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1.
Microb Genom ; 5(10)2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617841

RESUMO

Most pneumococci express a polysaccharide capsule, a key virulence factor and target for pneumococcal vaccines. However, pneumococci showing no serological evidence of capsule expression [nontypeable pneumococci (NTPn)] are more frequently isolated from carriage studies than in invasive disease. Limited data exist about the population structure of carriage NTPn from the African continent. We aimed to characterize carriage NTPn and compare them to previously described invasive NTPn. Carriage and invasive NTPn isolates were obtained from South African cross-sectional studies (2009 and 2012) and laboratory-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (2003-2013), respectively. Isolates were characterized by capsular locus sequence analysis, multilocus sequence typing, antimicrobial non-susceptibility patterns and phylogenetic analysis. NTPn represented 3.7 % (137/3721) of carriage isolates compared to 0.1 % (39/32 824) of invasive isolates (P<0.001), and 24 % (33/137) of individuals were co-colonized with encapsulated pneumococci. Non-susceptibility to cotrimoxazole [84 % (112/133) vs 44 % (17/39)], penicillin [77 % (102/133) vs 36 % (14/39)], erythromycin [53 % (70/133) vs 31 % (12/39)] and clindamycin [36 % (48/133) vs 18 % (7/39)] was higher (P=0.03) among carriage than invasive NTPn. Ninety-one per cent (124/137) of carriage NTPn had complete deletion of the capsular locus and 9 % (13/137) had capsule genes, compared to 44 % (17/39) and 56 % (22/39) of invasive NTPn, respectively. Carriage NTPn were slightly less diverse [Simpson's diversity index (D)=0.92] compared to invasive NTPn [D=0.97]. Sixty-seven per cent (92/137) of carriage NTPn belonged to a lineage exclusive to NTPn strains compared to 23 % (9/39) of invasive NTPn. We identified 293 and 275 genes that were significantly associated with carriage and invasive NTPn, respectively. NTPn isolates detected in carriage differed from those causing invasive disease, which may explain their success in colonisation or in causing invasive disease.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222294, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536552

RESUMO

In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a new severe influenza surveillance case definition, which has not been evaluated in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence setting. Our study aimed to assess the performance of this proposed case definition in identifying influenza among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children aged <5 years in South Africa. We prospectively enrolled children aged <5 years hospitalised with physician-diagnosed lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) at two surveillance sites from January 2011 to December 2015. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected. We tested nasopharyngeal aspirates for influenza using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We used logistic regression to assess factors associated with influenza positivity among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children. We calculated sensitivity and specificity for different signs and symptoms and combinations of these for laboratory-confirmed influenza. We enrolled 2,582 children <5 years of age with LRTI of whom 87% (2,257) had influenza and HIV results, of these 14% (318) were HIV-infected. The influenza detection rate was 5% (104/1,939) in HIV-uninfected and 5% (16/318) in HIV-infected children. Children with measured fever (≥38°C) were two times more likely to test positive for influenza than those without measured fever among the HIV-uninfected (OR 2.2, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.5-3.4; p<0.001). No significant association was observed between fever and influenza infection among HIV-infected children. Cough alone had sensitivity of 95% (95% CI 89-98%) in HIV-uninfected and of 100% (95% CI 79-100%) in HIV-infected children but low specificity: 7% (95% CI 6-8%) and 6% (95% CI 3-9%) in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children, respectively. The WHO post-2014 case definition for severe acute respiratory illness (SARI-an acute respiratory infection with history of fever or measured fever of ≥ 38°C and cough; with onset within the last ten days and requires hospitalization), had a sensitivity of 66% (95% CI 56-76%) and specificity of 46% (95% CI 44-48%) among HIV-uninfected and a sensitivity of 63% (95% CI 35-84%) and a specificity of 42% (95% CI 36-48%) among HIV-infected children. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHO post-2014 case definition for SARI were similar among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children. Our findings support the adoption of the 2014 WHO case definition for children aged <5 years irrespective of HIV infection status.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_2): S49-S57, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed data from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-preventable Diseases Surveillance Network (2011-2016) to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis within the WHO African Region. We also evaluated declines in vaccine-type pneumococcal meningitis following pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction. METHODS: Reports of meningitis in children <5 years old from sentinel surveillance hospitals in 26 countries were classified as suspected, probable, or confirmed. Confirmed meningitis cases were analyzed by age group and subregion (South-East and West-Central). We described case fatality ratios (CFRs), pathogen distribution, and annual changes in serotype and serogroup, including changes in vaccine-type Spn meningitis following PCV introduction. RESULTS: Among 49 844 reported meningitis cases, 1670 (3.3%) were laboratory-confirmed. Spn (1007/1670 [60.3%]) was the most commonly detected pathogen; vaccine-type Spn meningitis cases declined over time. CFR was the highest for Spn meningitis: 12.9% (46/357) in the South-East subregion and 30.9% (89/288) in the West-Central subregion. Meningitis caused by N. meningitidis was more common in West-Central than South-East Africa (321/954 [33.6%] vs 110/716 [15.4%]; P < .0001). Haemophilus influenzae (232/1670 [13.9%]) was the least prevalent organism. CONCLUSIONS: Spn was the most common cause of pediatric bacterial meningitis in the African region even after reported cases declined following PCV introduction. Sustaining robust surveillance is essential to monitor changes in pathogen distribution and to inform and guide vaccination policies.

