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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In early January 2021 an outbreak of nosocomial cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Western France; RT-PCR tests were repeatedly negative on nasopharyngeal samples but positive on lower respiratory tract samples. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) revealed a new variant, currently defining a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage B.1.616. In March, the WHO classified this as a 'variant under investigation' (VUI). We analysed the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 cases related to this new variant. METHODS: Clinical, virological, and radiological data were retrospectively collected from medical charts in the two hospitals involved. We enrolled those inpatients with: (a) positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on a respiratory sample, (b) seroconversion with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM, or (c) suggestive symptoms and typical features of COVID-19 on a chest CT scan. Cases were categorized as B.1.616, a variant of concern (VOC), or unknown. RESULTS: From 1st January to 24th March 2021, 114 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: B.1.616 (n = 39), VOC (n = 32), and unknown (n = 43). B.1.616-related cases were older than VOC-related cases (81 years, interquartile range (IQR) 73-88 versus 73 years, IQR 67-82, p < 0.05) and their first RT-PCR tests were rarely positive (6/39, 15% versus 31/32, 97%, p < 0.05). The B.1.616 variant was independently associated with severe disease (multivariable Cox model HR 4.0, 95%CI 1.5-10.9) and increased lethality (28-day mortality 18/39 (46%) for B.1.616 versus 5/32 (16%) for VOC, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: We report a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 cases related to a new variant, B.1.616, which is poorly detected by RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal samples and is associated with high lethality.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6097, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671037

RESUMO

Effective treatments against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed. Monoclonal antibodies have shown promising results in patients. Here, we evaluate the in vivo prophylactic and therapeutic effect of COVA1-18, a neutralizing antibody highly potent against the B.1.1.7 isolate. In both prophylactic and therapeutic settings, SARS-CoV-2 remains undetectable in the lungs of treated hACE2 mice. Therapeutic treatment also causes a reduction in viral loads in the lungs of Syrian hamsters. When administered at 10 mg kg-1 one day prior to a high dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in cynomolgus macaques, COVA1-18 shows very strong antiviral activity in the upper respiratory compartments. Using a mathematical model, we estimate that COVA1-18 reduces viral infectivity by more than 95% in these compartments, preventing lymphopenia and extensive lung lesions. Our findings demonstrate that COVA1-18 has a strong antiviral activity in three preclinical models and could be a valuable candidate for further clinical evaluation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/farmacocinética , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Tecidual , Carga Viral
4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(9): 1437-1453.e8, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428428

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected more than 185 million people worldwide resulting in over 4 million deaths. To contain the pandemic, there is a continued need for safe vaccines that provide durable protection at low and scalable doses and can be deployed easily. Here, AAVCOVID-1, an adeno-associated viral (AAV), spike-gene-based vaccine candidate demonstrates potent immunogenicity in mouse and non-human primates following a single injection and confers complete protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge in macaques. Peak neutralizing antibody titers are sustained at 1 year and complemented by functional memory T cell responses. The AAVCOVID vector has no relevant pre-existing immunity in humans and does not elicit cross-reactivity to common AAVs used in gene therapy. Vector genome persistence and expression wanes following injection. The single low-dose requirement, high-yield manufacturability, and 1-month stability for storage at room temperature may make this technology well suited to support effective immunization campaigns for emerging pathogens on a global scale.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Dependovirus/genética , Dependovirus/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transgenes/genética , Vacinação/métodos , Carga Viral/imunologia
5.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 8: 100171, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278372

