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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 142, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia in the setting of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) impacts short term outcomes, but little is known about longer term effects. We therefore designed this study to firstly determine the association between hyperglycemia and short term and longer term outcomes in patients presenting with ACS and secondly evaluate the prognostic role of diabetes, body mass index (BMI) and the novel biomarker Cyr61 on outcomes. METHODS: The prospective Special Program University Medicine-Acute Coronary Syndrome (SPUM-ACS) cohort enrolled 2168 patients with ACS between December 2009 and October 2012, of which 2034 underwent PCI (93.8%). Patients were followed up for 12 months. Events were independently adjudicated by three experienced cardiologists. Participants were recruited from four tertiary hospitals in Switzerland: Zurich, Geneva, Lausanne and Bern. Participants presenting with acute coronary syndromes and who underwent coronary angiography were included in the analysis. Patients were grouped according to history of diabetes (or HbA1c greater than 6%), baseline blood sugar level (BSL; < 6, 6-11.1 and > 11.1 mmol/L) and body mass index (BMI). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) which was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke and all-cause death. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary endpoint, revascularisations, bleeding events (BARC classification) and cerebrovascular events (ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke or TIA). RESULTS: Patients with hyperglycemia, i.e. BSL ≥ 11.1 mmol/L, had higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC), creatinine kinase (CK), higher heart rates and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. At 30 days and 12 months, those with BSL ≥ 11.1 mmol/L had more MACE and death compared to those with BSL < 6.0 mmol/L or 6.0-11.1 mmol/L (HR-ratio 4.78 and 6.6; p < 0.001). The novel biomarker Cyr61 strongly associated with high BSL and STEMI and was independently associated with 1 year outcomes (HR 2.22; 95% CI 1.33-3.72; Tertile 3 vs. Tertile 1). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this large, prospective, independently adjudicated cohort of in all comers ACS patients undergoing PCI, both a history of diabetes and elevated entry glucose was associated with inflammation and increased risk of MACE both at short and long-term. The mediators might involve increased sympathetic activation, inflammation and ischemia as reflected by elevated Cyr61 levels leading to larger levels of troponin and lower LVEF. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01000701. Registered October 23, 2009.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582260

RESUMO

Genome sequencing and gene-based therapies appear poised to advance the management of rare lipoprotein disorders and associated dyslipidaemias. However, in practice, underdiagnosis and undertreatment of these disorders are common, in large part due to interindividual variability in the genetic causes and phenotypic presentation of these conditions. To address these challenges, the European Atherosclerosis Society formed a task force to provide practical clinical guidance focusing on patients with extreme concentrations (either low or high) of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The task force also recognises the scarcity of quality information regarding the prevalence and outcomes of these conditions. Collaborative registries are needed to improve health policy for the care of patients with rare dyslipidaemias.

3.
Clin Chem ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of procalcitonin in the diagnosis and management of pneumonia remains controversial. METHODS: We assessed the clinical utility of procalcitonin in 2 prospective studies: first, a multicenter diagnostic study in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnea to directly compare the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin with that of interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the diagnosis of pneumonia; second, a randomized management study of procalcitonin guidance in patients with acute heart failure and suspected pneumonia. Diagnostic accuracy for pneumonia as centrally adjudicated by 2 independent experts was quantified with the area under the ROC curve (AUC). RESULTS: Among 690 patients in the diagnostic study, 178 (25.8%) had an adjudicated final diagnosis of pneumonia. Procalcitonin, interleukin 6, and CRP were significantly higher in patients with pneumonia than in those without. When compared to procalcitonin (AUC = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.71-0.78), interleukin 6 (AUC = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.77-0.83) and CRP (AUC = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.85) had significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (P = 0.010 and P < 0.001, respectively). The management study was stopped early owing to the unexpectedly low AUC of procalcitonin in the diagnostic study. Among 45 randomized patients, the number of days on antibiotic therapy and the length of hospital stay were similar (both P = 0.39) in patients randomized to the procalcitonin-guided group (n = 25) and usual-care group (n = 20). CONCLUSIONS: In patients presenting with dyspnea, diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for pneumonia is only moderate and lower than that of interleukin 6 and CRP. The clinical utility of procalcitonin was lower than expected. SUMMARY: Pneumonia has diverse and often unspecific symptoms. As the role of biomarkers in the diagnosis of pneumonia remains controversial, it is often difficult to distinguish pneumonia from other illnesses causing shortness of breath. The current study prospectively enrolled unselected patients presenting with acute dyspnea and directly compared the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin, interleukin 6, and CRP for the diagnosis of pneumonia. In this setting, diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for pneumonia was lower as compared to interleukin 6 and CRP. The clinical utility of procalcitonin was lower than expected.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(8): 988-997, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271256