4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 42, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384357

RESUMO

Introduction: We investigated an outbreak of influenza-like illness (ILI) at a boarding school in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. We aimed to confirm the etiological agent, estimate attack rates and identify risk factors for illness. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including senior school boarders (n=308). Students with ILI (cough and fever) were identified through school medical records. We also conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among senior students including boarders (n=107) and day students (n=45). We collected respiratory specimens for respiratory pathogen testing by real-time polymerase chain reaction from a subset of symptomatic students. We calculated attack rates of medically attended ILI (medILI) and identified factors associated with medILI using logistic regression. We calculated seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medILI. Results: Influenza A (H3N2) virus was detected in 61% (23/38) of specimens. Attack rate for medILI was 13% among boarders (39/308) in the cohort study and 20% in both day students (9/45) and boarders (21/107) in the cross-sectional study. Playing squash was associated with medILI (aOR 5.35, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.68-17.07). Of the boarders, 19% (57/308) were vaccinated before the outbreak. The adjusted VE against medILI was 18% (aOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.38-1.78). The outbreak led to cancellation of several events and the need for academic remedial sessions. Conclusion: We confirmed an influenza A (H3N2) virus outbreak with a high attack rate. The outbreak affected academic and sports activities. Participation in sports and social gatherings while experiencing ILI should be discouraged to reduce viral transmission and impact on school activities.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(7): 759-769, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease remains an important health priority owing to increasing disease incidence caused by pneumococci expressing non-vaccine serotypes. We previously defined 621 Global Pneumococcal Sequence Clusters (GPSCs) by analysing 20 027 pneumococcal isolates collected worldwide and from previously published genomic data. In this study, we aimed to investigate the pneumococcal lineages behind the predominant serotypes, the mechanism of serotype replacement in disease, as well as the major pneumococcal lineages contributing to invasive pneumococcal disease in the post-vaccine era and their antibiotic resistant traits. METHODS: We whole-genome sequenced 3233 invasive pneumococcal disease isolates from laboratory-based surveillance programmes in Hong Kong (n=78), Israel (n=701), Malawi (n=226), South Africa (n=1351), The Gambia (n=203), and the USA (n=674). The genomes represented pneumococci from before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introductions and were from children younger than 3 years. We identified predominant serotypes by prevalence and their major contributing lineages in each country, and assessed any serotype replacement by comparing the incidence rate between the pre-PCV and PCV periods for Israel, South Africa, and the USA. We defined the status of a lineage as vaccine-type GPSC (≥50% 13-valent PCV [PCV13] serotypes) or non-vaccine-type GPSC (>50% non-PCV13 serotypes) on the basis of its initial serotype composition detected in the earliest vaccine period to measure their individual contribution toward serotype replacement in each country. Major pneumococcal lineages in the PCV period were identified by pooled incidence rate using a random effects model. FINDINGS: The five most prevalent serotypes in the PCV13 period varied between countries, with only serotypes 5, 12F, 15B/C, 19A, 33F, and 35B/D common to two or more countries. The five most prevalent serotypes in the PCV13 period varied between countries, with only serotypes 5, 12F, 15B/C, 19A, 33F, and 35B/D common to two or more countries. These serotypes were associated with more than one lineage, except for serotype 5 (GPSC8). Serotype replacement was mainly mediated by expansion of non-vaccine serotypes within vaccine-type GPSCs and, to a lesser extent, by increases in non-vaccine-type GPSCs. A globally spreading lineage, GPSC3, expressing invasive serotypes 8 in South Africa and 33F in the USA and Israel, was the most common lineage causing non-vaccine serotype invasive pneumococcal disease in the PCV13 period. We observed that same prevalent non-vaccine serotypes could be associated with distinctive lineages in different countries, which exhibited dissimilar antibiotic resistance profiles. In non-vaccine serotype isolates, we detected significant increases in the prevalence of resistance to penicillin (52 [21%] of 249 vs 169 [29%] of 575, p=0·0016) and erythromycin (three [1%] of 249 vs 65 [11%] of 575, p=0·0031) in the PCV13 period compared with the pre-PCV period. INTERPRETATION: Globally spreading lineages expressing invasive serotypes have an important role in serotype replacement, and emerging non-vaccine serotypes associated with different pneumococcal lineages in different countries might be explained by local antibiotic-selective pressures. Continued genomic surveillance of the dynamics of the pneumococcal population with increased geographical representation in the post-vaccine period will generate further knowledge for optimising future vaccine design. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Sanger Institute, and the US Centers for Disease Control.

