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Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101


Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 17, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717763


BACKGROUND: The aim of many physical activity interventions is to develop life-long habits of regular exercise and sports activities in leisure time. Previous studies that assessed tracking (i.e. the stability of a trait over the lifespan) of leisure time exercise behaviour across various parts of the life span have treated it as a uniform construct by summing all types of leisure time exercise activities into a single summary score for the total volume of exercise. This study provides new insight by additionally determining tracking across leisure time exercise activities in six different domains: (1) team-based versus solitary activities, (2) competitive versus non-competitive activities, and (3) externally paced versus internally paced activities. We also assessed which of the domains of exercise activities best predicted total volume of exercise at follow-up. METHODS: A large dataset (N = 43,889) from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) was used to analyse the tracking of exercise behaviour over time. Using this dataset, we were able to examine tracking as a function of baseline age (8 to 80 years) and tracking duration (2 to 22-year follow-up), taking into account sex differences, using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Two-year tracking coefficients are moderate to high for total volume of exercise across ages at baseline, ranging from .38 to .77 with a median of .57. Tracking coefficients tend to decrease as the distance to follow-up increases, down to a median of .38 for the 22-year tracking coefficients. The patterns of tracking were largely domain-independent and were largely similar for solitary, competitive, non-competitive, externally and internally paced activities. With the exception of team-based activities, tracking was seen to increase as a function of baseline age. Cross-domain tracking did not favour any specific domain of exercise activity as the best predictor for total volume of exercise behaviour and this was true at all baseline ages. CONCLUSION: We conclude that exercise behaviour is moderately to highly stable across the life span. In particular in adulthood, where the tracking of exercise mimics that of a classical behavioural trait like personality. This stability reinforces existing evidence that exercise habits are hard to change, but at the same time suggests that successful intervention leading to the adoption of exercise habits will tend to last.

Exercício , Hábitos , Atividades de Lazer , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Esportes , Gêmeos , Adulto Jovem
Nat Neurosci ; 21(9): 1161-1170, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150663


Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers. The strongest finding across the different analyses was CADM2, which has been associated with substance use and risk-taking. Significant genetic correlations were found with 14 of 25 tested substance use and mental health-related traits, including smoking, alcohol use, schizophrenia and risk-taking. Mendelian randomization analysis showed evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on cannabis use. Overall, our study provides new insights into the etiology of cannabis use and its relation with mental health.

Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(4): 700-708, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135816


PURPOSE: Most candidate gene studies on the neurobiology of voluntary exercise behavior have focused on the dopaminergic signaling pathway and its role in the mesolimbic reward system. We hypothesized that dopaminergic candidate genes may influence exercise behavior through additional effects on executive functioning and that these effects are only detected when the types of exercise activity are taken into account. METHODS: Data on voluntary exercise behavior and at least one single-nucleotide polymorphism/variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) were available for 12,929 participants of the Netherlands Twin Registry. Exercise activity was classified as externally paced if a high level of executive function skill was required. The total volume of voluntary exercise (minutes per week) as well as the volume specifically spent on externally paced activities were tested for association with nine functional dopaminergic polymorphisms (DRD1: rs265981, DRD2/ANKK1: rs1800497, DRD3: rs6280, DRD4: VNTR 48 bp, DRD5: VNTR 130-166 bp, DBH: rs2519152, DAT1: VNTR 40 bp, COMT: rs4680, MAOA: VNTR 30 bp), a polygenic score (PGS) based on nine alleles leading to lower dopamine responsiveness, and a PGS based on three alleles associated with both higher reward sensitivity and better executive functioning (DRD2/ANKK1: "G" allele, COMT: Met allele, DAT1: 440-bp allele). RESULTS: No association with total exercise volume or externally paced exercise volume was found for individual alleles or the nine-allele PGS. The volume of externally paced exercise behavior was significantly associated with the reward and executive function congruent PGS. This association was driven by the DAT1 440-bp and COMT Met allele, which acted as increaser alleles for externally paced exercise behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Taking into account the types of exercise activity may increase the success of identifying genetic variants and unraveling the neurobiology of voluntary exercise behavior.