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1.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is recognised to be a heritable disorder, yet clinical genetic testing does not produce a diagnosis in >50% of paediatric patients. Identifying a genetic cause is crucial because this knowledge can affect management options, cardiac surveillance in relatives and reproductive decision-making. In this study, we sought to identify the underlying genetic defect in a patient born to consanguineous parents with rapidly progressive DCM that led to death in early infancy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Exome sequencing revealed a potentially pathogenic, homozygous missense variant, c.542G>T, p.(Gly181Val), in SOD2. This gene encodes superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) or manganese-superoxide dismutase, a mitochondrial matrix protein that scavenges oxygen radicals produced by oxidation-reduction and electron transport reactions occurring in mitochondria via conversion of superoxide anion (O2 -·) into H2O2. Measurement of hydroethidine oxidation showed a significant increase in O2 -· levels in the patient's skin fibroblasts, as compared with controls, and this was paralleled by reduced catalytic activity of SOD2 in patient fibroblasts and muscle. Lentiviral complementation experiments demonstrated that mitochondrial SOD2 activity could be completely restored on transduction with wild type SOD2. CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence that defective SOD2 may lead to toxic increases in the levels of damaging oxygen radicals in the neonatal heart, which can result in rapidly developing heart failure and death. We propose SOD2 as a novel nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein involved in severe human neonatal cardiomyopathy, thus expanding the wide range of genetic factors involved in paediatric cardiomyopathies.

2.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(8): e002467, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is associated with pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in genes encoding the cardiac desmosomal proteins. Origin of these variants, including de novo mutation rate and extent of founder versus recurrent variants has implications for variant adjudication and clinical care, yet this has never been systematically investigated. METHODS: We identified arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy probands who met 2010 Task Force Criteria and had undergone genotyping that included sequencing of the desmosomal genes (PKP2, DSP, DSG2, DSC2, and JUP) from 3 arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy registries in America and Europe. We classified the desmosomal variants, defined the contribution of unique versus nonunique (ie, not family-specific) P/LP variants, and identified the frequency and characteristics of de novo variants. Next, we haplotyped nonunique variants to determine how often they likely represent a single mutation event in a common ancestor (implied by shared haplotypes) versus multiple mutation events at the same genetic location. RESULTS: Of 501 arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy probands, 322 (64.3%) carried 327 desmosomal P/LP variants. Most variants (n=247, 75.6%, in 245 patients) were identified in more than one proband and, therefore, considered nonunique. For 212/327 variants (64.8%) genetic cascade screening was performed extensively enough to identify the parental origin of the P/LP variant. Only 3 variants were de novo, 2 of which were whole gene deletions. For 24 nonunique P/LP PKP2 variants, haplotyping was conducted in 183 available families. For all 24 variants, multiple seemingly unrelated families sharing identical haplotypes were identified, suggesting that these variants originate from common founders. CONCLUSIONS: Most desmosomal P/LP variants are inherited, nonunique, and originate from ancient founders. Two of 3 de novo variants were large deletions. These observations inform genetic testing, cascade screening, and variant adjudication.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2837, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253775

RESUMO

The diagnostic yield of exome and genome sequencing remains low (8-70%), due to incomplete knowledge on the genes that cause disease. To improve this, we use RNA-seq data from 31,499 samples to predict which genes cause specific disease phenotypes, and develop GeneNetwork Assisted Diagnostic Optimization (GADO). We show that this unbiased method, which does not rely upon specific knowledge on individual genes, is effective in both identifying previously unknown disease gene associations, and flagging genes that have previously been incorrectly implicated in disease. GADO can be run on www.genenetwork.nl by supplying HPO-terms and a list of genes that contain candidate variants. Finally, applying GADO to a cohort of 61 patients for whom exome-sequencing analysis had not resulted in a genetic diagnosis, yields likely causative genes for ten cases.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Componente Principal , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4093, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858397