6.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 13(5): 484-495, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Economic burden estimates are essential to guide policy-making for influenza vaccination, especially in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We estimated the cost, absenteeism, and years of life lost (YLL) of medically and non-medically attended influenza-associated mild and severe respiratory, circulatory and non-respiratory/non-circulatory illness in South Africa during 2013-2015 using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) worksheet based tool for estimating the economic burden of seasonal influenza. Additionally, we restricted the analysis to influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and influenza-like illness (ILI; subsets of all-respiratory illnesses) as suggested in the WHO manual. RESULTS: The estimated mean annual cost of influenza-associated illness was $270.5 million, of which $111.3 million (41%) were government-incurred costs, 40.7 million (15%) were out-of-pocket expenses, and $118.4 million (44%) were indirect costs. The cost of influenza-associated medically attended mild illness ($107.9 million) was 2.3 times higher than that of severe illness ($47.1 million). Influenza-associated respiratory illness costs ($251.4 million) accounted for 93% of the total cost. Estimated absenteeism and YLL were 13.2 million days and 304 867 years, respectively. Among patients with influenza-associated WHO-defined ILI or SARI, the costs ($95.3 million), absenteeism (4.5 million days), and YLL (65 697) were 35%, 34%, and 21% of the total economic and health burden of influenza. CONCLUSION: The economic burden of influenza-associated illness was substantial from both a government and a societal perspective. Models that limit estimates to those obtained from patients with WHO-defined ILI or SARI substantially underestimated the total economic and health burden of influenza-associated illness.

7.
Microb Genom ; 5(7)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184299

RESUMO

The pneumococcus produces a polysaccharide capsule, encoded by the cps locus, that provides protection against phagocytosis and determines serotype. Nearly 100 serotypes have been identified with new serotypes still being discovered, especially in previously understudied regions. Here we present an analysis of the cps loci of more than 18  000 genomes from the Global Pneumococcal Sequencing (GPS) project with the aim of identifying novel cps loci with the potential to produce previously unrecognized capsule structures. Serotypes were assigned using whole genome sequence data and 66 of the approximately 100 known serotypes were included in the final dataset. Closer examination of each serotype's sequences identified nine putative novel cps loci (9X, 11X, 16X, 18X1, 18X2, 18X3, 29X, 33X and 36X) found in ~2.6  % of the genomes. The large number and global distribution of GPS genomes provided an unprecedented opportunity to identify novel cps loci and consider their phylogenetic and geographical distribution. Nine putative novel cps loci were identified and examples of each will undergo subsequent structural and immunological analysis.

