitis and 23 QFT-negative healthy controls. Expression of 35 type 1 IFN-inducible genes was measured in peripheral blood cells from active pulmonary TB patients without uveitis and healthy controls. Differentially expressed genes were identified and used for further clustering analyses of the uveitis groups. A type-1 IFN gene signature score was calculated and the optimal cut-off value for this score to differentiate active pulmonary TB from healthy controls was determined and applied to QFT-positive patients with uveitis of unknown cause. Ten type 1 IFN-inducible genes were differentially expressed between active pulmonary TB and healthy controls. Expression of these 10 genes in QFT-positive patients with uveitis of unknown cause revealed three groups: 1); patients resembling active pulmonary TB, 2); patients resembling healthy controls, and 3); patients displaying an in-between gene expression pattern. A type 1 IFN gene signature score ≥5.61 displayed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (91%) for identification of active TB. Application of this score to QFT-positive patients with uveitis of unknown cause yielded two groups with expected different likelihood (high vs. low) of having active-TB uveitis, and therefore may be useful in clinical management decisions.

17.
Fetal Diagn Ther ; : 1-7, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the development of midgut herniation in vivo using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic volume and distance measurements and to create reference data for physiological midgut herniation in ongoing pregnancies in a tertiary hospital population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The transvaginal 3D ultrasound volumes of 112 women, seen weekly during the first trimester of pregnancy, were obtained and subsequently analysed in a virtual reality environment. The width of the umbilical cord insertion, the maximum diameter of the umbilical cord, and the volume of midgut herniation were measured from 6 until 13 weeks gestational age (GA). RESULTS: All parameters had a positive relation with GA, crown-rump length, and abdominal circumference. In approximately 1 of 10 volumes no midgut herniation could be observed at 9 and 10 weeks GA. In 5.0% of the fetuses the presence of midgut herniation could still be visualised at 12 weeks GA. CONCLUSION: Reference charts for several dimensions of physiological midgut herniation were created. In the future, our data might be used as a reference in the first trimester for comparison in case of a suspected pathological omphalocele.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1195-1203, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861108

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.

19.
Nat Genet ; 50(6): 834-848, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808027

RESUMO

Refractive errors, including myopia, are the most frequent eye disorders worldwide and an increasingly common cause of blindness. This genome-wide association meta-analysis in 160,420 participants and replication in 95,505 participants increased the number of established independent signals from 37 to 161 and showed high genetic correlation between Europeans and Asians (>0.78). Expression experiments and comprehensive in silico analyses identified retinal cell physiology and light processing as prominent mechanisms, and also identified functional contributions to refractive-error development in all cell types of the neurosensory retina, retinal pigment epithelium, vascular endothelium and extracellular matrix. Newly identified genes implicate novel mechanisms such as rod-and-cone bipolar synaptic neurotransmission, anterior-segment morphology and angiogenesis. Thirty-one loci resided in or near regions transcribing small RNAs, thus suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. Our results support the notion that refractive errors are caused by a light-dependent retina-to-sclera signaling cascade and delineate potential pathobiological molecular drivers.

20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 59(3): 1384-1395, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625462

RESUMO

Purpose: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli have been found in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from uveitis patients without signs of systemic tuberculosis (TB) infection. RPE cells are important for ocular immune privilege and uveitis development. Methods: To address a potential role for Mtb-infected RPE cells in the development of uveitis, we delineated the response to Mtb infection in human RPE cells and primary human macrophages, the main target cell of Mtb. Primary human RPE cells, the human RPE cell line ARPE-19, and monocyte-derived proinflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages were infected with DsRed-expressing Mtb strain H37Rv. Infection rates and clearance were addressed along with RNA sequencing analysis, a confirmation analysis by dual-color reverse-transcriptase multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (dcRT-MLPA) and cytokine secretion. Results: RPE cells robustly controlled intracellular outgrowth of Mtb early after infection. The response in RPE cells to control Mtb survival was dominated by interferon (IFN) signaling and further characterized by prominent regulation of cell death/survival-associated genes and low-level production of Th1-associated cytokines. In contrast, macrophages engaged a plethora of responses including IFN signaling and communication between innate and adaptive immune cells to induce granuloma formation. Conclusions: Together, our data demonstrate that RPE cells display a strong response to Mtb infection that appears, however, incomplete in comparison to the macrophage response to Mtb. The RPE response might reflect a balance between mechanisms aimed at Mtb eradication and mechanisms that limit retinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Tuberculose Ocular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/microbiologia , Tuberculose Ocular/microbiologia , Uveíte/microbiologia
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