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines against COVID-19 with the original virus and other lineages circulating in France. Methods: In this nationwide case-control study, cases were SARS-CoV-2 infected adults with onset of symptoms between 14 February and 3 May 2021. Controls were non-infected adults from a national representative panel matched to cases by age, sex, region, population density and calendar week. Participants completed an online questionnaire on recent activity-related exposures and vaccination history. Information about the infecting virus was based on a screening RT-PCR for either B.1.1.7 or B.1.351/P.1 variants. Findings: Included in our analysis were 7 288 adults infected with the original SARS-CoV-2 virus, 31 313 with the B.1.1.7 lineage, 2 550 with B.1.351/P1 lineages, and 3 644 controls. In multivariable analysis, the vaccine effectiveness (95% confidence interval) seven days after the second dose of mRNA vaccine was estimated at 88% (81-92), 86% (81-90) and 77% (63-86) against COVID-19 with the original virus, the B.1.1.7 lineage, and the B.1.351/P.1 lineages, respectively. Recent (2 to 6 months) history of virologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was found to be 83% (76-88), 88% (85-91) and 83% (71-90) protective against COVID-19 with the original virus, the B.1.1.7 lineage, and the B.1.351/P.1 lineages, respectively; and more distant (> 6 months) infections were 76% (54-87), 84% (75-90), and 74% (41-89) protective against COVID-19 with the original virus, the B.1.1.7 lineage, and the B.1.351/P.1 lineages, respectively. Interpretation: In real-life settings, two doses of mRNA vaccines proved to be effective against COVID-19 with the original virus, B.1.1.7 lineage and B.1.351/P.1 lineages. Funding: Institut Pasteur, Research & Action Emerging Infectious Diseases (REACTing), Fondation de France (Alliance "Tous unis contre le virus").

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3025, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021152

RESUMO

Assessment of the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections is critical for monitoring the course and extent of the COVID-19 epidemic. Here, we report estimated seroprevalence in the French population and the proportion of infected individuals who developed neutralising antibodies at three points throughout the first epidemic wave. Testing 11,000 residual specimens for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralising antibodies, we find nationwide seroprevalence of 0.41% (95% CI: 0.05-0.88) mid-March, 4.14% (95% CI: 3.31-4.99) mid-April and 4.93% (95% CI: 4.02-5.89) mid-May 2020. Approximately 70% of seropositive individuals have detectable neutralising antibodies. Infection fatality rate is 0.84% (95% CI: 0.70-1.03) and increases exponentially with age. These results confirm that the nationwide lockdown substantially curbed transmission and that the vast majority of the French population remained susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 in May 2020. Our study shows the progression of the first epidemic wave and provides a framework to inform the ongoing public health response as viral transmission continues globally.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epidemias , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Eur Respir J ; 58(3)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888523

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalisations among young children and is globally responsible for many deaths in young children, especially in infants aged <6 months. Furthermore, RSV is a common cause of severe respiratory disease and hospitalisation among older adults. The development of new candidate vaccines and monoclonal antibodies highlights the need for reliable surveillance of RSV. In the European Union (EU), no up-to-date general recommendations on RSV surveillance are currently available. Based on outcomes of a workshop with 29 European experts in the field of RSV virology, epidemiology and public health, we provide recommendations for developing a feasible and sustainable national surveillance strategy for RSV that will enable harmonisation and data comparison at the European level. We discuss three surveillance components: active sentinel community surveillance, active sentinel hospital surveillance and passive laboratory surveillance, using the EU acute respiratory infection and World Health Organization (WHO) extended severe acute respiratory infection case definitions. Furthermore, we recommend the use of quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR-based assays as the standard detection method for RSV and virus genetic characterisation, if possible, to monitor genetic evolution. These guidelines provide a basis for good quality, feasible and affordable surveillance of RSV. Harmonisation of surveillance standards at the European and global level will contribute to the wider availability of national level RSV surveillance data for regional and global analysis, and for estimation of RSV burden and the impact of future immunisation programmes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
9.
Euro Surveill ; 26(13)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797390

