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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19920, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620928

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae causes life-threatening meningitis. Its capsular polysaccharide determines the serotype and influences disease severity but the mechanism is largely unknown. Due to evidence of elevated cytokines levels in the meningeal inflammatory response, we measured 41 cytokines/chemokines and growth factors in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 57 South African meningitis patients (collected in the period 2018-2019), with confirmed S. pneumoniae serotypes, using a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Based on multivariable Bayesian regression, using serotype 10A as a reference and after adjusting for HIV and age, we found IL-6 concentrations significantly lower in patients infected with serotypes 6D (undetectable) and 23A (1601 pg/ml), IL-8 concentrations significantly higher in those infected with 22A (40,459 pg/ml), 7F (32,400 pg/ml) and 15B/C (6845 pg/ml), and TNFα concentration significantly higher in those infected with serotype 18A (33,097 pg/ml). Although a relatively small number of clinical samples were available for this study and 28% of samples could not be assigned to a definitive serotype, our data suggests 15B/C worthy of monitoring during surveillance as it is associated with in-hospital case fatality and not included in the 13-valent polysaccharide conjugate vaccine, PCV13. Our data provides average CSF concentrations of a range of cytokines and growth factors for 18 different serotypes (14, 19F, 3, 6A, 7F, 19A, 8, 9N, 10A, 12F, 15B/C, 22F, 16F, 23A, 31, 18A, 6D, 22A) to serve as a basis for future studies investigating host-pathogen interaction during pneumococcal meningitis. We note that differences in induction of IL-8 between serotypes may be particularly worthy of future study.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and evaluate associations between HRSV subgroups and/or genotypes and epidemiologic characteristics and clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI). METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2015, we enrolled patients of all ages admitted to two South African hospitals with SRI in prospective hospital-based syndromic surveillance. We collected respiratory specimens and clinical and epidemiological data. Unconditional random effect multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with HRSV infection. RESULTS: HRSV was detected in 11.2% (772/6908) of enrolled patients of which 47.0% (363/772) were under the age of 6 months. There were no differences in clinical outcomes of HRSV subgroup A-infected patients compared with HRSV subgroup B-infected patients but among patients aged <5 years, children with HRSV subgroup A were more likely be coinfected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (23/208, 11.0% vs. 2/90, 2.0%; adjusted odds ratio 5.7). No significant associations of HRSV A genotypes NA1 and ON1 with specific clinical outcomes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: While HRSV subgroup and genotype dominance shifted between seasons, we showed similar genotype diversity as noted worldwide. We found no association between clinical outcomes and HRSV subgroups or genotypes.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S161-S173, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates the Global Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) Surveillance Network to support vaccine introduction decisions and use. The network was established to strengthen surveillance and laboratory confirmation of meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. METHODS: Sentinel hospitals report cases of children <5 years of age hospitalized for suspected meningitis. Laboratories report confirmatory testing results and strain characterization tested by polymerase chain reaction. In 2019, the network included 123 laboratories that follow validated, standardized testing and reporting strategies. RESULTS: From 2014 through 2019, >137 000 suspected meningitis cases were reported by 58 participating countries, with 44.6% (n = 61 386) reported from countries in the WHO African Region. More than half (56.6%, n = 77 873) were among children <1 year of age, and 4.0% (n = 4010) died among those with reported disease outcome. Among suspected meningitis cases, 8.6% (n = 11 798) were classified as probable bacterial meningitis. One of 3 bacterial pathogens was identified in 30.3% (n = 3576) of these cases, namely S. pneumoniae (n = 2177 [60.9%]), H. influenzae (n = 633 [17.7%]), and N. meningitidis (n = 766 [21.4%]). Among confirmed bacterial meningitis cases with outcome reported, 11.0% died; case fatality ratio varied by pathogen (S. pneumoniae, 12.2%; H. influenzae, 6.1%; N. meningitidis, 11.0%). Among the 277 children who died with confirmed bacterial meningitis, 189 (68.2%) had confirmed S. pneumoniae. The proportion of pneumococcal cases with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) serotypes decreased as the number of countries implementing PCV increased, from 77.8% (n = 273) to 47.5% (n = 248). Of 397 H. influenzae specimens serotyped, 49.1% (n = 195) were type b. Predominant N. meningitidis serogroups varied by region. CONCLUSIONS: This multitier, global surveillance network has supported countries in detecting and serotyping the 3 principal invasive bacterial pathogens that cause pediatric meningitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common bacterial pathogen detected globally despite the growing number of countries that have nationally introduced PCV. The large proportions of deaths due to S. pneumoniae reflect the high proportion of meningitis cases caused by this pathogen. This global network demonstrated a strong correlation between PCV introduction status and reduction in the proportion of pneumococcal meningitis infections caused by vaccine serotypes. Maintaining case-based, active surveillance with laboratory confirmation for prioritized vaccine-preventable diseases remains a critical component of the global agenda in public health.The World Health Organization (WHO)-coordinated Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Disease (IB-VPD) Surveillance Network reported data from 2014 to 2019, contributing to the estimates of the disease burden and serotypes of pediatric meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S194-S203, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As part of the global Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Surveillance Network, 12 African countries referred cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to South Africa's regional reference laboratory. We evaluated the utility of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting and serotyping/grouping Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (HNS). METHODS: From 2008 to 2017, CSF samples collected from children <5 years old with suspected meningitis underwent routine microbiology testing in-country, and 11 680 samples were submitted for HNS PCR at the regional reference laboratory. Unconditional logistic regression, with adjustment for geographic location, was performed to identify factors associated with PCR positivity. RESULTS: The overall HNS PCR positivity rate for all countries was 10% (1195 of 11 626 samples). In samples with both PCR and culture results, HNS PCR positivity was 11% (744 of 6747 samples), and HNS culture positivity was 3% (207 of 6747). Molecular serotype/serogroup was assigned in 75% of PCR-positive specimens (762 of 1016). Compared with PCR-negative CSF samples, PCR-positive samples were more often turbid (adjusted odds ratio, 6.80; 95% confidence interval, 5.67-8.17) and xanthochromic (1.72; 1.29-2.28), had elevated white blood cell counts (6.13; 4.71-7.99) and high protein concentrations (5.80; 4.34-7.75), and were more often HNS culture positive (32.70; 23.18-46.12). CONCLUSION: PCR increased detection of vaccine-preventable bacterial meningitis in countries where confirmation of suspected meningitis cases is impeded by limited culture capacity.