RESUMO

AIMS: Dynamic retinal vessel analysis is a novel, non-invasive method to assess microvascular function. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether retinal microcirculation is impaired in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to patients with heart failure due to CAD (ischaemic heart failure, IHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 150 adults were enrolled to prospectively assess micro- and macrovasculature. The pre-defined primary outcome was flicker-induced arterial dilatation (FIDa) in patients with CAD [n = 40; median age 63 years, interquartile range (IQR) 53-70] and IHF (n = 40; median age 63 years, IQR 59-71) compared to healthy controls (HC, n = 70; median age 57 years, IQR 41-69). Secondary outcomes included arterial stiffness, flow-mediated dilatation, biomarkers, and ergospirometry parameters. Patients with CAD demonstrated impairment in FIDa that was even more pronounced in patients with IHF (CAD: 1.93 ± 0.28% vs. IHF: 0.41 ± 0.28%, P < 0.001; FIDa in HC: 3.69 ± 0.21%, both P < 0.001) adjusting for age, sex, concomitant medication, and co-morbidities. While pulse wave velocity was increased and flow-mediated dilatation reduced in CAD and IHF patients (both P < 0.001 compared to HC), neither differed between CAD and IHF patients. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (r = -0.49, P < 0.001,) and high-sensitivity troponin T (r = -0.28, P = 0.003) correlated with FIDa. Intriguingly, mean metabolic equivalents (5.3 ± 2.3 kcal/kg/h, n = 39) showed a positive correlation with FIDa (r = 0.58, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a decline of retinal arterial function in CAD patients that is significantly more pronounced in the presence of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, suggesting a continuum of microvascular damage.

5.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 49(9): e13154, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T (hs-cTnT), NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) may improve risk stratification of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) beyond the PESI risk score. METHODS: In the prospective multicentre SWITCO65+ study, we analysed 214 patients ≥ 65 years with a new submassive PE. Biomarkers and clinical information for the PESI risk score were ascertained within 1 day after diagnosis. Associations of hs-TnT, NT-proBNP, hs-CRP and the PESI risk score with the primary endpoint defined as 6-month mortality were assessed. The discriminative power of the PESI risk score and its combination with hs-cTnT, NT-proBNP and hs-CRP for 6-month mortality was compared using integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) index and net reclassification improvement (NRI). RESULTS: Compared with the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile had a higher risk of death during the first 6 months for hs-cTnT (adjusted HR 10.22; 95% CI 1.79-58.34; P = 0.009) and a trend for NT-proBNP (adjusted HR 4.3; 95% CI 0.9-20.41; P = 0.067) unlike hs-CRP (adjusted HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.48-8.05; P = 0.344). The PESI risk score (c-statistic 0.77 (95% CI 0.69-0.84) had the highest prognostic accuracy for 6-month mortality, outperforming hs-cTnT, NT-proBNP and hs-CRP (c-statistics of 0.72, 0.72, and 0.54), respectively. Combining all three biomarkers had no clinically relevant impact on risk stratification when added to the PESI risk score (IDI = 0.067; 95% CI 0.012-0.123; P = 0.018; NRI = 0.101 95% CI -0.099-0.302; P = 0.321). CONCLUSIONS: In elderly patients with PE, 6-month mortality can adequately be predicted by the PESI risk score alone.