RESUMO

BackgroundChildren have a low rate of COVID-19 and secondary severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) but present a high prevalence of symptomatic seasonal coronavirus infections.AimWe tested if prior infections by seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV) NL63, HKU1, 229E or OC43 as assessed by serology, provide cross-protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.MethodsWe set a cross-sectional observational multicentric study in pauci- or asymptomatic children hospitalised in Paris during the first wave for reasons other than COVID (hospitalised children (HOS), n = 739) plus children presenting with MIS (n = 36). SARS-CoV-2 antibodies directed against the nucleoprotein (N) and S1 and S2 domains of the spike (S) proteins were monitored by an in-house luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. We randomly selected 69 SARS-CoV-2-seropositive patients (including 15 with MIS) and 115 matched SARS-CoV-2-seronegative patients (controls (CTL)). We measured antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV as evidence for prior corresponding infections and assessed if SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of infection and levels of antibody responses were shaped by prior seasonal coronavirus infections.ResultsPrevalence of HCoV infections were similar in HOS, MIS and CTL groups. Antibody levels against HCoV were not significantly different in the three groups and were not related to the level of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the HOS and MIS groups. SARS-CoV-2 antibody profiles were different between HOS and MIS children.ConclusionPrior infection by seasonal coronaviruses, as assessed by serology, does not interfere with SARS-CoV-2 infection and related MIS in children.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano OC43 , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Paris , Estações do Ano , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
10.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was set up to evaluate the efficacy of virological surveillance using posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples to monitor the COVID-19 pandemic in general practice. METHODS: Posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples were collected without restriction on timing or alimentation by general practitioners from patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) seen in consultation. Saliva samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 and 21 other respiratory pathogens. Results for SARS-CoV-2 in saliva samples were compared to results obtained using a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) collected in a certified medical laboratory before or after the ARI consultation. RESULTS: Overall, 143 ARI patients were enrolled between 6 June 2020, and 19 January 2021. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 37.0% (n = 53) of saliva samples and in 39.0% (n = 56) of NPS. Both saliva and NPS were positive in 51 patients. Positive and negative results were concordant between saliva samples and NPS in 51 (96.2%) and in 85 (94.4%) patients, respectively, with a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.89 (95% CI 0.82-0.97, p < 0.001). Other respiratory viruses were detected in 28.0% (n = 40) of the 143 saliva samples. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that saliva samples could represent an attractive alternative to NPS for surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in patients consulting for an ARI in primary care.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/virologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Criança , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 631346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717023

RESUMO

Homotypic co-infections with influenza viruses are described to increase genetic population diversity, to drive viral evolution and to allow genetic complementation. Less is known about heterotypic co-infections between influenza A (IAV) and influenza B (IBV) viruses. Previous publications showed that IAV replication was suppressed upon co-infection with IBV. However, the effect of heterotypic co-infections on IBV replication was not investigated. To do so, we produced by reverse genetics a pair of replication-competent recombinant IAV (A/WSN/33) and IBV (B/Brisbane/60/2008) expressing a GFP and mCherry fluorescent reporter, respectively. A549 cells were infected simultaneously or 1 h apart at a high MOI with IAV-GFP or IBV-mCherry and the fluorescence was measured at 6 h post-infection by flow cytometry. Unexpectedly, we observed that IBV-mCherry infection was enhanced upon co-infection with IAV-GFP, and more strongly so when IAV was added 1 h prior to IBV. The same effect was observed with wild-type viruses and with various strains of IAV. Using UV-inactivated IAV or type-specific antiviral compounds, we showed that the enhancing effect of IAV infection on IBV infection was dependent on transcription/replication of the IAV genome. Our results, taken with available data in the literature, support the hypothesis that the presence of IAV proteins can enhance IBV genome expression and/or complement IBV defective particles.