5.
Health Sci Rep ; 4(3): e367, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557595

RESUMO

Background: A group of Victoria lineage influenza B viruses with a two amino acid deletion in the hemagglutinin (HA) at residues K162 and N163, was detected during the 2016 to 2017 Northern Hemisphere influenza season and continues to spread geographically. We describe the first identification of viruses with these deletions from South Africa in 2018. Methods: Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from the syndromic surveillance programs. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used for virus detection and lineage determination. Influenza genetic characterization was done using next-generation sequencing on the MiSeq platform. The duration of virus circulation was determined using thresholds calculated using the Moving Epidemic Method; duration was used as an indicator of disease transmissibility and impact. Results: In 2018, 42% (426/1015) of influenza-positive specimens were influenza B viruses. Of 426 influenza B-positive samples, 376 (88%) had the lineage determined of which 75% (283/376) were Victoria lineage. The transmissibility of the 2018 South African influenza season was high for a few weeks, although the severity remained moderate through most of the season. The sequenced 2018 South African Victoria lineage influenza B viruses clustered in sub-clade V1A.1 with the 162-163 deletions. Conclusions: We report the first detection of the 162-163 deletion variant of influenza B/Victoria viruses from South Africa in 2018, and suggest that this deletion variant replaced the previous circulating influenza B/Victoria viruses. These deletions putatively affect the antigenic properties of the viruses because they border an immune-dominant region at the tip of the HA. Therefore, close monitoring of these newly emerging viruses is essential.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3020-3029, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477548

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections may be underestimated because of limited access to testing. We measured SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in South Africa every 2 months during July 2020-March 2021 in randomly selected household cohorts in 2 communities. We compared seroprevalence to reported laboratory-confirmed infections, hospitalizations, and deaths to calculate infection-case, infection-hospitalization, and infection-fatality ratios in 2 waves of infection. Post-second wave seroprevalence ranged from 18% in the rural community children <5 years of age, to 59% in urban community adults 35-59 years of age. The second wave saw a shift in age distribution of case-patients in the urban community (from persons 35-59 years of age to persons at the extremes of age), higher attack rates in the rural community, and a higher infection-fatality ratio in the urban community. Approximately 95% of SARS-CoV-2 infections were not reported to national surveillance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
EClinicalMedicine ; 39: 101072, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405139