RESUMO

Recent advancements in next generation sequencing (NGS) technology have led to the identification of the giant sarcomere gene, titin (TTN), as a major human disease gene. Truncating variants of TTN (TTNtv) especially in the A-band region account for 20% of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. Much attention has been focused on assessment and interpretation of TTNtv in human disease; however, missense and non-frameshifting insertions/deletions (NFS-INDELs) are difficult to assess and interpret in clinical diagnostic workflow. Targeted sequencing covering all exons of TTN was performed on a cohort of 530 primary DCM patients from three cardiogenetic centres across Europe. Using stringent bioinformatic filtering, twenty-nine and two rare TTN missense and NFS-INDELs variants predicted deleterious were identified in 6.98% and 0.38% of DCM patients, respectively. However, when compared with those identified in the largest available reference population database, no significant enrichment of such variants was identified in DCM patients. Moreover, DCM patients and reference individuals had comparable frequencies of splice-region missense variants with predicted splicing alteration. DCM patients and reference populations had comparable frequencies of rare predicted deleterious TTN missense variants including splice-region missense variants suggesting that these variants are not independently causative for DCM. Hence, these variants should be classified as likely benign in the clinical diagnostic workflow, although a modifier effect cannot be excluded at this stage.

6.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 40: 2-6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763825

RESUMO

Phospholamban (PLN) p.Arg14del cardiomyopathy is characterized by a distinct arrhythmogenic biventricular phenotype that can be predominantly left ventricular, right ventricular, or both. Our aim was to further elucidate distinct features of this cardiomyopathy with respect to the distribution of desmosomal proteins observed by immunofluorescence (IF) in comparison to desmosomal arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy and co-existent genetic variants. We studied eight explanted heart specimens from PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers. Macro- and microscopic examination revealed biventricular presence of fibrofatty replacement and interstitial fibrosis. Five out of 8 (63%) patients met consensus criteria for both arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In four cases, targeted next-generation sequencing revealed one additional pathogenic variant and six variants of unknown significance. IF showed diminished junction plakoglobin signal intensity at the intercalated disks in 4 (67%) out of 6 cases fulfilling ARVC criteria but normal intensity in both cases fulfilling only DCM criteria. Notably, the four cases with diminished junction plakoglobin were also those where an additional gene variant was detected. IF for two proteins recently investigated in desmosomal arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), synapse-associated protein 97 and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, showed a distinct distributional pattern in comparison to desmosomal ACM. In 7 (88%) out of 8 cases we observed both a strong synapse-associated protein 97 signal at the sarcomeres and no glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta translocation to the intercalated discs. Phospholamban p.Arg14del cardiomyopathy is characterized by a distinct molecular signature compared to desmosomal ACM, specifically a different desmosomal protein distribution. This study substantiates the idea that additional genetic variants play a role in the phenotypical heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/genética , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Desmossomos/química , Miocárdio/química , Deleção de Sequência , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/patologia , Desmossomos/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/análise
8.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(10): e001797, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate estimates of survival are indispensable for cardiologists, clinical geneticists, and genetic counselors dealing with families with an inherited cardiac disease. However, a bias towards a more severe disease with a worse outcome in the first publications may not accurately represent the actual survival forecast. We, therefore, evaluated the effect of ascertainment bias on survival in 3 different inherited cardiac diseases (idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, SCN5A overlap syndrome, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) caused by a founder mutation. METHODS: We collected mortality data from mutation-positive subjects with either DPP6-associated idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, SCN5A overlap syndrome, and PLN-R14del-mediated arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy >2 to 10 years of ongoing clinical/cascade genetic screening. RESULTS: The median age of survival in DPP6 mutation-positive subjects increased from 44.6 years in the original cohort from 2008 (n=60; 95% CI, 36.8-52.4 years) to 68.2 years in the extended cohort from 2012 (n=235; 95% CI, 64.6-71.7 years; P<0.001). In the SCN5A overlap syndrome, survival increased from 56.1 years in 1999 (n=86; 95% CI, 48.0-64.2 years) to 69.7 years in 2009 (n=197; 95% CI, 61.3-78.2 years; P=0.049). In PLN-R14del positive patients, the median age of survival increased from 63.5 years in 2010 (n=89; 95% CI, 59.1-68.0 years) to 65.2 years in 2012 (n=370; 95% CI, 62.0-68.3 years; P=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: The median age of survival in 3 different inherited cardiac diseases with an established pathogenic substrate significantly increased once genetic testing and cascade screening extended, after the first publication that elucidated the discovery of the disease-susceptibility gene/mutation. This underscores the direct and negative influence of ascertainment bias on survival forecasts and the importance of ongoing clinical/genetic follow-up to establish the most accurate disease prognosis for genetically mediated heart diseases.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(11): 1603-1610, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988065