8.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(7): 676-678, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250809
9.
Vaccine ; 37(38): 5724-5730, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076159

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: South Africa introduced seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2009 and PCV13 in 2011. We aimed to compare the estimated impact of PCV on pneumococcal meningitis (PM) to impact of PCV on total invasive pneumococcal disease (tIPD) based on risk reduction after PCV introduction. METHODS: We conducted national, laboratory-based surveillance for tIPD during 2005-2016. We estimated and compared rates of PCV13 and non-PCV13 serotype disease among tIPD and PM in individuals aged <5 years and ≥5 years, and compared these rates between the 2005-2008 pre-PCV introduction period and two time points after PCV introduction, 2012 and 2016. RESULTS: We enrolled 45,853 tIPD cases; 17,251 (38%) were PM. By 2016, IPD caused by all serotypes decreased 55% (95%CI -57% to -53%) for tIPD, and 54% for PM (95%CI -58% to -51%), 0.7% difference between estimates (p = 0.7). No significant differences were observed between PCV7-serotype disease reduction in tIPD and PM in both age groups or the additional 6 serotypes included in PCV13 in <5 year olds in 2012 and 2016. In 2012 there was a significant difference between increases in non-PCV13 serotype disease in those ≥5 years for tIPD and PM (32% greater increase in PM, p < 0.001), but this difference was absent by 2016. There was a significant difference between the estimated decrease in additional PCV13 type disease in 2016 between tIPD and PM for those aged ≥5 years (28% greater reduction in PM, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: PM showed similar reductions to tIPD seven years after PCV introduction in vaccine serotype disease in those <5 years, and increases in non-vaccine serotype disease in all ages.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2176, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092817

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common nasopharyngeal colonizer, but can also cause life-threatening invasive diseases such as empyema, bacteremia and meningitis. Genetic variation of host and pathogen is known to play a role in invasive pneumococcal disease, though to what extent is unknown. In a genome-wide association study of human and pathogen we show that human variation explains almost half of variation in susceptibility to pneumococcal meningitis and one-third of variation in severity, identifying variants in CCDC33 associated with susceptibility. Pneumococcal genetic variation explains a large amount of invasive potential (70%), but has no effect on severity. Serotype alone is insufficient to explain invasiveness, suggesting other pneumococcal factors are involved in progression to invasive disease. We identify pneumococcal genes involved in invasiveness including pspC and zmpD, and perform a human-bacteria interaction analysis. These genes are potential candidates for the development of more broadly-acting pneumococcal vaccines.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Meningite Pneumocócica/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Meningite Pneumocócica/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação
11.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214077, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, over 400,000 neonatal deaths in 2015 were attributed to sepsis, however, the incidence and etiologies of these infections are largely unknown in low-middle income countries. We aimed to determine incidence and etiology of community-acquired early-onset (<72 hours age) sepsis (EOS) using culture and molecular diagnostics. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study, in which we conducted a surveillance for pathogens using a combination of blood culture and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test. Blood culture was performed on all neonates with suspected EOS. Among the subset fulfilling criteria for protocol-defined EOS, blood and nasopharyngeal (NP) respiratory swabs were tested by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR using a Taqman Array Card (TAC) with 15 bacterial and 12 viral targets. Blood and NP samples from 312 healthy newborns were also tested by TAC to estimate background positivity rates. We used variant latent-class methods to attribute etiologies and calculate pathogen-specific proportions and incidence rates. RESULTS: We enrolled 2,624 neonates with suspected EOS and from these 1,231 newborns met criteria for protocol-defined EOS (incidence- 39.3/1,000 live-births). Using the partially latent-class modelling, only 26.7% cases with protocol-defined EOS had attributable etiology, and the largest pathogen proportion were Ureaplasma spp. (5.4%; 95%CI: 3.6-8.0) and group B Streptococcus (GBS) (4.8%; 95%CI: 4.1-5.8), and no etiology was attributable for 73.3% of cases. Blood cultures were positive in 99/1,231 (8.0%) with protocol-defined EOS (incidence- 3.2/1,000 live-births). Leading pathogens on blood culture included GBS (35%) and viridans streptococci (24%). Ureaplasma spp. was the most common organism identified on TAC among cases with protocol-defined EOS. CONCLUSION: Using a combination of blood culture and a PCR-based test the common pathogens isolated in neonates with sepsis were Ureaplasma spp. and GBS. Despite documenting higher rates of protocol-defined EOS and using a combination of tests, the etiology for EOS remains elusive.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963178

RESUMO

During 2011-2016, we conducted surveillance for severe respiratory illness in infants. HIV exposure statistically significantly increased the risk of RSV-associated hospitalization in infants aged <5 months. Over 60% of RSV-associated hospitalizations occurred in the first 4 months of life and may be preventable through maternal vaccination or birth-dose monoclonal antibody.