12.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-19, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685349

RESUMO

The current pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID) 2019 constitutes a global public health issue. Regarding the emerging importance of the gut-lung axis in viral respiratory infections, analysis of the gut microbiota's composition and functional activity during a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection might be instrumental in understanding and controling COVID 19. We used a nonhuman primate model (the macaque), that recapitulates mild COVID-19 symptoms, to analyze the effects of a SARS-CoV-2 infection on dynamic changes of the gut microbiota. 16S rRNA gene profiling and analysis of ß diversity indicated significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota with a peak at 10-13 days post-infection (dpi). Analysis of bacterial abundance correlation networks confirmed disruption of the bacterial community at 10-13 dpi. Some alterations in microbiota persisted after the resolution of the infection until day 26. Some changes in the relative bacterial taxon abundance associated with infectious parameters. Interestingly, the relative abundance of Acinetobacter (Proteobacteria) and some genera of the Ruminococcaceae family (Firmicutes) was positively correlated with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract. Targeted quantitative metabolomics indicated a drop in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and changes in several bile acids and tryptophan metabolites in infected animals. The relative abundance of several taxa known to be SCFA producers (mostly from the Ruminococcaceae family) was negatively correlated with systemic inflammatory markers while the opposite correlation was seen with several members of the genus Streptococcus. Collectively, SARS-CoV-2 infection in a nonhuman primate is associated with changes in the gut microbiota's composition and functional activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Macaca/microbiologia , Macaca/virologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes , Feminino , Metaboloma , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(3): e1008785, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730053

RESUMO

Non-human primates infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibit mild clinical signs. Here we used a mathematical model to characterize in detail the viral dynamics in 31 cynomolgus macaques for which nasopharyngeal and tracheal viral load were frequently assessed. We identified that infected cells had a large burst size (>104 virus) and a within-host reproductive basic number of approximately 6 and 4 in nasopharyngeal and tracheal compartment, respectively. After peak viral load, infected cells were rapidly lost with a half-life of 9 hours, with no significant association between cytokine elevation and clearance, leading to a median time to viral clearance of 10 days, consistent with observations in mild human infections. Given these parameter estimates, we predict that a prophylactic treatment blocking 90% of viral production or viral infection could prevent viral growth. In conclusion, our results provide estimates of SARS-CoV-2 viral kinetic parameters in an experimental model of mild infection and they provide means to assess the efficacy of future antiviral treatments.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Macaca fascicularis/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Número Básico de Reprodução , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Nasofaringe/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Traqueia/virologia , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Nat Med ; 27(5): 917-924, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772244

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants were first identified in the United Kingdom and South Africa, respectively, and have since spread to many countries. These variants harboring diverse mutations in the gene encoding the spike protein raise important concerns about their immune evasion potential. Here, we isolated infectious B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 strains from acutely infected individuals. We examined sensitivity of the two variants to SARS-CoV-2 antibodies present in sera and nasal swabs from individuals infected with previously circulating strains or who were recently vaccinated, in comparison with a D614G reference virus. We utilized a new rapid neutralization assay, based on reporter cells that become positive for GFP after overnight infection. Sera from 58 convalescent individuals collected up to 9 months after symptoms, similarly neutralized B.1.1.7 and D614G. In contrast, after 9 months, convalescent sera had a mean sixfold reduction in neutralizing titers, and 40% of the samples lacked any activity against B.1.351. Sera from 19 individuals vaccinated twice with Pfizer Cominarty, longitudinally tested up to 6 weeks after vaccination, were similarly potent against B.1.1.7 but less efficacious against B.1.351, when compared to D614G. Neutralizing titers increased after the second vaccine dose, but remained 14-fold lower against B.1.351. In contrast, sera from convalescent or vaccinated individuals similarly bound the three spike proteins in a flow cytometry-based serological assay. Neutralizing antibodies were rarely detected in nasal swabs from vaccinees. Thus, faster-spreading SARS-CoV-2 variants acquired a partial resistance to neutralizing antibodies generated by natural infection or vaccination, which was most frequently detected in individuals with low antibody levels. Our results indicate that B1.351, but not B.1.1.7, may increase the risk of infection in immunized individuals.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Convalescença , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Testes de Neutralização , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vacinação
15.
Euro Surveill ; 26(9)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663644