RESUMO

The pathogenicity of previously published disease-associated genes and variants is sometimes questionable. Large-scale, population-based sequencing studies have uncovered numerous false assignments of pathogenicity. Misinterpretation of sequence variants may have serious implications for the patients and families involved, as genetic test results are increasingly being used in medical decision making. In this study, we assessed the role of the calreticulin-3 gene (CALR3) in cardiomyopathy. CALR3 has been included in several cardiomyopathy gene panels worldwide. Its inclusion is based on a single publication describing two missense variants in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In our national cardiomyopathy cohort (n = 6154), we identified 17 unique, rare heterozygous CALR3 variants in 48 probands. Overall, our patient cohort contained a significantly higher number of rare CALR3 variants compared to the ExAC population (p = 0.0036). However, after removing a potential Dutch founder variant, no statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.89). In nine probands, the CALR3 variant was accompanied by a disease-causing variant in another, well-known cardiomyopathy gene. In three families, the CALR3 variant did not segregate with the disease. Furthermore, we could not demonstrate calreticulin-3 protein expression in myocardial tissues at various ages. On the basis of these findings, it seems highly questionable that variants in CALR3 are a monogenic cause of cardiomyopathy.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 995-1007, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656858

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635323

RESUMO

Aims: The p.Arg14del founder mutation in the gene encoding phospholamban (PLN) is associated with an increased risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmia (VA) and heart failure. It has been shown to lead to calcium overload, cardiomyocyte damage, and eventually to myocardial fibrosis. This study sought to investigate ventricular function, the extent and localization of myocardial fibrosis and the associations with ECG features and VA in PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers. Methods and results: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data of 150 mutation carriers were analysed retrospectively. Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumes, mass, and ejection fraction were measured. The extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was expressed as a percentage of myocardial mass. All standard ECG parameters were measured. Occurrence of VA was analysed on ambulatory 24-h and/or exercise electrocardiography, if available. Mean age was 40 ± 15 years, 42% males, and 7% were index patients while 93% were pre-symptomatic carriers identified after family cascade screening. Mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and RV ejection fraction were 58 ± 9% and 55 ± 9%, respectively. LV-LGE was present in 91% of mutation carriers with reduced LVEF (<45%) and in 30% of carriers with preserved LVEF. In carriers with positive LV-LGE, its median extent was 5.9% (interquartile range 3.2-12.7). LGE was mainly observed in the inferolateral wall. Carriers with inverted T-waves in the lateral ECG leads more often had LV-LGE (P < 0.01) than carriers without. Finally, the presence of LV-LGE, but not attenuated R-waves and inverted lateral T-waves, was independently associated with VA. Conclusion: LV myocardial fibrosis is present in many PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers, and who still have a preserved LVEF. It is seen predominantly in the LV inferolateral wall and corresponds with electrocardiographic repolarization abnormalities. Although preliminary, myocardial fibrosis was found to be independently associated with VA. Our findings support the use of CMR with LGE early in the diagnostic work-up.

12.
Genet Med ; 20(11): 1374-1386, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29517769

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the diagnostic yield in pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) of combining exome sequencing (ES)-based targeted analysis and genome-wide copy-number variation (CNV) analysis. Based on our findings, we retrospectively designed an effective approach for genetic testing in pediatric DCM. METHODS: We identified 95 patients (in 85 families) with pediatric onset of DCM. We initially excluded 13 of these families because they already had a genetic diagnosis, leaving a total of 31 probands for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and trio-ES. We used Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO)-based filtering for our data analysis. RESULTS: We reached a genetic diagnosis in 15/31 (48.4%) families. ES yielded a diagnosis in 13 probands (13/15; 86.7%), with most variants being found in genes encoding structural cardiomyocyte components. Two large deletions were identified using SNP array. If we had included the 13 excluded families, our estimated yield would have been 54%. CONCLUSION: We propose a standardized, stepwise analysis of (i) well-known cardiomyopathy genes, (ii) CNVs, (iii) all genes assigned to HPO cardiomyopathy, and (iv) if appropriate, genes assigned to other HPO terms. This diagnostic approach yields the highest increase at each subsequent step and reduces analytic effort, cost, the number of variants of unknown clinical significance, and the chance of incidental findings.