13.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 338-346, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease, caused by vaccine serotypes, but non-vaccine-serotypes remain a concern. We used whole genome sequencing to study pneumococcal serotype, antibiotic resistance and invasiveness, in the context of genetic background. METHODS: Our dataset of 13,454 genomes, combined with four published genomic datasets, represented Africa (40%), Asia (25%), Europe (19%), North America (12%), and South America (5%). These 20,027 pneumococcal genomes were clustered into lineages using PopPUNK, and named Global Pneumococcal Sequence Clusters (GPSCs). From our dataset, we additionally derived serotype and sequence type, and predicted antibiotic sensitivity. We then measured invasiveness using odds ratios that relating prevalence in invasive pneumococcal disease to carriage. FINDINGS: The combined collections (n = 20,027) were clustered into 621 GPSCs. Thirty-five GPSCs observed in our dataset were represented by >100 isolates, and subsequently classed as dominant-GPSCs. In 22/35 (63%) of dominant-GPSCs both non-vaccine serotypes and vaccine serotypes were observed in the years up until, and including, the first year of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Penicillin and multidrug resistance were higher (p < .05) in a subset dominant-GPSCs (14/35, 9/35 respectively), and resistance to an increasing number of antibiotic classes was associated with increased recombination (R2 = 0.27 p < .0001). In 28/35 dominant-GPSCs, the country of isolation was a significant predictor (p < .05) of its antibiogram (mean misclassification error 0.28, SD ±â€¯0.13). We detected increased invasiveness of six genetic backgrounds, when compared to other genetic backgrounds expressing the same serotype. Up to 1.6-fold changes in invasiveness odds ratio were observed. INTERPRETATION: We define GPSCs that can be assigned to any pneumococcal genomic dataset, to aid international comparisons. Existing non-vaccine-serotypes in most GPSCs preclude the removal of these lineages by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines; leaving potential for serotype replacement. A subset of GPSCs have increased resistance, and/or serotype-independent invasiveness.

14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 276, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the utility of a multi-target, real-time PCR assay for Bordetella pertussis detection and diagnosis in patients with severe respiratory illness (SRI), influenza-like illness (ILI), and asymptomatic controls. METHODS: Real-time PCR detection of IS481, pIS1001, hIS1001 and ptxS1 was performed on nasopharyngeal specimens (SRI, ILI and controls) and induced sputum (SRI) collected from June 2012 to May 2016 through respiratory illness surveillance. Using PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value cut-offs, IS481 positive cases were classified as confirmed (Ct < 35) or possible (Ct 35-39) pertussis disease. RESULTS: Among 12,922 samples, 146 (1.1%) were IS481 positive of which 62% (90/146) were classified as confirmed. The attributable fraction (AF) was 92.2% (95% CI, 65.6 to 98.2%) and 90.5% (95% CI, 57.5 to 97.9%) amongst SRI and ILI PCR-confirmed pertussis cases, respectively. Amongst possible pertussis cases, AF was 36.9% (95% CI, - 142.3 to 83.6%) and 67.5% (95% CI, - 30.6 to 91.9%) in the SRI and ILI groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: All IS481 positive specimens could be considered as B. pertussis infection, and potentially pertussis disease with supportive clinical information.