RESUMO

Background: We describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 in South Africa following importation and during implementation of stringent lockdown measures. Methods: Using national surveillance data including demographics, laboratory test data, clinical presentation, risk exposures (travel history, contacts and occupation) and outcomes of persons undergoing COVID-19 testing or hospitalised with COVID-19 at sentinel surveillance sites, we generated and interpreted descriptive statistics, epidemic curves, and initial reproductive numbers (Rt). Findings: From 4 March to 30 April 2020, 271,670 SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests were performed (462 tests/100,000 persons). Of these, 7,892 (2.9%) persons tested positive (median age 37 years (interquartile range 28-49 years), 4,568 (58%) male, cumulative incidence of 13.4 cases/100,000 persons). Hospitalization records were found for 1,271 patients (692 females (54%)) of whom 186 (14.6%) died. Amongst 2,819 cases with data, 489/2819 (17.3%) travelled internationally within 14 days prior to diagnosis, mostly during March 2020 (466 (95%)). Cases diagnosed in April compared with March were younger (median age, 37 vs. 40 years), less likely female (38% vs. 53%) and resident in a more populous province (98% vs. 91%). The national initial Rt was 2.08 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71-2.51). Interpretation: The first eight weeks following COVID-19 importation were characterised by early predominance of imported cases and relatively low mortality and transmission rates. Despite stringent lockdown measures, the second month following importation was characterised by community transmission and increasing disease burden in more populous provinces.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a devastating illness with high mortality. Like influenza, endemic IMD is seasonal peaking in winter. Studies suggest that circulation of influenza virus may influence timing and magnitude of IMD winter peaks. METHODS: This ecological study used weekly data from two nationwide surveillance programmes: Viral Watch (proportion of out-patient influenza-positive cases from throat/nasal swabs) and GERMS-SA (laboratory-confirmed cases of IMD) occurring across South Africa from 2003 through 2018 in all age-bands. A bivariate time-series analysis using wavelet transform was conducted to determine co-circulation of the diseases and the time lag between the peak seasons. We modelled excess meningococcal disease cases attributable to influenza co-circulation using univariate regression spline models. Stata and R statistical packages were used for the analysis. RESULTS: 5256 laboratory-confirmed IMD cases were reported, with an average annual incidence of 0.23 episodes per 100 000 population and a mean seasonal peak during week 32 (+3 weeks). Forty-two percent (10 421/24 741) of swabs were positive for influenza during the study period. The mean peak for all influenza occurred at week 26 (+4 weeks). There was an average lag-time of 5 weeks between annual influenza and IMD seasons. Overall, 5% (1-9%) of meningococcal disease can be attributable to influenza co-circulation with, on average, 17 excess IMD cases per year attributable to influenza. CONCLUSION: A quantifiable proportion of meningococcal disease in South Africa is associated with influenza co-circulation, therefore seasonal influenza vaccination may have an effect on preventing a small portion of meningococcal disease in addition to preventing influenza.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255941, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) is an important cause of mortality in young children, especially in children living with HIV infection. Disparities in SARI death in children aged <5 years exist in urban and rural areas. OBJECTIVE: To compare the factors associated with in-hospital death among children aged <5 years hospitalized with SARI in an urban vs. a rural setting in South Africa from 2009-2013. METHODS: Data were collected from hospitalized children with SARI in one urban and two rural sentinel surveillance hospitals. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for ten respiratory viruses and blood for pneumococcal DNA using polymerase chain reaction. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify patient and clinical characteristics associated with in-hospital death. RESULTS: From 2009 through 2013, 5,297 children aged <5 years with SARI-associated hospital admission were enrolled; 3,811 (72%) in the urban and 1,486 (28%) in the rural hospitals. In-hospital case-fatality proportion (CFP) was higher in the rural hospitals (6.9%) than the urban hospital (1.3%, p<0.001), and among HIV-infected than the HIV-uninfected children (9.6% vs. 1.6%, p<0.001). In the urban hospital, HIV infection (odds ratio (OR):11.4, 95% confidence interval (CI):5.4-24.1) and presence of any other underlying illness (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.0-9.2) were the only factors independently associated with death. In the rural hospitals, HIV infection (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 2.3-7.1) and age <1 year (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.9-7.2) were independently associated with death, whereas duration of hospitalization ≥5 days (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8) and any respiratory virus detection (OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8) were negatively associated with death. CONCLUSION: We found that the case-fatality proportion was substantially higher among children admitted to rural hospitals and HIV infected children with SARI in South Africa. While efforts to prevent and treat HIV infections in children may reduce SARI deaths, further efforts to address health care inequality in rural populations are needed.