13.
Circ Res ; 122(6): 846-854, 2018 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343526

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Orthostatic hypotension is a common clinical problem, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully delineated. OBJECTIVE: We describe 2 families, with 4 patients in total, experiencing severe life-threatening orthostatic hypotension because of a novel cause. METHODS AND RESULTS: As in dopamine ß-hydroxylase deficiency, concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine in the patients were low. Plasma dopamine ß-hydroxylase activity, however, was normal, and the DBH gene had no mutations. Molecular genetic analysis was performed to determine the underlying genetic cause. Homozygosity mapping and exome and Sanger sequencing revealed pathogenic homozygous mutations in the gene encoding cytochrome b561 (CYB561); a missense variant c.262G>A, p.Gly88Arg in exon 3 in the Dutch family and a nonsense mutation (c.131G>A, p.Trp44*) in exon 2 in the American family. Expression of CYB561 was investigated using RNA from different human adult and fetal tissues, transcription of RNA into cDNA, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The CYB561 gene was found to be expressed in many human tissues, in particular the brain. The CYB561 protein defect leads to a shortage of ascorbate inside the catecholamine secretory vesicles leading to a functional dopamine ß-hydroxylase deficiency. The concentration of the catecholamines and downstream metabolites was measured in brain and adrenal tissue of 6 CYB561 knockout mice (reporter-tagged deletion allele [post-Cre], genetic background C57BL/6NTac). The concentration of norepinephrine and normetanephrine was decreased in whole-brain homogenates of the CYB561(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice (P<0.01), and the concentration of normetanephrine and metanephrine was decreased in adrenal glands (P<0.01), recapitulating the clinical phenotype. The patients responded favorably to treatment with l-dihydroxyphenylserine, which can be converted directly to norepinephrine. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to implicate cytochrome b561 in disease by showing that pathogenic mutations in CYB561 cause an as yet unknown disease in neurotransmitter metabolism causing orthostatic hypotension.

14.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 30: 23-26, 2017 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28759816