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variant 20I/501Y.V1 (VOC-202012/1 or GR/501Y.V1) is concerning given its increased transmissibility. We reanalysed 11,916 PCR-positive tests (41% of all positive tests) performed on 7-8 January 2021 in France. The prevalence of 20I/501Y.V1 was 3.3% among positive tests nationwide and 6.9% in the Paris region. Analysing the recent rise in the prevalence of 20I/501Y.V1, we estimate that, in the French context, 20I/501Y.V1 is 52-69% more transmissible than the previously circulating lineages, depending on modelling assumptions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Paris
16.
Cell ; 184(5): 1188-1200.e19, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577765

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is continuing to disrupt personal lives, global healthcare systems, and economies. Hence, there is an urgent need for a vaccine that prevents viral infection, transmission, and disease. Here, we present a two-component protein-based nanoparticle vaccine that displays multiple copies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Immunization studies show that this vaccine induces potent neutralizing antibody responses in mice, rabbits, and cynomolgus macaques. The vaccine-induced immunity protects macaques against a high-dose challenge, resulting in strongly reduced viral infection and replication in the upper and lower airways. These nanoparticles are a promising vaccine candidate to curtail the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Macaca fascicularis , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Linfócitos B/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Animais , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Coelhos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/sangue , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Carga Viral
19.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(6): 1263-1269, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474677

RESUMO

Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics whose intensity varies according to the circulating virus type and subtype. We aim to estimate influenza-like illness (ILI) incidence attributable to influenza viruses in France from October 2014 to May 2019. Physicians participating in the French Sentinelles network reported the number of patients with ILI seen in consultation and performed nasopharyngeal swabs in a sample of these patients. The swabs were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of influenza viruses. These clinical and virological data were combined to estimate ILI incidence attributable to influenza viruses by subtypes and age groups. Influenza incidence rates over seasons ranged from 1.9 (95% CI, 1.9; 2.0) to 3.4% (95% CI, 3.2; 3.6) of the population. Each season, more than half of ILI cases were attributable to influenza. Children under 15 years were the most affected, with influenza incidence rates ranging from 3.0 (95% CI, 2.8;3.3) to 5.7% (95% CI, 5.3;6.1). Co-circulation of several (sub)types of influenza viruses was observed each year, except in 2016/2017 where A(H3N2) viruses accounted for 98.0% of the influenza cases. Weekly ILI incidences attributable to each influenza virus (sub)type were mostly synchronized with ILI incidence, except in 2014/2015 and 2017/2018, where incidence attributable to type B viruses peaked few weeks later. The burden of medically attended influenza among patients with ILI is significant in France, varying considerably across years and age groups. These results show the importance of influenza surveillance in primary care combining clinical and virological data.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0243712, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428641

RESUMO

To respond to the urgent need for COVID-19 testing, countries perform nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in centralized laboratories. Real-time RT-PCR (Reverse transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction), used to amplify and detect the viral RNA., is considered, as the current gold standard for diagnostics. It is an efficient process, but the complex engineering required for automated RNA extraction and temperature cycling makes it incompatible for use in point of care settings [1]. In the present work, by harnessing progress made in the past two decades in isothermal amplification and paper microfluidics, we created a portable test, in which SARS-CoV-2 RNA is extracted, amplified isothermally by RT-LAMP (Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification), and detected using intercalating dyes or fluorescent probes. Depending on the viral load in the tested samples, the detection takes between twenty minutes and one hour. Using a set of 16 pools of naso-pharyngal swab eluates, we estimated a limit of detection comparable to real-time RT-PCR (i.e. 1 genome copies per microliter of clinical sample) and no cross-reaction with eight major respiratory viruses currently circulating in Europe. We designed and fabricated an easy-to-use portable device called "COVIDISC" to carry out the test at the point of care. The low cost of the materials along with the absence of complex equipment will expedite the widespread dissemination of this device. What is proposed here is a new efficient tool to help managing the pandemics.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/instrumentação , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/instrumentação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Testes Imediatos , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Teste para COVID-19/economia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/economia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/economia , Testes Imediatos/economia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo
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