10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(9): e1216-e1225, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first wave of COVID-19 in South Africa peaked in July, 2020, and a larger second wave peaked in January, 2021, in which the SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 (Beta) lineage predominated. We aimed to compare in-hospital mortality and other patient characteristics between the first and second waves. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we analysed data from the DATCOV national active surveillance system for COVID-19 admissions to hospital from March 5, 2020, to March 27, 2021. The system contained data from all hospitals in South Africa that have admitted a patient with COVID-19. We used incidence risk for admission to hospital and determined cutoff dates to define five wave periods: pre-wave 1, wave 1, post-wave 1, wave 2, and post-wave 2. We compared the characteristics of patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital in wave 1 and wave 2, and risk factors for in-hospital mortality accounting for wave period using random-effect multivariable logistic regression. FINDINGS: Peak rates of COVID-19 cases, admissions, and in-hospital deaths in the second wave exceeded rates in the first wave: COVID-19 cases, 240·4 cases per 100 000 people vs 136·0 cases per 100 000 people; admissions, 27·9 admissions per 100 000 people vs 16·1 admissions per 100 000 people; deaths, 8·3 deaths per 100 000 people vs 3·6 deaths per 100 000 people. The weekly average growth rate in hospital admissions was 20% in wave 1 and 43% in wave 2 (ratio of growth rate in wave 2 compared with wave 1 was 1·19, 95% CI 1·18-1·20). Compared with the first wave, individuals admitted to hospital in the second wave were more likely to be age 40-64 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1·22, 95% CI 1·14-1·31), and older than 65 years (aOR 1·38, 1·25-1·52), compared with younger than 40 years; of Mixed race (aOR 1·21, 1·06-1·38) compared with White race; and admitted in the public sector (aOR 1·65, 1·41-1·92); and less likely to be Black (aOR 0·53, 0·47-0·60) and Indian (aOR 0·77, 0·66-0·91), compared with White; and have a comorbid condition (aOR 0·60, 0·55-0·67). For multivariable analysis, after adjusting for weekly COVID-19 hospital admissions, there was a 31% increased risk of in-hospital mortality in the second wave (aOR 1·31, 95% CI 1·28-1·35). In-hospital case-fatality risk increased from 17·7% in weeks of low admission (<3500 admissions) to 26·9% in weeks of very high admission (>8000 admissions; aOR 1·24, 1·17-1·32). INTERPRETATION: In South Africa, the second wave was associated with higher incidence of COVID-19, more rapid increase in admissions to hospital, and increased in-hospital mortality. Although some of the increased mortality can be explained by admissions in the second wave being more likely in older individuals, in the public sector, and by the increased health system pressure, a residual increase in mortality of patients admitted to hospital could be related to the new Beta lineage. FUNDING: DATCOV as a national surveillance system is funded by the National Institute for Communicable Diseases and the South African National Government.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
11.
Euro Surveill ; 26(29)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296675

RESUMO

BackgroundIn South Africa, COVID-19 control measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread were initiated on 16 March 2020. Such measures may also impact the spread of other pathogens, including influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with implications for future annual epidemics and expectations for the subsequent northern hemisphere winter.MethodsWe assessed the detection of influenza and RSV through facility-based syndromic surveillance of adults and children with mild or severe respiratory illness in South Africa from January to October 2020, and compared this with surveillance data from 2013 to 2019.ResultsFacility-based surveillance revealed a decline in influenza virus detection during the regular season compared with previous years. This was observed throughout the implementation of COVID-19 control measures. RSV detection decreased soon after the most stringent COVID-19 control measures commenced; however, an increase in RSV detection was observed after the typical season, following the re-opening of schools and the easing of measures.ConclusionCOVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions led to reduced circulation of influenza and RSV in South Africa. This has limited the country's ability to provide influenza virus strains for the selection of the annual influenza vaccine. Delayed increases in RSV case numbers may reflect the easing of COVID-19 control measures. An increase in influenza virus detection was not observed, suggesting that the measures may have impacted the two pathogens differently. The impact that lowered and/or delayed influenza and RSV circulation in 2020 will have on the intensity and severity of subsequent annual epidemics is unknown and warrants close monitoring.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , África do Sul/epidemiologia
12.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(6): 789-803, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296810