6.
JCI Insight ; 4(11)2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167970

RESUMO

The evolutionary conserved Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homolog (WASH) complex is one of the crucial multiprotein complexes that facilitates endosomal recycling of transmembrane proteins. Defects in WASH components have been associated with inherited developmental and neurological disorders in humans. Here, we show that hepatic ablation of the WASH component Washc1 in chow-fed mice increases plasma concentrations of cholesterol in both LDLs and HDLs, without affecting hepatic cholesterol content, hepatic cholesterol synthesis, biliary cholesterol excretion, or hepatic bile acid metabolism. Elevated plasma LDL cholesterol was related to reduced hepatocytic surface levels of the LDL receptor (LDLR) and the LDLR-related protein LRP1. Hepatic WASH ablation also reduced the surface levels of scavenger receptor class B type I and, concomitantly, selective uptake of HDL cholesterol into the liver. Furthermore, we found that WASHC1 deficiency increases LDLR proteolysis by the inducible degrader of LDLR, but does not affect proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9-mediated LDLR degradation. Remarkably, however, loss of hepatic WASHC1 may sensitize LDLR for proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9-induced degradation. Altogether, these findings identify the WASH complex as a regulator of LDL as well as HDL metabolism and provide in vivo evidence for endosomal trafficking of scavenger receptor class B type I in hepatocytes.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(17): 2146-2149, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047002
8.
9.
Int J Cardiol ; 287: 13-18, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many parameters can affect the level of inflammation during acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We aimed to assess the one-year risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and bleeding associated with elevated hsCRP levels during ACS, taking into account the severity of myocardial infarction, the timing of blood sampling and established long-term prognostic factors. METHODS: We studied 1864 consecutive patients with ACS enrolled in a contemporary multicenter prospective cohort study in Switzerland. HsCRP levels were determined at hospital admission. One year after discharge MACE and bleeding events were assessed. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards were computed with age, sex, time from symptom onset to blood draw, body mass index, current smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, pre-existing cardiovascular disease, history of inflammatory disease, LDL-cholesterol levels, type of ACS, left ventricular ejection fraction and GRACE 1.0 risk score. RESULTS: At one-year follow-up, 151 (8.1%) patients suffered MACE. Compared to patients with hsCRP below 2 mg/l, the risk of MACE was higher in patients with hsCRP levels between 2 and 5 mg/l, with a multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-2.84), in those with levels between 5 and 10 mg/l, with a HR of 2.80 (95% CI 1.58-4.96), and in those with levels above 10 mg/l, with a HR of 2.23 (95% CI 1.28-3.88). There was no difference in bleeding risk between the four groups. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammation in the acute phase of myocardial infarction is an independent predictor for cardiovascular events, but not for bleeding.

10.
Neuromolecular Med ; 21(2): 182-191, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955194

RESUMO

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) is a rare, autosomal dominantly inherited, slowly progressive and length-dependent axonal peripheral neuropathy. HSAN1 is associated with several mutations in serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first enzyme in the de novo sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. HSAN1 mutations alter the substrate specificity of SPT, which leads to the formation of 1-deoxysphingolipids, an atypical and neurotoxic subclass of sphingolipids. This study describes the clinical and neurophysiological phenotype of a German family with a novel SPTCL2 mutation (c.529A > G; N177D) associated with HSAN1 and the biochemical characterization of this mutation.) The mutaion was identified in five family members that segregated with the diesease. Patients were characterized genetically and clinically for neurophysiological function. Their plasma sphingolipid profiles were analyzed by LC-MS. The biochemical properties of the mutation were characterized in a cell-based activity assay. Affected family members showed elevated 1-deoxysphingolipid plasma levels. HEK293 cells expressing the N177D SPTLC2 mutant showed increased de novo 1-deoxysphingolipid formation, but also displayed elevated canonical SPT activity and increased C20 sphingoid base production. This study identifies the SPTLC2 N177D variant as a novel disease-causing mutation with increased 1-deoxySL formation and its association with a typical HSAN1 phenotype.

12.
Clin Chim Acta ; 495: 215-220, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) becomes more prevalent with advancing age and is associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular events and shortened life expectancy. We investigated the prognostic performance of cardiac and vascular biomarkers in a cohort of PAD patients. METHODS: A total of 95 PAD patients were enrolled (mean age 68 years, range 47 to 86 years, 73 males). Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle brachial index (ABI), high sensitive cardiac troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured. RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 9.5 years, 44 patients died and 51 patients survived. Upon Kaplan-Meier survival analysis hs-TnT (P < .001) or NT-proBNP levels (P < .001) above the median but not cIMT above the median (P = .488) or ABI below the median (P < .436)were associated with reduced survival rate. Upon univariate cox regression and after adjustment for age, gender, prior cerebral artery disease, and diabetes mellitus only the association between hs-cTnT and mortality remained significant (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.33-2.79, P < .001). In receiver operating curve analysis hs-cTnT (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.87, P < .001) NT-proBNP (AUC: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.64-0.84, P < .001) as well as hs-cTnT, and NT-proBNP combined (AUC: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.88, P < .001) were superior to cIMT (AUC: 0.64, 95%, CI: 0.53-0.76, P = .022) and ABI (AUC: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.44-0.68, P = .313) in discriminating risk for mortality. CONCLUSION: hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP should be taken into account for prognosis of patients with PAD.