RESUMO

Phospholamban (PLN) p.Arg14del cardiomyopathy is associated with an increased risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and severe heart failure and a poor prognosis from late adolescence. It can be diagnosed in whole heart specimens, but rarely in right ventricular biopsy specimens, by PLN immunohistochemistry showing PLN-containing aggregates concentrated in cardiomyocytes in dense perinuclear aggresomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PLN immunohistochemistry can be used to diagnose PLN p.Arg14del cardiomyopathy using apical left ventricular myocardial specimens harvested during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. At that stage, a genetic diagnosis, which may guide treatment and referral of family members for further investigation, is frequently not established yet. Included were myocardial specimens from 30 diverse genetic cardiomyopathy cases with known variants (9 carriers of the pathogenic PLN p.Arg14del variant, 18 cases with other pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in cardiomyopathy-related genes, and 3 with only variants of unknown significance). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed typical dense perinuclear globular PLN-positive aggregates, representing aggresomes, in all nine PLN p.Arg14del cases. In 20 non-PLN cases, PLN-staining was absent. In one non-PLN case, one of the two independent observers misinterpreted PLN staining of heavily wrinkled nuclear membranes of cardiomyocytes as perinuclear PLN aggregates. In this genetic cardiomyopathy cohort, PLN Immunohistochemical analysis in LVAD biopsies was found to be a highly sensitive (100%) and specific (95%) method for demonstration of PLN protein aggregates in PLN p.Arg14del cardiomyopathy. In clinical practice, PLN immunohistochemical analysis of LVAD specimens can be of incremental value in the diagnostic workup of this cardiomyopathy, even more so if genetic analysis is not readily available.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/metabolismo , Biópsia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Testes Genéticos , Variação Genética , Coração Auxiliar , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/estatística & dados numéricos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/genética , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência
15.
J Med Genet ; 54(9): 624-632, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28442542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggesting that Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) is involved in non-syndromic retinal disease have been debated, as the functional significance of identified missense variants was uncertain. We assessed whether AHI1 variants cause non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed in three probands with RP. The effects of the identified missense variants in AHI1 were predicted by three-dimensional structure homology modelling. Ciliary parameters were evaluated in patient's fibroblasts, and recombinant mutant proteins were expressed in ciliated retinal pigmented epithelium cells. RESULTS: In the three patients with RP, three sets of compound heterozygous variants were detected in AHI1 (c.2174G>A; p.Trp725* and c.2258A>T; p.Asp753Val, c.660delC; p.Ser221Glnfs*10 and c.2090C>T; p.Pro697Leu, c.2087A>G; p.His696Arg and c.2429C>T; p.Pro810Leu). All four missense variants were present in the conserved WD40 domain of Jouberin, the ciliary protein encoded by AHI1, with variable predicted implications for the domain structure. No significant changes in the percentage of ciliated cells, nor in cilium length or intraflagellar transport were detected. However, expression of mutant recombinant Jouberin in ciliated cells showed a significantly decreased enrichment at the ciliary base. CONCLUSIONS: This report confirms that mutations in AHI1 can underlie autosomal recessive RP. Moreover, it structurally and functionally validates the effect of the RP-associated AHI1 variants on protein function, thus proposing a new genotype-phenotype correlation for AHI1 mutation associated retinal ciliopathies.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Adulto , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Retina/anormalidades
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 67(5): 515-25, 2016 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26846950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiomyopathies are usually inherited and predominantly affect adults, but they can also present in childhood. Although our understanding of the molecular basis of pediatric cardiomyopathy has improved, the underlying mechanism remains elusive in a substantial proportion of cases. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify new genes involved in pediatric cardiomyopathy. METHODS: The authors performed homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in 2 consanguineous families with idiopathic pediatric cardiomyopathy. Sixty unrelated patients with pediatric cardiomyopathy were subsequently screened for mutations in a candidate gene. First-degree relatives were submitted to cardiac screening and cascade genetic testing. Myocardial samples from 2 patients were processed for histological and immunohistochemical studies. RESULTS: We identified 5 patients from 3 unrelated families with pediatric cardiomyopathy caused by homozygous truncating mutations in ALPK3, a gene encoding a nuclear kinase that plays an essential role in early differentiation of cardiomyocytes. All patients with biallelic mutations presented with severe hypertrophic and/or dilated cardiomyopathy in utero, at birth, or in early childhood. Three patients died from heart failure within the first week of life. Moreover, 2 of 10 (20%) heterozygous family members showed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with an atypical distribution of hypertrophy. Deficiency of alpha-kinase 3 has previously been associated with features of both hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy in mice. Consistent with studies in knockout mice, we provide microscopic evidence for intercalated disc remodeling. CONCLUSIONS: Biallelic truncating mutations in the newly identified gene ALPK3 give rise to severe, early-onset cardiomyopathy in humans. Our findings highlight the importance of transcription factor pathways in the molecular mechanisms underlying human cardiomyopathies.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Idade de Início , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Exoma/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Prognóstico
17.
Genet Med ; 18(9): 914-23, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26820064

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the prevalence and phenotypic spectrum of NOTCH1 mutations in left-sided congenital heart disease (LS-CHD). LS-CHD includes aortic valve stenosis, a bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of the aorta, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. METHODS: NOTCH1 was screened for mutations in 428 nonsyndromic probands with LS-CHD, and family histories were obtained for all. When a mutation was detected, relatives were also tested. RESULTS: In 148/428 patients (35%), LS-CHD was familial. Fourteen mutations (3%; 5 RNA splicing mutations, 8 truncating mutations, 1 whole-gene deletion) were detected, 11 in familial disease (11/148 (7%)) and 3 in sporadic disease (3/280 (1%)). Forty-nine additional mutation carriers were identified among the 14 families, of whom 12 (25%) were asymptomatic. Most of these mutation carriers had LS-CHD, but 9 (18%) had right-sided congenital heart disease (RS-CHD) or conotruncal heart disease (CTD). Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) occurred in 6 mutation carriers (probands included 6/63 (10%)). CONCLUSION: Pathogenic mutations in NOTCH1 were identified in 7% of familial LS-CHD and in 1% of sporadic LS-CHD. The penetrance is high; a cardiovascular malformation was found in 75% of NOTCH1 mutation carriers. The phenotypic spectrum includes LS-CHD, RS-CHD, CTD, and TAA. Testing NOTCH1 for an early diagnosis in LS-CHD/RS-CHD/CTD/TAA is warranted.Genet Med 18 9, 914-923.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem
18.
Hum Mutat ; 36(4): 403-10, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25676813