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The PHIRST study (Prospective Household cohort study of Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial virus, and other respiratory pathogens community burden and Transmission dynamics in South Africa) aimed to estimate the community burden of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) including the incidence of infection, symptomatic fraction, and to assess household transmission. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 1684 individuals in 327 randomly selected households in a rural and an urban site over three consecutive influenza and two RSV seasons. A new cohort of households was enrolled each year. Participants were sampled with nasopharyngeal swabs twice-weekly during the RSV and influenza seasons of the year of enrolment. Serology samples were collected at enrolment and before and after the influenza season annually. FINDINGS TO DATE: There were 122 113 potential individual follow-up visits over the 3 years, and participants were interviewed for 105 783 (87%) of these. Out of 105 683 nasopharyngeal swabs, 1258 (1%) and 1026 (1%) tested positive on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for influenza viruses and RSV, respectively. Over one third of individuals had PCR-confirmed influenza each year. Overall, there was influenza transmission to 10% of household contacts of an index case. FUTURE PLANS: Future planned analyses include analysis of influenza serology results and RSV burden and transmission. Households enrolled in the PHIRST study during 2016-2018 were eligible for inclusion in a study of SARS-CoV-2 transmission initiated in July 2020. This study uses similar testing frequency to assess the community burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the role of asymptomatic infection in virus transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , África do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1055, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Describing contact patterns is crucial to understanding infectious disease transmission dynamics and guiding targeted transmission mitigation interventions. Data on contact patterns in Africa, especially South Africa, are limited. We measured and compared contact patterns in a rural and urban community, South Africa. We assessed participant and contact characteristics associated with differences in contact rates. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study nested in a prospective household cohort study. We interviewed participants to collect information on persons in contact with for one day. We described self-reported contact rates as median number people contacted per day, assessed differences in contact rates based on participant characteristics using quantile regression, and used a Poisson model to assess differences in contact rates based on contact characteristics within age groups. We also calculated cumulative person hours in contact within age groups at different locations. RESULTS: We conducted 535 interviews (269 rural, 266 urban), with 17,252 contacts reported. The overall contact rate was 14 (interquartile range (IQR) 9-33) contacts per day. Those ≤18 years had higher contact rates at the rural site (coefficient 17, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 10-23) compared to the urban site, for those aged 14-18 years (13, 95%CI 3-23) compared to < 7 years. No differences were observed for adults. There was a strong age-based mixing, with age groups interacting more with similar age groups, but also interaction of participants of all ages with adults. Children aged 14-18 years had the highest cumulative person hours in contact (116.3 rural and 76.4 urban). CONCLUSIONS: Age played an important role in the number and duration of contact events, with children at the rural site having almost double the contact rate compared to the urban site. These contact rates can be utilized in mathematical models to assess transmission dynamics of infectious diseases in similar communities.