13.
Clin Res Cardiol Suppl ; 14(Suppl 1): 28-32, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838553

RESUMO

The structural similarity with plasminogen as well as thrombogenic and atherogenic in vitro functions raise the question if lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and ischemic stroke. Numerous case-control and prospective studies using different cut-off values to define high Lp(a) generated conflicting evidence for both VTE and ischemic stroke. Several meta-analyses demonstrated independent associations of elevated Lp(a) with a history of VTE or ischemic stroke. However, the evidence of prospective studies for associations of Lp(a) with incident stroke or recurrent VTE remains inconclusive. For ischemic stroke, data suggest that Lp(a) increases the risk of large-artery atherosclerosis stroke, but not cardioembolic or lacunar stroke. Lp(a) may increase the risk of VTE in the presence of additional thrombophilic risk factors. Larger cohort studies are needed to elaborate the importance of higher Lp(a) cut-offs and interactions with other risk factors and subgroups of stroke or VTE. The value of Lp(a) to estimate residual vascular risk after the first thromboembolic event remains to be adequately explored.

14.
Elife ; 82019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864945

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive disease of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the retina leading to loss of central vision. Polymorphisms in genes involved in lipid metabolism, including the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), have been associated with AMD risk. However, the significance of retinal lipid handling for AMD pathogenesis remains elusive. Here, we study the contribution of lipid efflux in the RPE by generating a mouse model lacking ABCA1 and its partner ABCG1 specifically in this layer. Mutant mice show lipid accumulation in the RPE, reduced RPE and retinal function, retinal inflammation and RPE/photoreceptor degeneration. Data from human cell lines indicate that the ABCA1 AMD risk-conferring allele decreases ABCA1 expression, identifying the potential molecular cause that underlies the genetic risk for AMD. Our results highlight the essential homeostatic role for lipid efflux in the RPE and suggest a pathogenic contribution of reduced ABCA1 function to AMD.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 286: 104-110, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative hypochromia of erythrocytes defined as a reduced mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a surrogate of iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic impact of relative hypochromia in acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS: We prospectively characterized 1574 patients presenting with an adjudicated diagnosis of AHF to the emergency department. Relative hypochromia was defined as a MCHC ≤330 g/l and determined at presentation. The presence of AHF was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. All-cause mortality and AHF-rehospitalization were the primary prognostic end-points. RESULTS: Overall, 455 (29%) AHF patients had relative hypochromia. Patients with relative hypochromia had higher hemodynamic cardiac stress as quantified by NT-proBNP concentrations (p < 0.001), more extensive cardiomyocyte injury as quantified by high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations (p < 0.001), and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; p < 0.001) as compared to AHF patients without hypochromia. Cumulative incidences for all-cause mortality and AHF-rehospitalization at 720-days were 50% and 55% in patients with relative hypochromia as compared to 33% and 39% in patients without hypochromia, respectively (both p < 0.0001). The association between relative hypochromia and increased mortality (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2-0) persisted after adjusting for anemia (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8), and after adjusting for hemodynamic cardiac stress (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.21-1.76) and eGFR (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Relative hypochromia is common and a strong and independent predictor of increased mortality in AHF. Given the direct link to diagnostic (endoscopy) and therapeutic interventions to treat functional iron deficiency, relative hypochromia deserves increased attention as an inexpensive and universally available biomarker.

16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1929: 645-662, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710302

RESUMO

Nowadays, measurement of cardiac troponins (cTn) in patient plasma is central for diagnosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). High-sensitivity (hs) immunoassays have been developed that can very precisely record slightly elevated and rising plasma concentrations of cTn very early after onset of clinical symptoms. Algorithms integrate measurements of hs-cTn at onset of clinical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and 1 or 3 h after onset, to rule-in and rule-out AMI patients. More and more point-of-care (POC) cTn assays conquer the diagnostic market, but thorough clinical validation studies are required before potential implementation of such POC tests into hospital settings. This review provides an overview of the technical aspects, as well as diagnostic and prognostic use of cardiac troponins in AMI patients and in the healthy population.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Algoritmos , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Atherosclerosis ; 280: 202-203, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684973
18.
Thromb Res ; 174: 40-47, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553164