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is an inherited cardiac disease characterized by myocardial atrophy, fibro-fatty replacement, and a high risk of ventricular arrhythmias that lead to sudden death. In 2009, genetic data from 57 publications were collected in the arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) Genetic Variants Database (freeware available at http://www.arvcdatabase.info), which comprised 481 variants in eight ACM-associated genes. In recent years, deep genetic sequencing has increased our knowledge of the genetics of ACM, revealing a large spectrum of nucleotide variations for which pathogenicity needs to be assessed. As of April 20, 2014, we have updated the ARVD/C database into the ARVD/C database to contain more than 1,400 variants in 12 ACM-related genes (PKP2, DSP, DSC2, DSG2, JUP, TGFB3, TMEM43, LMNA, DES, TTN, PLN, CTNNA3) as reported in more than 160 references. Of these, only 411 nucleotide variants have been reported as pathogenic, whereas the significance of the other approximately 1,000 variants is still unknown. This comprehensive collection of ACM genetic data represents a valuable source of information on the spectrum of ACM-associated genes and aims to facilitate the interpretation of genetic data and genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Variação Genética , Desmossomos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Sistema de Registros
19.
Eur Heart J ; 36(14): 872-81, 2015 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24598986

RESUMO

AIMS: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare genetic condition caused predominantly by mutations within desmosomal genes. The mutation leading to ARVC-5 was recently identified on the island of Newfoundland and caused by the fully penetrant missense mutation p.S358L in TMEM43. Although TMEM43-p.S358L mutation carriers were also found in the USA, Germany, and Denmark, the genetic relationship between North American and European patients and the disease mechanism of this mutation remained to be clarified. METHODS AND RESULTS: We screened 22 unrelated ARVC patients without mutations in desmosomal genes and identified the TMEM43-p.S358L mutation in a German ARVC family. We excluded TMEM43-p.S358L in 22 unrelated patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The German family shares a common haplotype with those from Newfoundland, USA, and Denmark, suggesting that the mutation originated from a common founder. Examination of 40 control chromosomes revealed an estimated age of 1300-1500 years for the mutation, which proves the European origin of the Newfoundland mutation. Skin fibroblasts from a female and two male mutation carriers were analysed in cell culture using atomic force microscopy and revealed that the cell nuclei exhibit an increased stiffness compared with TMEM43 wild-type controls. CONCLUSION: The German family is not affected by a de novo TMEM43 mutation. It is therefore expected that an unknown number of European families may be affected by the TMEM43-p.S358L founder mutation. Due to its deleterious clinical phenotype, this mutation should be checked in any case of ARVC-related genotyping. It appears that the increased stiffness of the cell nucleus might be related to the massive loss of cardiomyocytes, which is typically found in ventricles of ARVC hearts.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/genética , Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Efeito Fundador , Alemanha/etnologia , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terra Nova e Labrador/etnologia , Linhagem , Pele
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 7(4): 455-65, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24909667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenic phospholamban R14del mutation causes dilated and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies and is associated with an increased risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and end-stage heart failure. We performed a multicentre study to evaluate mortality, cardiac disease outcome, and risk factors for malignant ventricular arrhythmias in a cohort of phospholamban R14del mutation carriers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the family tree mortality ratio method in a cohort of 403 phospholamban R14del mutation carriers, we found a standardized mortality ratio of 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.0) with significant excess mortality starting from the age of 25 years. Cardiological data were available for 295 carriers. In a median follow-up period of 42 months, 55 (19%) individuals had a first episode of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and 33 (11%) had an end-stage heart failure event. The youngest age at which a malignant ventricular arrhythmia occurred was 20 years, whereas for an end-stage heart failure event this was 31 years. Independent risk factors for malignant ventricular arrhythmias were left ventricular ejection fraction <45% and sustained or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia with hazard ratios of 4.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.9-8.1) and 2.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-4.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Phospholamban R14del mutation carriers are at high risk for malignant ventricular arrhythmias and end-stage heart failure, with left ventricular ejection fraction <45% and sustained or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia as independent risk factors. High mortality and a poor prognosis are present from late adolescence. Genetic and cardiac screening is, therefore, advised from adolescence onwards.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/mortalidade , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Falência Hepática/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida
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