Assuntos
População Rural , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , População Urbana
15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(7): e989-e998, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The population impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) depends on direct and indirect protection. Following Malawi's introduction of the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in 2011, we examined its impact on vaccine and non-vaccine serotype invasive pneumococcal disease among vaccine-eligible-age and vaccine-ineligible-age children and adults. METHODS: We did a prospective observational time-series analysis and a case-control study. We used data from between Jan 1, 2006, and Dec 31, 2018, from laboratory-based surveillance at a government hospital in Malawi. This period included 6 years before and 7 years after introduction of PCV13. By use of negative-binomial regression, we evaluated secular trend-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) in vaccine serotype and non-vaccine serotype invasive pneumococcal disease before and after introduction of PCV. We compared predicted counterfactual incidence in hypothetical absence of vaccine with empirically observed incidence following vaccine introduction. The case-control study assessed vaccine effectiveness, comparing PCV uptake among cases of vaccine-eligible-age invasive pneumococcal disease versus matched community controls. FINDINGS: Surveillance covered 10 281 476 person-years of observation, with 140 498 blood and 63 291 cerebrospinal fluid cultures. A reduction in total (vaccine serotype plus non-vaccine serotype) invasive pneumococcal disease incidence preceded introduction of PCV: 19% (IRR 0·81, 95% CI 0·74 to 0·88, p<0·0001) among infants (<1 year old), 14% (0·86, 0·80 to 0·93, p<0·0001) among children aged 1-4 years, and 8% (0·92, 0·83 to 1·01, p=0·084) among adolescents and adults (≥15 years old). Among children aged 5-14 years there was a 2% increase in total invasive pneumococcal disease (1·02, 0·93 to 1·11, p=0·72). Compared with the counterfactually predicted incidence, incidence of post-PCV13 vaccine serotype invasive pneumococcal disease was 74% (95% CI 70 to 78) lower among children aged 1-4 years and 79% (76 to 83) lower among children aged 5-14 years, but only 38% (37 to 40) lower among infants and 47% (44 to 51) lower among adolescents and adults. Although non-vaccine serotype invasive pneumococcal disease has increased in incidence since 2015, observed incidence remains low. The case-control study (19 cases and 76 controls) showed vaccine effectiveness against vaccine serotype invasive pneumococcal disease of 80·7% (-73·7 to 97·9). INTERPRETATION: In a high-mortality, high-HIV-prevalence setting in Africa, there were significant pre-vaccine reductions in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease. 7 years after PCV introduction, although vaccine-attributable impact among vaccine-eligible-age children was significant, indirect effects benefitting unvaccinated infants and adults were not. Policy decisions should consider multiple alternative strategies for reducing disease burden, including targeted vaccination outside infant Expanded Programme of Immunization to benefit vulnerable populations. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sorogrupo , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(6): 1-9, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013862

RESUMO

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading viral cause of serious pediatric respiratory disease, and lifelong reinfections are common. Its 2 major subgroups, A and B, exhibit some antigenic variability, enabling HRSV to circulate annually. Globally, research has increased the number of HRSV genomic sequences available. To ensure accurate molecular epidemiology analyses, we propose a uniform nomenclature for HRSV-positive samples and isolates, and HRSV sequences, namely: HRSV/subgroup identifier/geographic identifier/unique sequence identifier/year of sampling. We also propose a template for submitting associated metadata. Universal nomenclature would help researchers retrieve and analyze sequence data to better understand the evolution of this virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Criança , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética
17.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(6): e863-e874, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on influenza community burden and transmission are important to plan interventions especially in resource-limited settings. However, data are limited, particularly from low-income and middle-income countries. We aimed to evaluate the community burden and transmission of influenza in a rural and an urban setting in South Africa. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study approximately 50 households were selected sequentially from both a rural setting (Agincourt, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa; with a health and sociodemographic surveillance system) and an urban setting (Klerksdorp, Northwest Province, South Africa; using global positioning system data), enrolled, and followed up for 10 months in 2017 and 2018. Different households were enrolled in each year. Households of more than two individuals in which 80% or more of the occupants agreed to participate were included in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected twice per week from participating household members irrespective of symptoms and tested for influenza using real-time RT-PCR. The primary outcome was the incidence of influenza infection, defined as the number of real-time RT-PCR-positive episodes divided by the person-time under observation. Household cumulative infection risk (HCIR) was defined as the number of subsequent infections within a household following influenza introduction. FINDINGS: 81 430 nasopharyngeal samples were collected from 1116 participants in 225 households (follow-up rate 88%). 917 (1%) tested positive for influenza; 178 (79%) of 225 households had one or more influenza-positive individual. The incidence of influenza infection was 43·6 (95% CI 39·8-47·7) per 100 person-seasons. 69 (17%) of 408 individuals who had one influenza infection had a repeat influenza infection during the same season. The incidence (67·4 per 100 person-seasons) and proportion with repeat infections (22 [23%] of 97 children) were highest in children younger than 5 years and decreased with increasing age (p<0·0001). Overall, 268 (56%) of 478 infections were symptomatic and 66 (14%) of 478 infections were medically attended. The overall HCIR was 10% (109 of 1088 exposed household members infected [95% CI 9-13%). Transmission (HCIR) from index cases was highest in participants aged 1-4 years (16%; 40 of 252 exposed household members) and individuals with two or more symptoms (17%; 68 of 396 exposed household members). Individuals with asymptomatic influenza transmitted infection to 29 (6%) of 509 household contacts. HIV infection, affecting 167 (16%) of 1075 individuals, was not associated with increased incidence or HCIR. INTERPRETATION: Approximately half of influenza infections were symptomatic, with asymptomatic individuals transmitting influenza to 6% of household contacts. This suggests that strategies, such as quarantine and isolation, might be ineffective to control influenza. Vaccination of children, with the aim of reducing influenza transmission might be effective in African settings given the young population and high influenza burden. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 622-625, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654292