Assuntos
Bordetella pertussis/genética , Tipagem Molecular , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , África do Sul , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/microbiologia
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(4): 424-430, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in developing countries is poorly described. We provide a baseline description of neonatal IPD in South Africa, before implementation of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2009. METHODS: Data from children (age ≤ 2 years) with IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile specimen) from January 2003 to December 2008 were extracted from a national laboratory-based surveillance database. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of IPD among neonates (0-27 days old) was compared with IPD among young children (≥ 28 days ≤ 2 years). Early-onset IPD (0-6 days old) was compared with late-onset IPD (≥ 7-27 days old). Isolates were serotyped using the Quellung reaction. RESULTS: Overall 27,630 IPD cases were reported. Of the 26,277 (95%) with known ages, 6583 (25%) were ≤ 2 years of age, of which 4.5% (294/6583) were neonates. The estimated annual incidence of neonatal IPD in 2008 was 5 per 100,000 live births. Fifty-one percent of neonates with IPD presented with early-onset IPD. Case fatality ratios (CFRs) were high in both groups, 31% (28/89) in neonatal IPD versus 26% (614/2383) in non-neonatal IPD (P = 0.18). Among neonates, the meningitis cases (15/37, 41%) were associated with the highest CFR. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes accounted for 69% (134/194) of neonatal IPD isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal neonatal disease in South Africa was not uncommon before PCV introduction and is associated with a high CFR. The indirect effect on neonatal IPD of PCV rollout requires further evaluation.

16.
J Infect Dis ; 219(11): 1697-1704, 2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of rhinovirus (RV) detection to illness is poorly understood. METHODS: We enrolled case patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI) at 2 hospitals and outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and asymptomatic individuals (controls) from 2 affiliated clinics during 2013-2015. We compared the RV prevalence among ILI and SRI cases to those of controls stratified by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus using penalized logistic regression. The attributable fraction (AF) was calculated. RESULTS: During 2013-2015, RV was detected in 17.4% (368/2120), 26.8% (979/3654), and 23.0% (1003/4360) of controls, ILI cases, and SRI cases, respectively. The RV AF (95% confidence interval) was statistically significant among children aged <5 years (ILI: 44.6% [30.7%-55.7%] and SRI: 50.3% [38.6%-59.9%]; P < .001) and individuals aged ≥5 years (ILI: 62.9% [54.4%-69.8%] and SRI: 51.3% [38.7%-61.3%]; P < .001) as well as among HIV-infected (ILI: 59.9% [45.8%-70.3%] and SRI: 39.8% [22.3%-53.3%]; P < .001) and HIV-uninfected (ILI: 53.6% [44.7%-61.1%] and SRI: 55.3% [45.6%-63.2%]; P < .001) individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Although RV detection was common among controls, it was also associated with a substantial proportion of clinical illness across age groups, irrespective of HIV status.

17.
PLoS Pathog ; 14(11): e1007438, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475919

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite inclusion in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Serotype 3 increased in carriage since the implementation of PCV13 in the USA, while invasive disease rates remain unchanged. We investigated the persistence of serotype 3 in carriage and disease, through genomic analyses of a global sample of 301 serotype 3 isolates of the Netherlands3-31 (PMEN31) clone CC180, combined with associated patient data and PCV utilization among countries of isolate collection. We assessed phenotypic variation between dominant clades in capsule charge (zeta potential), capsular polysaccharide shedding, and susceptibility to opsonophagocytic killing, which have previously been associated with carriage duration, invasiveness, and vaccine escape. We identified a recent shift in the CC180 population attributed to a lineage termed Clade II, which was estimated by Bayesian coalescent analysis to have first appeared in 1968 [95% HPD: 1939-1989] and increased in prevalence and effective population size thereafter. Clade II isolates are divergent from the pre-PCV13 serotype 3 population in non-capsular antigenic composition, competence, and antibiotic susceptibility, the last of which resulting from the acquisition of a Tn916-like conjugative transposon. Differences in recombination rates among clades correlated with variations in the ATP-binding subunit of Clp protease, as well as amino acid substitutions in the comCDE operon. Opsonophagocytic killing assays elucidated the low observed efficacy of PCV13 against serotype 3. Variation in PCV13 use among sampled countries was not independently correlated with the CC180 population shift; therefore, genotypic and phenotypic differences in protein antigens and, in particular, antibiotic resistance may have contributed to the increase of Clade II. Our analysis emphasizes the need for routine, representative sampling of isolates from disperse geographic regions, including historically under-sampled areas. We also highlight the value of genomics in resolving antigenic and epidemiological variations within a serotype, which may have implications for future vaccine development.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351372