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gut microbiota-dependent trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) correlates with arterial thrombotic events including myocardial infarction and stroke, and mortality. However, the association of TMAO with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and mortality remains unknown. METHODS: TMAO plasma levels were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography in 859 patients aged ≥65 years with acute VTE and categorized into low (<2.28 µmol/L), medium (2.28-6.57 µmol/L), and high levels (>6.57 µmol/L) based on the 25th and 75th percentile. Associations of TMAO with recurrent VTE, major or non-major bleeding, and mortality were investigated. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 28 months, 106 patients developed recurrent VTE, 259 had major or non-major bleeding events, and 179 patients died. The risk of recurrent VTE did not differ significantly between patients with low, medium (adjusted subhazard ratio [SHR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 2.36; p = 0.232) and high TMAO levels (SHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.80 to 2.58, p = 0.221). Compared with low TMAO levels, the adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for mortality was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.47 to 0.98, p = 0.039) in patients with medium TMAO levels and 1.02 (95% CI, 0.68 to 1.52, p = 0.922) in patients with high TMAO levels. Fractional polynomial Cox-regression confirmed a U-shaped association (adjusted p = 0.045), with the lowest mortality risk in patients with TMAO around 4 µmol/L. TMAO was not associated with major or non-major bleeding. CONCLUSION: TMAO showed a U-shaped association with mortality in elderly patients with acute VTE and was not associated with recurrent VTE and major or non-major bleeding.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 269: 114-121, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various scores have been derived for the assessment of syncope patients in the emergency department (ED) but stay inconsistently validated. We aim to compare their performance to the one of a common, easy-to-use CHADS2 score. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients ≥ 40 years old presenting with syncope to the ED in a multicenter study. Early clinical judgment (ECJ) of the treating ED-physician regarding the probability of cardiac syncope was quantified. Two independent physicians adjudicated the final diagnosis after 1-year follow-up. Major cardiovascular events (MACE) and death were recorded during 2 years of follow-up. Nine scores were compared by their area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC) for death, MACE or the diagnosis of cardiac syncope. RESULTS: 1490 patients were available for score validation. The CHADS2-score presented a higher or equally high accuracy for death in the long- and short-term follow-up than other syncope-specific risk scores. This score also performed well for the prediction of MACE in the long- and short-term evaluation and stratified patients with accuracy comparative to OESIL, one of the best performing syncope-specific risk score. All scores performed poorly for diagnosing cardiac syncope when compared to the ECJ. CONCLUSIONS: The CHADS2-score performed comparably to more complicated syncope-specific risk scores in the prediction of death and MACE in ED syncope patients. While better tools incorporating biochemical and electrocardiographic markers are needed, this study suggests that the CHADS2-score is currently a good option to stratify risk in syncope patients in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01548352.

20.
J Lipid Res ; 59(11): 2188-2201, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173145

RESUMO

Clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) are characterized by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene and intracellular lipid accumulation by unknown pathomechanisms. The immunochemical analysis of 356 RCCs revealed high abundance of apoA-I and apoB, as well as scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in the ccRCC subtype. Given the characteristic loss of VHL function in ccRCC, we used VHL-defective and VHL-proficient cells to study the potential influence of VHL on lipoprotein uptake. VHL-defective patient-derived ccRCC cells and cell lines (786O and RCC4) showed enhanced uptake as well as less resecretion and degradation of radio-iodinated HDL and LDL (125I-HDL and 125I-LDL, respectively) compared with the VHL-proficient cells. The ccRCC cells showed enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and SR-BI expression compared with normal kidney epithelial cells. Uptake of 125I-HDL and 125I-LDL by patient-derived normal kidney epithelial cells as well as the VHL-reexpressing ccRCC cell lines, 786-O-VHL and RCC4-O-VHL cells, was strongly enhanced by VEGF treatment. The knockdown of the VEGF coreceptor, neuropilin-1 (NRP1), as well as blocking of SR-BI significantly reduced the uptake of lipoproteins into ccRCC cells in vitro. LDL stimulated proliferation of 786-O cells more potently than 786-O-VHL cells in a NRP1- and SR-BI-dependent manner. In conclusion, enhanced lipoprotein uptake due to increased activities of VEGF/NRP1 and SR-BI promotes lipid accumulation and proliferation of VHL-defective ccRCC cells.

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