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 (B.1.351), a novel lineage of coronavirus causing COVID-19, contains substitutions in two immunodominant domains of the spike protein. Here, we show that pseudovirus expressing 501Y.V2 spike protein completely escapes three classes of therapeutically relevant antibodies. This pseudovirus also exhibits substantial to complete escape from neutralization, but not binding, by convalescent plasma. These data highlight the prospect of reinfection with antigenically distinct variants and foreshadows reduced efficacy of spike-based vaccines.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Doadores de Sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
19.
Nature ; 592(7854): 438-443, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690265

RESUMO

Continued uncontrolled transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in many parts of the world is creating conditions for substantial evolutionary changes to the virus1,2. Here we describe a newly arisen lineage of SARS-CoV-2 (designated 501Y.V2; also known as B.1.351 or 20H) that is defined by eight mutations in the spike protein, including three substitutions (K417N, E484K and N501Y) at residues in its receptor-binding domain that may have functional importance3-5. This lineage was identified in South Africa after the first wave of the epidemic in a severely affected metropolitan area (Nelson Mandela Bay) that is located on the coast of the Eastern Cape province. This lineage spread rapidly, and became dominant in Eastern Cape, Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces within weeks. Although the full import of the mutations is yet to be determined, the genomic data-which show rapid expansion and displacement of other lineages in several regions-suggest that this lineage is associated with a selection advantage that most plausibly results from increased transmissibility or immune escape6-8.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Mutação , Filogenia , Filogeografia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Evolução Molecular , Aptidão Genética , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Modelos Moleculares , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Seleção Genética , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
20.
PLoS Med ; 18(2): e1003537, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the national-level impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction on mortality are lacking from Africa. PCV was introduced in South Africa in 2009. We estimated the impact of PCV introduction on all-cause pneumonia mortality in South Africa, while controlling for changes in mortality due to other interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used national death registration data in South Africa from 1999 to 2016 to assess the impact of PCV introduction on all-cause pneumonia mortality in all ages, with the exclusion of infants aged <1 month. We created a composite (synthetic) control using Bayesian variable selection of nondiarrheal, nonpneumonia, and nonpneumococcal deaths to estimate the number of expected all-cause pneumonia deaths in the absence of PCV introduction post 2009. We compared all-cause pneumonia deaths from the death registry to the expected deaths in 2012 to 2016. We also estimated the number of prevented deaths during 2009 to 2016. Of the 9,324,638 deaths reported in South Africa from 1999 to 2016, 12·6% were pneumonia-related. Compared to number of deaths expected, we estimated a 33% (95% credible interval (CrI) 26% to 43%), 23% (95%CrI 17% to 29%), 25% (95%CrI 19% to 32%), and 23% (95%CrI 11% to 32%) reduction in pneumonia mortality in children aged 1 to 11 months, 1 to 4 years, 5 to 7 years, and 8 to 18 years in 2012 to 2016, respectively. In total, an estimated 18,422 (95%CrI 12,388 to 26,978) pneumonia-related deaths were prevented from 2009 to 2016 in children aged <19 years. No declines were estimated observed among adults following PCV introduction. This study was mainly limited by coding errors in original data that could have led to a lower impact estimate, and unmeasured factors could also have confounded estimates. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the introduction of PCV was associated with substantial reduction in all-cause pneumonia deaths in children aged 1 month to <19 years. The model predicted an effect of PCV in age groups who were eligible for vaccination (1 months to 4 years), and an indirect effect in those too old (8 to 18 years) to be vaccinated. These findings support sustaining pneumococcal vaccination to reduce pneumonia-related mortality in children.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas/mortalidade , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/farmacologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Vacinas Conjugadas/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , África do Sul , Streptococcus pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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