RESUMO

Background: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is endemic to South Africa, where vaccine use is negligible. We describe the epidemiology of IMD in South Africa. Methods: IMD cases were identified through a national laboratory-based surveillance programme, GERMS-SA, from 2003-2016. Clinical data on outcome and HIV status were available from 26 sentinel hospital sites. We conducted space-time analysis to detect clusters of serogroup-specific IMD. Results: Over 14 years, 5249 IMD cases were identified. Incidence was 0.97 cases per 100000 persons in 2003, peaked at 1.4 in 2006 and declined to 0.23 in 2016. Serogroup was confirmed in 3917 (75%) cases - serogroup A 5%, B 23%, C 9%, W 50%, Y 12%, X 0.3%, Z 0.1% and non-groupable 0.4%. Eight serogroup-specific geo-temporal clusters of disease were identified. Isolate susceptibility was 100% to ceftriaxone, 95% penicillin and 99.9% ciprofloxacin. In-hospital case-fatality was 17% (247/1479). Of those tested, 36% (337/947) were HIV-infected. IMD incidence in HIV-infected persons was higher for all age categories with age-adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) of 2.5 (95% CI 2.2-2.8, P<0.001) from 2012-2016. No patients reported previous meningococcal vaccine exposure. Patients with serogroup W were 3 times more likely to present with severe disease than those with serogroup B (aRRR 2.7 (95% CI 1.1-6.3)); HIV coinfection was twice as common with W and Y disease (aRRR W=1.8 (95% CI 1.1-2.9), Y=1.9 (95% CI 1.0-3.4)). Conclusion: In the absence of significant vaccine use, IMD in South Africa decreased by 76% from 2003-2016. HIV was associated with increased risk of IMD, especially serogroup W and Y disease.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961814

RESUMO

Background: Few data describe influenza- or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalized illness in children aged <5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: During 2011-2016, we conducted prospective surveillance for severe respiratory illness (SRI) in children aged <5 years in three South African hospitals. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for influenza and RSV by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We estimated rates of influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalized SRI by HIV status and compared children who tested positive for influenza versus RSV using multivariable penalized logistic regression. Results: Among 3650 hospitalized children, 203 (5.6%) tested positive for influenza viruses, 874 (23.9%) for RSV, and 19 (0.5%) for both. The median age of children hospitalized with influenza was 13.9 months versus 4.4 months for RSV (p<0.01). Annual influenza-associated hospitalization rates per 100,000 were highest among infants aged 6-11 months (545, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 409-703), while RSV-associated hospitalization rates were highest in infants aged 0-2 months (6593, 95% CI: 5947-7217). HIV exposure was associated with increased incidence of influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalization in infants aged 0-5 months, Relative Risk (RR) 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4-3.4) and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3-1.6), respectively. HIV infection was associated with increased incidence of influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalization in all age groups; RR 2.7 (95% CI: 2.0-3.5) and 3.8 (95% CI: 3.1-4.8), respectively. The case-fatality rate was 0.8% among children hospitalized with influenza or RSV. Conclusions: Influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalization are common among South African infants. HIV infection, and HIV exposure in infants, increase risk of influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalization.

20.
J Infect ; 77(5): 368-378, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Burden of pneumococcal disease depends on the prevalence and invasive disease potential of serotypes. We aimed to estimate the invasive disease potential of serotypes in children under 5 years of age by combining data from different settings with routine immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review, supplemented by unpublished data, to identify data on the frequency of pneumococcal serotypes in carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We estimated the invasive disease potential of serotypes as the ratio of IPD in relation to carriage (odds ratio and 95%CI) compared with 19A (reference serotype) by meta-analysis. We report results based on a random effects model for children aged 0-23, 24-29, and 0-59 months and by invasive clinical syndromes. RESULTS: In comparison with 19A, serotypes 1, 7F, and 12F had a significantly higher invasive disease potential in children aged 0-23 and 0-59 months for all IPD and clinical syndromes (OR > 5). Several non-vaccine types (NVTs) (6C, 15A, 15BC, 16F, 23B, in these two age groups) had a lower invasive disease potential than 19A (OR 0.1-0.3). NVTs 8, 12F, 24F, and 33F were at the upper end of the invasiveness spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial variation among pneumococcal serotypes in their potential to cause IPD and disease presentation, which is influenced by age and time after PCV introduction. Surveillance of IPD and carriage is critical to understand the expected effectiveness of current PCVs (in the longer term) and guide the development of future vaccines.

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